After reexamining other states experiences towards touristries and agritourisms part for development, particularly rural development in old chapters, the propose of this chapter is to analyze the touristry and development in Sri Lankan context to understand the state of affairs existent state of affairs in the state. This chapter starts with a general overview to Sri Lanka and better account to the touristry and development under three phases ; yesteryear, present and future. Important information about Sri Lanka, touristry sector of the state including present state of affairs, history and future development of it, touristry and national development in Sri Lanka have been explained. Finally, touristry and ecotourism policy in the state demand for agritourism policies for the state and besides agritourism policies in other states have besides been discussed. As a whole, this chapter explains how the tourer industry originated in Sri Lanka, its development and besides the present state of affairs of the industry and its impacts on society.

5.1 Introduction to Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean, located to the South of the Indian subcontinent, 82 grades east of Greenwich and 32 kilometers sou’-east of India. It lies between 5A°55 ‘ and 9A°55 ‘ North of the equator and between the eastern longitudes 79A°42 ‘ and 81A°52 ‘ . Sri Lanka is shaped like a elephantine teardrop falling from the southern tip of the huge Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50-km-wideA Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known asA Adam ‘s BridgeA that about organize a land span between the two countriesA ( Figure 5.1 ) .

Figure 5.1 Map of Sri Lanka

The entire land country is 65,610 sq. kilometer and is amazingly varied. A length of 445 kilometers and comprehensiveness of 225 kilometer encompasses beautiful tropical beaches, verdant flora, ancient memorials and a 1000 delectations to delight all gustatory sensations. The alleviation characteristics of the island consist of a cragged mass slightly south of the Centre, with height transcending 2,500 metres, surrounded by wide fields. Palm fringed beaches surround the island.

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The geographics of Sri Lanka includes coastal fields in the North and hills and mountains in the inside. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill state. The full northern half comprises a big field widening from the border of the hill state to the Jaffna peninsula. The highest mountain is the PidurutalagalaA ( near Nuwara Eliya ) which is 2524 metre highA and the longest river is theA Mahaweli, A which is 335 kilometres in length. It courses from the centre and empties into the Indian Ocean at Trincomalee. The land is drained by a figure of rivers of which 16 are more than 100 metres long. The best beaches are on the southwesterly, southern and southeasterly seashores.

Sri Lanka is one of the first five treasure bearing states in the universe. The chief treasures are rubies and sapphires. Although alexandrite treasure is non so profuse, Sri Lanka is one out of the lone two states in the universe. 90 % of the stones of the island are of Precambrian age, 560 million to 2,400 million old ages ago. The gems signifier in sedimentary residuary treasure sedimentations, eluvial sedimentations, metamorphous sedimentations, skarn and calcium-rich stones. Other treasures are of magmatic beginning.


There is a typical tropical clime with an mean temperature of 270C fluctuates between 150 C in the Highlandss to 350C in certain countries of the Lowlandss. In the higher lifts it can be rather cool with temperatures traveling down to 160C at an height of about 2,000 metres. Bright, cheery warm yearss are the regulation and are common even during the tallness of the monsoon climatically. Sri Lanka has no off season. The south west monsoon brings rain chiefly from May to July to the western, southern and cardinal parts of the island, while the north-east monsoon rains occur in the northern and eastern parts in December and January. There are two inter-monsoon periods during March-April and October-December. The monsoons and the alleviation make a rainfall form which divides the island into three agro-ecological zones viz the moisture zone, the dry zone and the intermediate zone.


Sri Lanka has a population of 20 million of whom the bulk isA SinhaleseA ( 74 % ) . Other cultural groups are made up ofA Sri Lankan Tamils ( 12.6 % ) , A Indian TamilsA ( 5.5 % ) , A Moors, Malays, BurghersA ( of Portuguese and Dutch descent ) and others ( 7.9 % ) . Although Sri Lanka is a multi-religious state, Buddhists constitute the bulk with 69.3 % . Other spiritual groups are Hindus 15.5 % , Muslims 7.6 % and Christians 7.5 % . Sinhala and Tamil are official linguistic communications in Sri Lanka ( Department of Census and Statistics, 2010 ) . Sinhala, a linguistic communication of Indo-Aryan beginning is the linguistic communication of the bulk. English is widely spoken and understood.


The Sri Lanka ‘s population has a literacy rate of 92 % , higher than that expected for aA developing state. It has the highest literacy rate inA South Asia and overall, one of the highestA literacy ratesA inA Asia. Modern instruction system falls under the control of both theA Central GovernmentA and theA Provincial Councils, with some duties lying with the Cardinal Government and the Provincial Council holding liberty for others. Modern instruction system was brought about with the integrating of Sri Lanka in to theA British EmpireA in the nineteenth century. In 1938 the instruction system in the state was made free following the allowing ofA cosmopolitan franchiseA in 1931.A After independency, the figure of schools and the literacy rate of the people well increased. Harmonizing to the Department of Census and Statistics ( 2010 ) , today there are about 9,830 public schools functioning near to 4,030,000 pupils, all around the island.


The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a free, independent and autonomous state. The head of province and caput of authorities is the president. A system of disposal through provincial councils was introduced in 1988. The authorities administers the executive power and the legislative power goes to both the parliament and the authorities for disposal. The executive subdivision consists of the president and the premier curate and the legislative subdivision consist of the Parliament. Legislative power is exercised by Parliament, elected by cosmopolitan franchise on a relative representation footing. Executive power of the people, including defence, is exercised by the president, who is besides elected by the people. Sri Lanka politicsA might look to be every bit complicated as any other political organic structure or organisation, but it is rest assured thatA Sri Lanka politicsA excessively is concerned with the public assistance of the people and the state. Sri Lanka political relations trades with theA Sri Lanka elections, theA Sri Lanka authorities, Sri LankaA jurisprudence and order or the military, A Sri Lanka foreign relationsA etc.

Wild life

Of the 86 species of mammals of the state, the pride of topographic point goes to the olympian elephant. Other mammals include the sloth bear, the protected Dugong dugon, the wild Sus scrofa, the hedgehog and monkeys, particularly the grey langur, which is common throughout the island. Of particular involvement is the endemic purple-faced foliage monkey, found in the higher hill parts. The island abounds in reptilians of which 75 are endemic. Of the two endemic species of crocodile, the commonest is the fen crocodile. The beautiful star tortoise is the lone land tortoise. Besides, there are five species of polo-necks, all protected by jurisprudence. Of the 83 species of serpents, merely five are deadly, these being cobra, Russell ‘s viper, Indian krait, Ceylon krait, and the saw-scaled viper.A

The copiousness of Sri Lanka ‘s bird life makes it an bird watcher ‘s Eden. Of the recorded 431 species, 251 are resident and no less than 21 are endemic to the island. Of the 242 known species of butterflies, most are found in the parts of the lower foothills ( up to 910 m ) . A few ( six species ) can be glimpsed above 1210 m.A


Sri Lanka is chiefly an agricultural state. The main harvest is rice with which the state is about self sufficient. Tea, gum elastic and coconut are besides of import agricultural harvests, with tea being a major foreign exchange earner. In add-on, other harvests of importance are chocolate and spices such as cinnamon, cardamon, nutmeg, Piper nigrum and cloves. Fruit and veggies, native to both tropical and temperate parts, grow good in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is besides a major exporter of cherished and semi-precious rocks. Within the last few old ages remittals from Sri Lankans employed abroad have contributed a big portion towards foreign exchange. (, 2002 )

Sri Lanka ‘s exports ( chiefly garments, tea and gum elastic ) contributed US $ 10.56 billion to the economic system in 2011 while imports ( chiefly oil, fabrics, machinery and nutrient ) cost US $ 20.27 billion. The ensuing big trade shortage was financed chiefly by remittals from Sri Lankan migratory workers, foreign aid and commercial adoption. Approximately 1.7 million Sri Lankans work abroad, and send about US $ 4.1 billion in remittals to Sri Lanka each twelvemonth, the major beginning of foreign exchange net incomes. A bulk of Sri Lankan migratory workers are adult females working as maidservants in the Middle East. The last three decennaries have seen touristry emerge as an of import industry. There has besides been a rapid growing in fabrication industries which offer a broad scope of export goods such as crude oil merchandises, leather goods, readymade garments and electronic equipment.

Over the past three old ages, the US $ 59 billion economic system has rebounded. Sri Lanka reported strong economic growing of 8.2 per cent in 2011.The unemployment rate hit a record depression of 4.3 per cent in early 2011. Inflation stood at 6.7per cent at the terminal of 2011. with anA economyA deserving $ 64 billion ( 2012 IMF estimation ) A and aA per capitaA GDPA of approximately $ 7900 ( PPP ) , A Sri LankaA has largely had strong growing rates in recent old ages. In GDP per capita footings, it is in front of other states in the South Asiatic part. The chief economic sectors of the state are touristry, tea export, dress, fabric, rice production and other agricultural merchandises. In add-on to these economic sectors, abroad employment contributes extremely in foreign exchange, 90 % of expatriate Sri Lankans reside in theA Middle East.

Rural economic system of the state

Rural sector has a important part for the national economic system of the state as agribusiness in rural countries is one of the most of import sectors of it. Rural small-scale husbandmans produce most of the state ‘s agricultural end product. However, their production systems are hampered by disregard, hapless economic systems of graduated table, low investing degrees ensuing from hapless fiscal services and inappropriate or limited engineering. Other factors restricting hapless husbandmans ‘ supports include disconnected landholdings, high post-harvest losingss, inconsistent pricing and trade policies, and troubles accessing moneymaking markets. While its part has declined during the past three decennaries, agribusiness histories for about 15 per cent of gross domestic merchandise and a one-fourth of entire exports. It is the most of import beginning of employment, supplying occupations for around one tierce of the work force ( IFAD, 2010 ) .

Until recent really less attending had been paid to for the rural development of the state comparison to urban development. But, presently with the apprehension of the importance of rural sector of the state to relieve poorness and keep the sustainable development, it is acquiring really good attending of the authorities and private sector and besides non-government organisations ( Department of National Planning, 2010 ) .

hypertext transfer protocol: // Several policies and plan have been developed to heighten the rural sector. Among them development of agribusiness sector is in forepart. Agriculture variegation, publicity of assorted agro-based industries and agribusiness activities integrating of agribusiness with non-farm industries are common activities. Formation of agritourism undertakings in possible countries has been besides included (

When looking at the general state of affairs of the state, most of the factors are in good criterions. With comparison to neighboring states, Sri Lanka has a good place in the part. So, it can be said that, the general environment is contributing for the development of touristry industry.

5.2 Tourism in Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is one of the most kinds for tourer finishs in the universe. It is strategically located between West Asia and South East Asia has been an of import halt on the silk path. Despite its littleness, it has garnered a overplus of names ; Serendib, Ceylon, Teardrop of India, Resplendent Isle, Island of Dharma, and Pearl of the Orient and accretion that reveals its profusion and beauty, and the strength of fondness that it has evoked in visitors.A

Today, Sri Lanka welcomes its visitants to see the state ‘s glistening tapestry of civilization, and the rich copiousness of nature, so handsomely bestowed, and to give acceptance to the old proverb that good things come in little bundles. The full island is pullulating with bird life, and animate beings like elephants and leopards are non uncommon. To exceed it all off, the people are friendly, the nutrient is delightful and costs are low. This colorful aggregation reveals its profusion.

It has all demands to be one of the best tourer finishs with absolute peace, political stableness, climatic alterations within few hours of driving across beautiful waterfalls, sceneries, rivers, tea estates with many other attractive forces and requirements.A With a recorded history of more than 2500 old ages, Sri Lanka has a rich heritage and over 250,000 archeological sites. There are 8 UNESCO approved universe heritage sites within the state which include ; the hill capital Kandy, the sacred metropolis of Anuradapura, The Dutch garrison of Galle, The ancient metropolis of Polonnaruwa, The stone fortress of Sigiriya, The aureate stone temple of Dambulla, the beautiful Horton fields and the Singharaja rain wood. This beautiful state is so a land like no other. It has something to offer for everyone.

Tourism increased in 2011 and is expected to lift further in the coming old ages. The capital metropolis of Colombo, the Cultural Triangle ( Dambulla, Anuradhapura, and Polonnaruwa ) , the metropoliss of Kandy and Galle, and many southern beach towns have good tourer installations, and the roads linking many of those finishs are bettering. The advantage of Sri Lanka as a touristry finish is threefold. First, it is an reliable touristry finish. Second, it is a compact island of 65,610 square kilometer where a tourer can go the length and comprehensiveness of the state within a few yearss. Third the diverseness of the touristry merchandise is alone. For the simpleness of pass oning the diverseness of Sri Lanka in 2010, the touristry governments started positioning the state about 8 different merchandises viz. ; beaches, heritage, wildlife, scenic beauty, head and organic structure health, festivals, athleticss and escapade and Essence. The Kernel of Sri Lanka include what is alone to the state such as its people, art and civilization, spices, tea, treasures, ready to hand trades etc.Sri Lanka has attracted bargainers and travellers for centuries. A dreamy tropical isle of deep spiritualty and repose, Sri Lanka entered the Western imaginativeness as the Tahiti of the East.

5.2.1 Institutional construction of touristry industry in Sri Lanka

Ministry of Tourism

Tourism consultative Committee

Office of the Tourism Commissioner

Tourist Police


Sri Lanka Tourism

Development Authority


Sri Lanka Tourism Promotion Bureau


Sri Lanka Institute of Tourism & A ; Hotel Management


Sri Lanka Convention Bureau

Figure 5. Institutional construction of touristry industry in Sri Lanka

Beginning: Sri Lanka Tourism development Authority, 2011

Tourism industry is under the Ministry of Tourism. Four subdivisions of it are ; Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority ( formed in 2005 by replacing Sri Lanka Tourist Board which was established in 1966 ) , Sri Lanka Tourism Promotion Bureau, Sri Lanka Institute of Hotel Management and Sri Lanka Convention Bureau. While Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority is responsible for all the touristry development activities, Tourism Promotion Bureau is responsible for all the selling and promotional work.

5. 2.1 History of touristry industry in Sri Lanka

The celebrated adventurer Marco Polo of the twelfth century wrote that Sri Lanka is the finest island in the whole universe. For centuries it had been a great touristry finish peculiarly for European Travellers. However, the twelvemonth 1966 was a landmark for international touristry in Sri Lanka, with the passage of the Ceylon Tourist Board Act No. 10 of 1966. The Act provided permission for the constitution of a public authorization known as the Ceylon Tourist Board for encouragement, publicity and development of tourer travel to Sri Lanka ( Deheragoda 1980 ) . Harmonizing to this Act, the Board aims are legion: constitution of an institute to command the tourer industry, to promote people to supply an efficient, attractive and equal service, the encouraging, publicity and development of the travel trade ( Deheragoda 1980 ; Zoysa 1978 ) . After the constitution of the Ceylon Tourist Board, the Sri Lankan tourer industry has consistently developed pulling much foreign exchange into the state ( Handaragama, 2010 ) .

From 1966 onwards, the tourer industry bit by bit familial consequences of many mentioned enforced plans for the development of the industry. In 1977 with the debut of unfastened economic policies and liberalisation of the economic system, the tourer industry, which was rather a suited field for the operationalization of the unfastened economic policies, had full attending and support of the authorities. The bit by bit developing tourer industry reached a milepost in 1983 with cultural job with its manifestations peculiarly in the signifiers of struggles in the North and East and bomb detonations in Colombo, endangering the safety of the tourers ( Bandara, 2003 ) .

Harmonizing to ADB ( 1998 ) , until the early 1980s the Hotel Corporation, ( a semi-privatized once province owned organic structure ) owned and controlled 76 per cent of touristry adjustment in the state. During this period ( between mid-1960s and early 1980s ) the enlargement in the touristry adjustment installations resulted mostly from province investings. However, with the debut of liberalized economic policies in 1977, important sums of national and international investings were made in the building of touristry adjustment, peculiarly in Colombo and the Southwest seashore. As a consequence, at present most adjustment for tourers in Sri Lanka is in the private sector and it controls a big portion of the inward tourer market ( Sri Lanka, Tourist Board, 2003 ) .

The 30 twelvemonth long internal struggle and terrorist act had a negative impact of touristry and the growing of the industry got stagnated. However, after the terminal of the struggle in 2009 the state ‘s touristry chances look assuring. In 2010 instantly after the terminal of the war Sri Lanka had a growing of 46 % in touristry reachings. From 2009 to 2011 the touristry reachings got doubled with the figure of reachings making 855,975 as at terminal 2011 ( Figure 5.2 ) . In 2012, station office worldwide vacation costs barometer named Sri Lanka as the best valued finish for vacations.

Figure 5.2: Tourist reachings to the state from 1966 to 2011

Beginning: Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority, 2011

5.2.2 Present state of affairs of Sri Lankan touristry

United Nations World Tourism Organization ( UNWTO ) lists Sri Lanka with a 50 per centum growing in tourer reachings among 77 states that have reported international reachings informations. So that, the twelvemonth 2011 has been a singular twelvemonth for Sri Lanka touristry as the reaching mark was over 750,000. Sri Lanka recorded 856,000 tourer reachings at the terminal of 2011 with a twelvemonth on twelvemonth growing of 30 per centum. Compared to the universe touristry industry, Sri Lanka has performed good and expects a 30 per centum growing this twelvemonth every bit good. The sector envisaged 30 per centum growing for 2011 with gross of US $ 839 million. The hotel tenancy rate has increased up to 77 per centum and it has created employment for approximately 125,000 individuals. Compared to other industries it has the fastest growing chances. Though Sri Lanka is preponderantly a beach finish, it could offer civilization, nature, agro, community, spiritual and religious attractive forces by now

Although 30 twelvemonth cultural struggle of the state has been negatively affected for the growing and the development of the touristry industry, the Sri Lankan authorities is now forming several events and is in the procedure of developing the industry in order to do Sri Lanka a top touristry finish in the universe. The Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority will endeavor to develop diverse, alone and choice touristry services and merchandises that would do Sri Lanka as a alone finish globally. Some of its activities include placing and developing tourer particular, alone merchandises and services, explicating and implementing Tourism Development Guidelines, and facilitating and implementing the legal and administrative procedure for new merchandise and service development.

Main markets of touristry in Sri Lanka

Table 5.1 and Figure 5.3 shows a more elaborate history of the beginning of foreign visitants to the top 10 beginning states the top 10 beginning markets for touristry to Sri Lanka within the old ages 2010 and 2011. Sri Lanka relies to a great extent on Western European markets, particularly the United Kingdom and Germany who alternate between 2nd and 3rd topographic point as major beginning states. However, India became the largest individual beginning of reachings in Sri Lanka. During this period, France, Maldives, Australia, Canada USA, the Netherlands and Russia besides have become strong beginning markets.

Table 5.1: Top Ten Source Markets ( 2010 & A ; 2011 )

Beginning: Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority, 2011

Beginning: Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority, 2011

Figure 5.3: Tourist Arrivals by Top Ten Markets 2010 & A ; 2011

When tourer reachings are analyzed by parts, in 2010 and 2011, most of the tourers are from Asia and the Western Europe. Following highest figure is coming from Middle East followed by Eastern Europe and North America ( Figure 5.4 ) . Therefore, these are the of import markets of touristry of the state.

Beginning: Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority, 2011

Figure 5.4: Tourist Arrivals by Regions 2010-2011

Main tourer attractive forces of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a big figure of tourer attractive forces for different types of visitants. For illustration, Sri Lanka Sri Lanka ‘s beaches are really popular for loosen uping, Sun bathing and surfboarding. Bentota, Beruwala, Hikkaduwa, Galle, Negombo and Trincomalee are the celebrated beaches. Besides, civilization & A ; heritage explore the life heritage of Sri Lanka of 2500 old ages sing the diverse civilization. The recorded history of Sri Lanka began when Buddhism gave birth to a cultural revolution more than 2500 old ages ago. It was at Mihintale, 12km from Anuradhapura which was itself founded in the fifth century BC, that Buddhism was foremost introduced to the island. Anuradhapura is venerated as the capital metropolis of Buddhism. The sacred Bo tree, grown from a sapling of the tree under which the Buddha attained enlightment, is the oldest life tree in documented history. Witness the 8th Wonder of the World, Sigiriya. Meet with Sri Lanka ‘s autochthonal people of Sri Lanka, “ Veddha ‘s ” – known as natives of Sri Lanka. Wildlife is an of import assert. Animals such as Elephants, Leopards, Black Bears and many more. Where else can you see all these wild animate beings? Meet face to face with Jungle Giant – Elephants in Sri Lanka ‘s wildlife sanctuaries. Nature Witness the odd bio-diversity of Sri Lanka. Waterfalls, misty hills, breezy mountains and Sinharaja Rain Forest – merely one of it ‘s sort, a universe heritage named by United Nations. Harmonizing to the World Tourism Organization, Sri Lanka has the advantage of holding 49 sites classified as alone attractive forces, 91 as rare attractive forces, and 7 universe heritage sites, and 6 of the 300 ancient memorials in the universe.

Purposes of sing the state by tourers

The chief intent of sing the state by tourers is to hold pleasance. During holidaies, most of the tourers come to the state to prosecute in assorted entertaining activities such as sing beaches for swimming surfboarding, yachting, fishing, jungle tracking for stone mounting, hike, wild life visual perception, bird observation, and so on. Therefore, it is really of import to supply installations for these activities at the best degree. However, tourers coming for the intents of concern, sing friends and dealingss, spiritual and cultural activities are relatively low ( Table 5.2 ) .

Table 5.2: Percentage distribution of Tourist by intent of visit from 2002 to 2011

Tourism Development Authority of Sri Lanka, 2011

5.2.3 Future development of the sector

There are 2 phases of the future touristry development in Sri Lanka. First phase is to be reached in 2016 and the 2nd is in 2020. The chief end of the first phase is to pull 2.5 Million high disbursement foreign tourers by the twelvemonth 2016 ( Figure 5.5 ) and the chief mark of the 2nd phase is to acquire 4 million tourers to the state ( Figure 5.6 ) .

Tourism marks during 2010-2016

The five twelvemonth maestro program prepared by the Ministry of Economic Development for the period of 2011 – 2016 tackle a scope of issues related to Sri Lanka Tourism Strategy including environmental, economic, societal, cultural, institutional and promotional facets together with their common dealingss with the National Development docket, in order to make a favorable environment to accomplish expected tourist returns by 2016 ( Ministry of Economic Development of Sri Lanka, 2010 ) .

Beginning: Ministry of Economic Development of Sir Lanka, 2010

Figure 5.5: Target tourers ‘ reaching during 2010-2016

The cardinal aims to be achieved by the 5 twelvemonth scheme are

i‚®Increase tourer reachings from 650,000 in 2010 to 2.5 Million by 2016.

i‚®Attract USD 3,000 Million as Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI ) to the state within 5 old ages.

i‚® Increase the touristry related employment from 125,000 in 2010 to 500,000 by 2016 and

expand touristry based industry and services all island.

i‚® Distribute the economic benefits of touristry to a larger transverse subdivision of the society and incorporate touristry to the existent economic system.

i‚® Increase the foreign exchange net incomes from USD 500 Million in 2010 to USD 2.75 Billion by 2016.

i‚®Contribute towards bettering the planetary trade and economic linkages of Sri Lanka.

i‚® Position Sri Lanka as the universe ‘s most cherished island for touristry.

( Ministry of Economic Development of Sri Lanka, 2010 ) .

Tourism marks during 2010-2020

The authorities ‘s vision is to transform Sri Lankan touristry sector, by 2020, to be the largest foreign exchange earner in the economic system ; place Sri Lanka as the universe ‘s most cherished and Greenest Island and pull high disbursement tourers while continuing the state ‘s cultural values, natural home grounds and environment.

Figure: 5.6 Expected tourer reachings and net incomes during 2010-2020

Beginning: The Department of National Planning of Sri Lanka, 2010

Tourism development in the state: provincial degree

In Sri Lanka, states are the first degree administrative division. They were foremost established by the British swayers of Ceylon in 1833. Over the following century most of the administrative maps were transferred to the territories, the 2nd degree administrative division. This changed in 1987 when, following several decennaries of increasing demand for a decentalisation, the 13th Amendment to the 1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka established provincial councils. Presently there are nine states named Central, Eastern, North Central, North Western, Northern, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva and Western ( Figure 5 ) .

Figure 5. Sri Lanka map demoing nine administrative states

As per the decentalisation of most of the power, each and every state has ministry of touristry to develop and pull off touristry activities in the state. In line with the touristry development of the national authorities, provincial councils have development touristry maestro programs and implemented them during 2010-2016. Most of the touristry development plans of these states are chiefly focused on rural touristry and niche markets such as nature touristry, ecotourism, civilization touristry, agritourism in a sustainable manner. Main purpose of these touristry development plans is community authorization and rural development.

Motivation of local tourers

While be aftering installations for foreign tourers to do extra foreign income to the state, authorities expects to increase demand from domestic tourers every bit good. The entire population in the state is 21,283,913 ( 2011 estimated ) and the population growing rate is 0.934 % ( 2011 estimated ) . The urban population is 14 % of entire population ( 2010 ) and the rate of urbanisation is 1.1 % one-year rate of alteration ( 2010-15 estimated ) . Furthermore, age construction of the state is 0-14 old ages: 24.9 % , 15-64 old ages: 67.2 % and 65 old ages and over: 7.9 % ( 2011 estimated ) ( Sri Lanka Demographics Profile, 2012 ) . Local demand for touristry is turning quantitatively every bit good as qualitatively and therefore a positive background will be created in many ways in future. Government is acquiring ready to advance the lesser known attractive forces in the state by utilizing the print and electronic media to set up a good travel civilization among the Sri Lankan travelers ( Ministry of Economic Development of Sri Lanka, 2010 ) .

When concentrating the development of touristry industry in the state, there had been a comfortable period in the past. But, in the close yesteryear, public presentations of it had gone down due to some bad experiences such as few young person unrest state of affairss and revolutions 1989-1992 a immense tsunami in 2004 and terrible cultural manner during 2008-2009. However, late, it is dining and tonss of programs have been undergone by the national authorities and the provincial councils to acquire the optimal benefits of touristry in future.

5.3 Tourism and national development in Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka had a great barrier of acquiring efficient and effectual part of touristry for the national development for about 30 old ages due to cultural struggle of the county. However, now touristry is going more and more of import subscriber to the Sri Lanka ‘s economic system, with international touristry grosss turning strongly in 2011, and expected to go on to make so in future ( Ministry of Economic Development of Sri Lanka, 2011 ) . The analysis of touristry rank in the national economic system reveals that touristry was in the 6th place as one of the largest earners of foreign exchange in 2011. Though ranked in the 6th degree, the part of touristry to the entire foreign exchange net incomes increased up to 4.3 per cent from 3.8 per cent compared to the old twelvemonth ( Table 5.3 ) .

Table 5.3 Main subscribers of the national income in Sri Lanka in 2010 and 2011

Beginning: Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority, 2011

Economic impacts of touristry in the state

The major impact of the tourer industry is on the economic system. Tourism surely helps to convey economic benefits to host communities and cut down poorness and salvage natural and cultural assets of Sri Lanka ( Handaragama, 2010 ) . A However, the impact could be seen both positively and negatively. As a positive impact, foreign exchange net incomes generate public sector gross ( Bandara, 2001 ; Samaranayake, 1998 ) . The creative activity of a big sum of employment chances is another positive impact due to the tourer industry. The tourer industry which chiefly serves the intent of rendering services creates direct and indirect employment ; a satisfactory state of affairs to Sri Lanka as a state enduring from unemployment jobs ( Bandara, 2001 ; Samaranayake, 1998 ; Tantrigama, 1994 ) . Not merely that, touristry helps in many ways to cut down poorness and improves the well-being of people in Sri Lanka. The drip down and multiplier consequence provide a broad scope of employment chances accessible by the less flush, making chances for micro- , small- , and moderate-sized endeavors, in which hapless people can take part ( Miththapala, 2010 ; Ranasinghe and Deyshappriya, 2009 ) . The touristry industry besides provides chances for small-scale concern endeavors, which is particularly of import in rural communities, which can be used to better schools, lodging and infirmaries ( Tisel and Bandara, 2003 ) .

Another development which is outstanding within the economic sector is the rapid development in the geographical countries of the tourer industry. The rapid enlargement in substructure such as main roads, H2O, electricity, telephones, etc profit all people. Furthermore, as a consequence of the tourer industry, new towns and metropoliss have emerged and airdromes, seaports, big shopping composites and all tourer demands have developed ( Bandara, 2001 ; Samaranayake, 1998 ) . As a drumhead, contributes to better income and criterion of life, heighten local economic system, increases direct and indirect employment chances, additions revenue enhancement grosss, additions chances for shopping economic impact ( direct, indirect, induced disbursement ) is widespread in the community and creates new concern chances are the chief economic benefits touristry in the county.

As a negative economic impact Bandara ( 2001 ) argues that due to the tourer industry, the rate of rising prices is on the rise, and later the monetary value of land and goods associated with the industry have overly gone up. The information of the research besides discloses the fact that monetary values of popular assortments of fish favoured by tourers, certain nutrient points and fruits have increased. Furthermore, since people buy land for concerns related with the tourer industry and since tourers themselves buy land for investing, the monetary value of land in countries associated with the tourer industry have increased doing it hard for the “ common adult male ” to purchase land for his demands ( Chandralal, 2010 ; Handaragama, 2010 ) . Furthermore, Samaranayake ( 1978 ) claims that the money earned by touristry hints back to foreign states for promotion and publicity related activities for the tourer industry, and besides as imports to Sri Lanka for necessary demands in building work, nutrient, drinks and other necessities for tourers.

Socio-cultural impacts of touristry

Harmonizing to Handaragama ( 2010 ) touristry has improved the quality of life in an country by increasing the figure of attractive forces, recreational chances, and services. Besides it has offered occupants chances to run into interesting people, make friendly relationships, learn about the universe, and expose themselves to new positions, sing different cultural patterns enriches experiences, broadens skylines, and additions penetration and grasp for different attacks to populating. Furthermore, tourers ‘ involvement for local civilization and history has provided chances to back up saving of historical artefacts and architecture of the country. Improvements to infrastructure and new leisure amenities that consequence from touristry besides benefit the local community. Tourism encourages the saving of traditional imposts, handcrafts and festivals that might otherwise hold been allowed to decline, and it creates civic pride. Interchanges between hosts and invitees create a better cultural apprehension and can besides assist raise planetary consciousness of issues such as poorness and human rights maltreatments ( Chandralal, 2010 ) . Harmonizing to several researches, chief socio-cultural benefits of touristry in Sri Lanka can be summarized as facilitation of meeting visitants, induction of positive alterations in values and imposts, publicity of cultural exchange, sweetening of apprehension of different communities, saving of cultural individuality of host population, sweetening of demand for historical and cultural exhibits and formation of tolerance for societal differences by the local community.

Some negative socio-cultural impacts have besides experienced in the state. Gunasena ( 2011 ) has reported that visitants ‘ behavior has a damaging consequence on the quality of life of the host community due to herding and congestion, drugs and intoxicant jobs and harlotry in coastal countries of Sri Lanka. Tourism has even violated human rights, with locals being displaced from their land to do manner for new hotels and barred from beaches and besides led to an eroding of traditional civilizations and values due to interaction of local people with tourers ( Ranasinghe and Deyshappriya, 20009 ) .

Environmental impacts of touristry

As environmental benefits, touristry helps to advance preservation of wildlife and natural resources such as rain woods, fields, waterfalls. It besides helps bring forth support for keeping carnal conserves and Marine Parkss through entryway charges and usher fees ( Handaragama, 2010 ) . By making alternate beginnings of employment, touristry reduces environmental jobs such as over-fishing and deforestation in the country. Tourist income frequently makes it possible to continue and reconstruct historic edifices and memorials. Furthermore, betterments in the country ‘s visual aspect through fixs and the add-on of public art such as wall paintings, H2O fountains, and memorials that benefit visitants and occupants likewise are the of import environmental benefits of touristry in the state.

There are some negative experiences of environmental impacts of touristry in Sri Lanka. Visitors generate waste and pollution ( air, H2O, solid waste, noise, and ocular ) . Natural resource attractive forces can be jeopardized through improper utilizations or overexploitation. The devastation or loss of vegetations and zoologies can go on when desirable workss and animate beings are collected for sale or the land is trampled ( Ranasinghe and Deyshappriya, 2009 ) . Travelers can besides unwittingly introduce not autochthonal species, as can increases in the trade of animate beings and workss. A changeless watercourse of visitants may interrupt wildlife by upseting their genteelness rhythms and changing natural behavior. It poses a menace to a part ‘s natural and cultural resources, such as H2O supply, beaches, coral reefs and heritage sites, through overexploitation. It besides causes increased pollution through traffic emanations, littering, increased sewerage production and noise Gunasena ( 2011 ) .

When measuring economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts, there are higher positive impacts over negative impacts. Furthermore, since present authorities has placed a really high trust on the advantages of touristry in future, it is be aftering to heighten the advantages of touristry and cut down the disadvantages of it. Therefore, there is no uncertainty that touristry has, and continues to be a focal point for development of the state. Particularly, with the new touristry development plans and policies, in future Sri Lanka will be able to derive better positive economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts. However, there are two facets of development of the industry that must be kept in head. Increased tourer traffic should non take the industry into overly increased rates of available installations and inordinate repast charges. It must ever be remembered that touristry is internationally really competitory. It is easy to do the error of raising monetary values so much that could sabotage the international fight of the industry.


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