Russia is proud of its accomplishments in satellite engineering and probe of outerspace. On October 4, 1957, the universe ‘s first unreal orbiter was launched in our state. With “ Sputnik-1 ” a great trade of programmes of infinite geographic expedition were implemented. Over the following few old ages a figure of remote-controlled starships of assorted sorts, runing from meteoric and communications orbiters to lunar investigations were launched.

On April 12, 1961, the Soviet Union launched “ Vostok-1 ” . For the first clip in the history of world a manned ballistic capsule was launched into outerspace. It carried Yury Gagarin in a individual orbit around the Earth. German Titov piloted “ Vostok-2 ” ballistic capsule. It was launched on August 6, 1961, on the first manned space travel of more than a individual orbit. Valentina Tereshkova, the first adult female to go into infinite, was launched on June 16, 1963 in “ Vostok-6 ” , which completed 48 orbits in 71 hours. In infinite at the same clip was Valery Bykovsky, who had been launched two yearss earlier in “ Vostok-5 ” ; both of them landed on June 19.

“ Vostok ” flights had demonstrated that adult male could work while weightless in infinite. The “ Vostok ” ballistic capsule enabled the readying of new, more complicated flights. Taking over the traditions of the single-sitter “ Vostok ” , multi-sitter “ Voskhod ” and “ Soyuz ” ballistic capsule began to circle around the orbits of the Earth. “ Voskhod-2 ” , a two-piloted ballistic capsule was constructed in such a manner that the astronaut could go forth the ship during flight. On March 18, 1965, Aleksey Leonov left the ballistic capsule through an air lock to go the first adult male to drift free in infinite.

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Developed for the Earth-orbital infinite station programme “ Soyuz ” aircraft were equipped for drawn-out missions of scientific experimentation while in the Earth orbit of up to 30 yearss continuance. There were 40 manned and remote-controlled “ Soyuz ” starships which were launched between 1967 and 1981. It should be stressed that 30 “ Soyuz ” flights involved its docking with an revolving “ Salyut ” infinite station. The first record for the longest manned mission in spaceflight history was set in 1981 by the crew of “ Soyuz-35 ” . It remained on board “ Salyut-6 ” for 185 yearss. Other noteworthy “ Soyuz ” flights include “ Apollo-Soyuz ” Trial Undertaking, the first joint infinite venture undertaken by the United States and the Soviet Union. During this mission, conducted in July 1975, a three-man U.S. “ Apollo ” ballistic capsule met and docked with the two-man “ Soyuz-19 ” trade. The crews performed joint experiments for two yearss. The joint “ Apollo-Soyuz ” mission achieved all its major aims.

“ Salyut-1 ” , launched April 19, 1971, was the universe ‘s first infinite station. In 1986 the Soviet Union launched a more advanced type of infinite station “ Mir ” . This station – a big, lasting, multimanned revolving complex – was designed to suit assorted faculties for crew life quarters and research installations. On March 13, 1986, cosmonauts Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyev were sent aboard a “ Soyuz ” ballistic capsule to dock with “ Mir ” and go its first residents. They spent 53 yearss seting equipment and conveying the complex into feasible order. Other astronauts subsequently visited the station. In 1987 Yury Romanenko set a new endurance record of 326 yearss in infinite. The old record 237 yearss, was set in 1984 by a Soviet crew in “ Salyut-7 ” infinite station. In the 1970s and 1980s our scientists concentrated their attempts on legion experiments into outerspace which involved the astronauts ‘ repeated moorage. Assorted “ Salyut ” revolving research labs were equipped for drawn-out missions of scientific experimentation. On board “ Salyut ” Stationss our astronauts conducted scientific research and made valuable observations of the solar system.

– How long did it take Yury Alekseyevich Gagarin to revolve the Earth?

– It took Yury Alekseyevich Gagarin 1 hr 29 proceedingss to revolve the Earth.

– How was the first astronaut awarded?

– Yury Gagarin ‘s spaceflight brought him global celebrity. The first astronaut was awarded the Order of Lenin and given the rubrics of Hero of the Soviet Union and Pilot Cosmonaut of the Soviet Union. Memorials were raised to him and streets were renamed in his honor across the Soviet Union.

– What do you cognize about the first astronaut?

– In 1951 Yury Gagarin, the boy of a carpenter, finished as a moulder a trade school near Moscow. He continued his surveies at the industrial college at Saratov. At the same clip he took a class in winging. When Gagarin finished this class he entered the Soviet Air Force cadet school at Orenburg. He finished it in 1957. Yury Gagarin ne’er went into infinite once more. He participated in developing other astronauts. Yury Gagarin visited several states following his historic flight. From 1962 he served as a deputy to the Supreme Soviet.

– What do you cognize about the 2nd Soviet astronaut?

– German Titov, the 2nd Soviet astronaut, was accepted in 1953 for air power plebe preparation. In 1957 he graduated from the Stalingrad Flying Academ

y as a jet combatant pilot. In 1960 Titov entered cosmonaut preparation. During this class he received the Order of Lenin for an technology proposal. The “ Vostok-2 ” flight lasted 25 hours 18 proceedingss. Titov was given a codification name “ Eagle. ” His wireless signal, “ I am Eagle! ” was spoken with exhilaration and impressed people all over the universe. After his flight Titov became a Hero of the Soviet Union. In 1962 he became a deputy of the Supreme Soviet. He held the place until 1970. In 1968 Titov graduated from the Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy. He became a major general in 1975. In subsequent old ages Titov was an helper to the main editor of the Journal “ Aviation and Cosmonautics ” .

– When did the USA launch the first orbiter?

– The first U.S. orbiter “ Explorer-1 ” was launched on January 31, 1958, approximately four months after “ Sputnik-1 ” .

– How many orbiters were launched by our state and the United States?

– For 40 old ages both states successfully launched more than 5,000 orbiters and infinite investigations of all assortments for carry oning scientific research, communications, meteoric, photographic reconnaissance, and pilotage orbiters, lunar and planetal investigations, and manned infinite flights.

– When did the USA launch its first manned ballistic capsule?

– On May 5, 1961, the United States launched its first manned ballistic capsule, a “ Mercury ” capsule in which spaceman Alan Shepard, Jr. , made a 15 minute suborbital flight.

– When were work forces landed on the surface of the Moon?

– On July 20, 1969, the United States landed work forces on the surface of the Moon.

– World health organization was the first to step on the Moon?

– On July 16, 1969, Armstrong, with Edwin Aldrin and Michael Collins, blasted off in the “ Apollo-11 ” vehicle toward the Moon. Four yearss subsequently, the “ Eagle ” lunar landing faculty, guided manually by Armstrong, touched down on a field near the southwesterly border of the Sea of Tranquillity. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong stepped from the “ Eagle ” onto the Moon ‘s dust-covered surface with the words, “ That ‘s one little measure for [ a ] adult male, one giant spring for world. ” Armstrong and Aldrin left the faculty for more than two hours and deployed scientific instruments, collected surface samples, and took legion exposure. On July 21, after 21 hours and 36 proceedingss on the Moon, they lifted off to rendezvous with Collins and get down the ocean trip back to the Earth. The spacemans splashed down in the Pacific on July 24. They visited 21 states.

– How many lunar landings were made by the USA?

– The USA made five more lunar landings on subsequent “ Apollo ” flights. During the lunar landings spacemans explored the surface of the Moon, collected stone and dirt samples, and performed a assortment of scientific experiments. The last lunar landing was made in December 1972.

– What has the USA devoted its attending to since the mid- 1970s?

– Since the mid-1970s, the United States has devoted its attending to developing the infinite bird, a reclaimable infinite vehicle that lifts off like a projectile and lands like an ordinary airplane. The bird trade have been used to deploy and mend orbiters in the Earth orbit.

– When did the United States launch the first reclaimable manned vehicle?

– On April 12, 1981 the United States launched the first reclaimable manned vehicle. It was the twentieth day of remembrance of manned infinite flight.

– What can you state about planetal surveies carried out by the U.S. and Soviet scientists?

– Although the United States and the Soviet Union made manned flight a major end in their infinite programmes, during the 1960s and ’70s, the scientists of both states undertook ambitious planetal surveies with remote-controlled deep-space investigations. The most important missions were the “ Viking ” landings on the Mars ; the “ Voyager ” flybys of the Jupiter, the Saturn, and the Uranus. The Soviet Union did non set down work forces on the Moon. It launched a series of robot lunar investigations ( “ Luna ” and “ Zond ” ) that returned of import informations and dirt samples. “ Luna-16 ” , for illustration, made a soft-landing on the Moon in September 1970, obtained a nucleus sample of dirt, and returned it to the Earth in a certain capsule.

– What do people want to derive by researching outer infinite?

– The flight into outerspace allows adult male to perforate into new domains of unpredictable finds. Scientists are interested in infinite geographic expedition because today natural philosophies, chemical science, biological science, astronomy need new informations, which can non be found on the Earth. Furthermore, Space Age has given mankind a opportunity to happen thought animals in other Galaxies. It is believed that there are more than 100 million civilizations throughout the universe. It is known far and broad that since early times the human existences have been interested in the survey of the Universe. Their hopes have been connected with the find of rational animals on the planets of other galaxies. The thought of other universes bing in the Universe cost Giordano Bruno his life. Now all the beliefs may go true, and living existences may be found in the distant universes of other solar systems.


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