Rome became a Roman Republic in 509 B.C.  Republic is a form of government where the power is controlled by the people. Rome grew into a world power under a republic.  As Roman territory enlarged the politicians and generals grew further powerful and greedy for power.  A chain of affairs during the 1st and 2nd centuries B.C. resulted in the downfall of the Roman Republic. Under the supremacy of Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar, the Roman Empire came into being. An emperor was now the sole authority of the Roman Empire and he had absolute control over his people. Power was no longer a subject for the people of Rome. However, this did not put an end to the prosperity and the expansion of Rome.

      Under the Republic, senators were nominated by the people to operate the government.  The vote of wealthy landowners was far more important than a common citizen and at times the elections were even fixed by illegal means. In spite of this entire scenario, common people still had significant influence on government affairs.

      When Rome’s Republic came into being, Rome was a tiny state.  Nevertheless with time the politicians had a hard time maintaining the expanding country.  Patricians, who were the wealthy and the elite, began to gain extra political power.  Tiberius Gracchus, a fervent politician, proposed a number of laws to reform Rome into an ideal republic.  His scheme consists of providing an equal distribution of land, restricting the quantity of land an individual can possess, and permitting every free Roman citizen to cast a vote.

      The specific event which triggered the fall of the Roman Republic and the shift into the Roman Empire is a topic of analysis. Towards the end of the era a mixture of Roman leaders came to so govern the political dome that they surpassed the boundaries of the Republic as a matter of course. Historians have variously suggested the selection of Julius Caesar as perpetual dictator in 44 BC, the crush of Mark Antonyat the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, and the Roman Senate’s allowance of extraordinary powers to Octavian (Augustus) under the first settlement in 27 BC, as the potential events  leading to the fall of the Roman Republic

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      Countl?ss of Rom?’s l?gal and l?gislativ? constitutions can still b? s??n all through ?urop? and th? r?st of th? world by mod?rnization stat? and int?rnational organizations. Th? Romans’ Latin languag? has pr?dispos?d grammar and vocabulary across parts of ?urop? and th? world.

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      Th? r?public had fallen. Whil? th? s?nat? still ?xist?d, it did not have much standing in gov?rnm?nt matt?rs and could c?rtainly not chall?ng? th? decree of th? ?mp?ror. T?n Ca?sars cam? aft?r Augustus to rul? ov?r Rom?.  In spite of th? crippling of th? R?public, Rom? continu?d to prosp?r and ?xpand for numerous c?nturi?s until its final d?clin?.

      There has been a lot of debate throughout the ages involving people groups the monotheistic religion and those that are polytheistic. No on? knows wh?n it r?ally b?gan, p?rhaps with Noah, p?rhaps in th? tow?r of Bab?l. Which com? first, Monoth?ism or Polyth?ism? And what ?xactly ar? th?y?

      Monotheism is the belief in a one, all commanding God.   Polytheism is the belief in many gods.  Polytheistic religions consists of almost all religions except Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Sikhism, these are the only monotheistic religions.  A characteristic attribute of all monotheistic religions is they believe that it is God who created all realism and is absolutely self-sufficient.  They refute the existence of gods of all religions.  On the contrary, polytheists believe that there can be additional gods than what they worship and believe in.  Monoth?ism was th? first r?ligion. B?li?f in God b?gan with Adam and ?v? though som? say that th? tru? monoth?istic r?ligions b?gan with ?ith?r Abraham or Mos?s wh?n h? r?c?iv?d th? T?n Commandm?nts on Mt. Sinai. Religious de-evolution lead people to polytheism. They accepted polytheism so they can have gods that they can have control over and hence allow to live the lifestyle that the monotheistic God would not have tolerated.

       Monotheism was born with Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. There is no substantiation of people turning their faces from God, until the time of Prophet Noah. In Genesis Chapter 6 we find that the sons of God took woman into their wedlock so they can choose and have sons and daughters by them.  It is also seen that their intentions and inclination were towards evil; the humankind was corrupt and full of hostility.  Men had forgotten to worship and praise God.  God made a verdict to eliminated humankind but save Noah and his family and two of every animal since he was the only righteous surviving. The Quran mentions a similar story about the Noah flood.

      Whil? r?ligions hav? chang?d ov?r th? ag?s Polyth?ism has d?-?volv?d from Monoth?ism. ?v?n s?cular philosoph?rs polyth?istic th?ologians hav? admitt?d that for polyth?ism to com? from monoth?ism m?ans that it must hav? d?-?volv?d. Herodotus highlighted some key points of the ancient Greek polytheism. Monoth?ism was in plac? ?v?n b?for? th?r? w?r? p?opl?, b?for? God cr?at?d p?opl? to worship and glorify hims?lf and no oth?rs.

Works Cited

Herodotus. “Ancient History Sourcebook: Herodotus: Customs of the Persians  .” FORDHAM.EDU. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 June 2010. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/herodotus-persians.html>.

 “Noah .” The Qur’an Translation. 14 ed. riyadh: Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an, 1999. 216. Print.

Wilson, Ephanius. “Chinese Cultural Studies: The Buddha: Sermons and Teachings (6th century B.C.E.).”  ITS Public WEB  Computer Labs. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 June 2010. <http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/texts/bud-ser.html>.

 

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