It is important that probation officers develop a acquaintance with the demands and safety concerns of adult females who are abused. and become aware of the hazards adult females face while on probation supervising. For illustration. an maltreater may utilize the probation status as another manner to mistreat her by endangering to falsely aver a probation misdemeanor to her probation officer. or by coercing her to perpetrate an illegal act and so describing it ( Crager et Al. . 2003 ) . When a probation officer learns that a adult female student nurse is abused. the officer should use the same rules for working with adult females who are non student nurses ( NYS PDVIP. 2005 ) . If a adult female who is abused has non had contact with domestic force plans. probation officers can play a cardinal function in supplying information and referrals to domestic force services. A probation officer may be the first individual that has of all time said to her: “You don’t deserve to be abused. It’s non your mistake. and there’s nil you have done to do the maltreatment. ” Probation officers have a duty to reassure adult females that they are non entirely with their experiences: “I’m concerned about you. and when you are ready. aid is available. ” When probation officers provide referrals. it is important to understand that her possible reluctance or unwillingness to take hotline/advocate contact information may be related to a concern for her ain safety. Her maltreater may be waiting for her in the parking batch. travel through her bag or pockets. and utilize that domestic force plan contact figure as a ground to go on and/or intensify his maltreatment ( NYSCADV. 2004b ) .
It is besides of import for probation officers to take their cues from adult females who are abused as to what their abusers’ actions mean. For illustration. an maltreater may hold made statements to bespeak that a woman’s hazard is high ( i. e. “The following flowers you’ll acquire will be when you are in the ground” ) . Probation officers can besides help adult females in placing and understanding unsafe and potentially illegal stalking behaviours including unwanted phone calls. letters. gifts. flowers. electronic mail. instant messages. or facsimiles. A stalker may besides follow her or demo up at topographic points she frequents ( place. work. school. etc. ) . do verbal. written. or implied menaces directed at her. her friends or household. or vandalise her belongings. More utmost Acts of the Apostless of still hunt may besides include assaults or other Acts of the Apostless of force. including sexual assault. directed at her. an immediate household member. or person she knows ( NYSCADV. 2004b ) .
Probation officers support the safety of adult females by supplying referrals to domestic violenceprograms to help with finishing a safety program. If a adult female chooses non to reach a domestic force advocator. probation officers can assist her reappraisal her hazards and make a preliminary safety program ( See Appendix B for considerations for developing a preliminary safety program ) . including inquiring about arms available to the wrongdoer. every bit good as his entree to the kids ( NYSCADV. 2004b ) . Regardless of the degree of discourtesy or strong belief. probation officers should forbear from minimising the abuser’s potency to bring down serious physical hurt. All domestic force instances should be considered as possible homicides. peculiarly during separation or after a adult female who is abused terminates the relationship ( NYS PDVIP. 2005 ) . Probation officers are besides going aware of the potency for collusion with maltreaters who are non under supervising. These maltreaters may try to go an ally of probation officers in order to keep power and control over the adult female who is abused.
To counter these efforts at coercion. probation is progressively carry oning Pre-Sentence Probes ( PSIs ) in all domestic force instances. If there are deficient resources to make this in all instances. PSIs should be conducted on any instance where the suspect may hold a history of victimization by the alleged victim in the presenting instance. The PSI should include specific inquiries about the history of victimization and power and control kineticss in the relationship ( NYS PDVIP. 2005 ) ( See Appendix C for a list of general guidelines for probation officers who supervise adult females who are abused ) . Extra schemes for oversing adult females who are abused include the undermentioned: 1. Know and follow the departmental confidentiality policy sing usage of information about the adult female who is abused. including her contact information. Inform the adult female who is abused of the policy at first contact. and once more as necessary throughout the supervising procedure. It is of import for her to understand what will go on with any and all information she may supply to her probation officer ( e. g. . Will it be written in her instance file? Will a supervisor see it? Will it be submitted to the justice in a study? Will her maltreater or his lawyer have entree to it? ) 2. Make a safe environment for adult females who are abused to unwrap their experiences of maltreatment if they choose. See exposing domestic force postings in the probation section and have local domestic force plan booklets and booklets available as a seeable manner to demo that the officer and the section take domestic violenceseriously.
3. Explain the footings of the Orders and Conditions of Probation. the function of a probation officer. and any extra relevant bureau policies. Fully explain the effects of misdemeanors of the Orders and Conditions of Probation. and other student nurse duties. 4. Guarantee the adult female who is abused that she is non responsible for her abuser’s behaviour. The pick to mistreat remainders merely with the maltreater. 5. Make non utilize her maltreater as a collateral contact. This may accidentally reenforce and formalize his power and control over her and present undependable information to her instance. 6. It is indispensable to understand that the determinations adult females make may be based on critical endurance schemes. Womans who are abused are invariably measuring their hazards. and from twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours their demands and safety concerns may change. 7. Ask the adult female who is abused to place how to reach her in a manner that supports her safety. Do non originate contact with the adult female who is abused while her maltreater is present. 8. Ensure that the adult female who is abused has contact information for the local domestic force plan. Help her in placing her safety concerns. 9. Discuss safety issues for the probation officer and the adult female who is abused that may impact place contacts. fieldwork. or indirect contacts ( e. g. . if the maltreater lives with the adult female who is abused. agenda a place contact with her when the maltreater is non at place ) . 10. Address other demands of adult females who are abused including employment. child care. lodging issues. substance maltreatment intervention. etc. 11. Make non assure the adult female who is abused any thing you may non be able to present. Do non guarantee her of her safety ( NYSCADV. 2003 ; NYS PDVIP. 2004 ) ( See Appendix D for a checklist for probation contact with victims of domestic force ) .
Collaboration with Domestic Violence Advocates and Referrals to Domestic Violence Programs.
Probation officers are constructing strong coactions with domestic force advocators. As a consequence. they have a greater comprehension of the dangers that adult females face. and a broader apprehension of picks adult females make which are grounded in critical endurance schemes. The function of advocators. which are employed by traditional domestic force plans ( based in. or linked with. not-for-profit. non-governmental bureaus ) . is defined by the demands
and desires of adult females who are abused. The overarching ends of advocators are to back up and bolster women’s confidentiality and determinations. and supply them with information. The commitment of advocators prevarications entirely with adult females who are abused. which is distinguishable from victim-witness affairs ( besides sometimes referred to as “advocates” ) that may be employed by territory attorney’s offices. jurisprudence enforcement bureaus. and other system-based plans. In fact. advocators may be called upon to stand for the involvements of adult females who are abused to other individuals and/or bureaus. Advocates and domestic force plans are a major resource for probation officers and sections and frailty versa. and this interdependent relationship should be encouraged. strengthened. and formalized as a necessary portion of a coordinated community response to domestic force. Advocate-probation coactions can beef up instances and significantly back up safety of adult females in many ways. Advocates can help with explicating the probation procedure. aid adult females who are abused understand what probation officers and sections do. and reexamine probation paperss and paperwork with adult females who are abused. In add-on. advocators can assist fix adult females who are abused for meetings with probation. and may be able to go to meetings to supply extra support ( NYS PDVIP. 2004. NYS PDVIP. 2005 ) [ 3 ] .
Probation officers can minimise the potentially unsafe reverberations of unintended effects of supervising patterns. by developing and keeping coactions with advocators sing safety issues. Therefore. intercessions implemented by probation officers can concentrate on assisting adult females who are abused explore and measure available options. do informed determinations. design preliminary safety programs that reflect women’s demands and ends. and facilitate voluntary engagement in domestic force services ( State of New York. 1998 ) . At every chance. probation officers should do available hotline Numberss. contact information. and descriptions of locally available domestic force plans and services to adult females who are abused. However. seeking aid from a domestic force plan. acquiring an order of protection. or make up one’s minding to go forth an maltreater merely makes sense to a adult female when. on balance. it reduces the overall hazards that she and her kids face. Victim safety should stay paramount when there may be viing involvements or a sensed benefit of a plan. policy. protocol. or process. Achieving this end requires a supervising program that incorporates the many obstructions and hazards to accomplishing safety or to stoping a relationship with an opprobrious spouse that adult females who are abused brush. Domestic force plans focus on authorization. liberty. and self-government. and mandating engagement in any plan or service contradicts this doctrine ( Crager et Al. . 2003 ) . Mandating adult females who are abused to domestic force services besides places advocators in the incongruent function of supervising conformity with probation conditions ( Denton. 2001 ) .
Considerations for Dual Probation Supervision of Women Who are Abused and Their Abusers
When adult females who are abused and their maltreaters are both under supervising by probation. a heightened degree of confidentiality and a rigorous safety protocol must be maintained within the section. Regardless of who is or is non identified by the condemnable justness system as the maltreater. probation officers should go on to implement patterns that support the safety of adult females who are abused. Probation officers are good trained to be wary of student nurses and their many tactics at “getting-over. ” This accomplishment is particularly cardinal when oversing domestic force wrongdoers. as maltreaters non merely excel at this enterprise. but use it as a scheme straight related to their maltreatment and to their mentality. Although many convicted felons may believe themselves to be victims. work forces who are maltreaters tend to be peculiarly repetitive about their sensed victimization. Historically. work forces who abused were protected by traditions of privateness and privilege environing matrimony and the household. While societal values and Torahs are altering refering to mistreat in intimate relationships. many work forces who abuse show a sense of invasion and unfairness. and experience that they have had something taken off. or that their rights have been abridged.
Probation officers need to exert attention non to state or make anything that could be interpreted as holding with the maltreater – including even the most insouciant of remarks or nodding of the caput. Constantly. maltreaters will utilize that perceived support to minimise and warrant their behaviours or to confirm their negative premises about adult females ( NYS PDVIP. 2004 ) . Similarly. probation officers need to maintain the focal point on answerability. non on abusers’ personal or moral shortages. diseases. low self-esteem. early childhood experiences.
choler direction. diminished mind. dependence. mental unwellness. other persons. or external events as the agencies to “explaining” or “solving” domestic force. Making so gives maltreaters support for the alibis they offer to explicate their opprobrious behaviour ( State of New York. 1998 ) .
General Safety Strategies for Women Who Are Abused During Dual Probation Supervision.
General guidelines for probation officers who supervise adult females who are abused during double probation state of affairss include the undermentioned: 1. Acknowledge that adult females who are abused have differing safety demands and concerns than work forces who are being supervised. In some state of affairss. there may be a demand to bespeak a alteration of Orders and Conditionss of Probation that may negatively impact her safety ( e. g. curfew. electronic monitoring. travel licenses. and residence coverage may enforce extra danger for adult females who are abused ) . 2. Make non schedule office interviews with both the adult female who is abused and her maltreater on the same twenty-four hours. Develop a agenda of meeting times and day of the months in concurrence with the other oversing officer. 3. It is indispensable that different probation officers supervise the adult female who is abused and her maltreater.
This minimizes chances for knee pantss in confidentiality and reduces the potency for collusion with the maltreater. 4. If instance reappraisals are routinely conducted with other probation officers and supervisors. exercising utmost cautiousness in discoursing instance inside informations which may set a adult female who is abused at hazard. While disputing. restrict the entree of other officers and supervisors every bit much as executable to the instance file of the adult female who is abused. Discoursing the inside informations of her instance with other probation officers may ensue in information acquiring to her maltreater. with potentially important reverberations for her safety. 5. Make non do negative statements about the maltreater during supervising of a adult female who is abused ( NYSCADV. 2003 ; NYS PDVIP. 2005 ) . For illustration. remarks such as “he’s such a icky husband” or “he’s a existent jerk” interject value judgements into the supervising procedure that can significantly take away from perceptual experiences of probation officers and their ability to keep a professional demeanour. Rather. the context of the abuser’s behaviours and actions should be focused on her safety.
Extra Safety Strategies for Women Who Are Abused During Supervision of Their Abusers.
General guidelines for the supervising of maltreaters include the undermentioned: 1. The safety of the adult female who is abused is the main concern. 2. The maltreater is responsible for his behaviour. There is no acceptable justification for his force. no affair what he says or how much he blames her. Address every effort of maltreaters to deny. minimise. warrant. or blasted maltreatment on anything other than their ain personal pick. 3. Neutralize the abuser’s efforts to pull strings officers or command probation proceedings. Avoid any state of affairs that could take to accidentally conspiring with the maltreater. 4. Whenever possible. probation officers should utilize beginnings of information. other than the adult female who is abused. to implement answerability of maltreaters who are besides on probation. If a probation officer does include input from a adult female who is abused. it is important for the probation officer to explicate to her. realistically. what may go on with the information that she provides sing her abuser’s instance.
Therefore. the probation officer should specifically ask about information that the adult female who is abused can supply about her maltreater without seting her at increased hazard. 5. The probation officer should clearly depict to the adult female who is abused how misdemeanors of probation are handled and what countenances may be imposed on her maltreater. 6. Guardianship of the contact information for the adult female who is abused is ever a precedence. Her contact information should ever be kept out of sight when the maltreater is in the office. If possible. seting the contact information for the adult female who is abused in a different colored file or utilizing a piece of coloured tape on the file can be an easy manner to remind probation officers of the heightened demand to maintain the information confidential. 7. In add-on. probation section policy should necessitate that probation officers notify a adult female who is abused at least one month before her maltreater is discharged from supervising. This will supply an chance for her to place any safety concerns and bespeak appropriate referrals from her probation officer ( NYSCADV. 2003 ; NYS PDVIP. 2005 ) .
Considerations for Court Ordered Referrals That Are Dangerous
Increasingly. the condemnable justness system and the tribunals are tapping into a wider scope of plan and referral options and countenances as responses to domestic force instances. While many normally used intercessions. referrals. and services are safe and appropriate for many persons ; probation officers need to acknowledge that several of these same patterns are unsafe and inappropriate for adult females who are abused. In add-on to the increased danger these patterns may make. they may besides reenforce the impression that a adult female who is abused portions duty for her partner’s violent and/or commanding behaviour. Such a message reinforces the misguided belief of most maltreaters: adult females who are abused are to fault for the force. Therefore. it besides encourages adult females who are abused to internalise duty for their partners’ force and has the possible to increase the likeliness that the maltreater will physically or emotionally harm his spouse ( NYSCADV. 2004b ) .
Safety Considerations for Batterer Program Referrals.
The Violence Against Women Office’s Toolkit to End Violence Against Women recommends that the justness system avoid telling victims of domestic force to take part in batterer plans ( VAWO. 2001 ) . There are many practical and philosophical jobs associated with court-ordering a adult female who is abused to take part in a batterer plan. If she was moving in self-defence or to protect her kids. or was utilizing force in revenge for maltreatment. the tribunal order is. in consequence. penalty for being abused. Most adult females who are abused are non batterers. even when they have used force proactively. While the content of a plan for female wrongdoers may be helpful to some adult females. the “batterer” label written into the tribunal order is by and large inaccurate ( Crager et Al. . 2003 ) . Engagement in a batterer plan places a adult female who is abused in greater danger. For illustration. when a plan notifies the alleged “victim” ( in actuality. the existent batterer ) of the woman’s engagement in the batterer plan. he can larn where and when he can happen her. Batterer plan staffs have described cases in which adult females who are abused have been stalked by their maltreaters every clip they attended their court-ordered batterer plan. Compulsory engagement in batterer plans by adult females who are abused besides creates
chances for batterers to undermine the women’s conformity with the tribunal order by interfering with their attending. or describing false allegations of new Acts of the Apostless of force ( Crager et Al. . 2003 ) . Andy Klein. former main probation officer for the Quincy. MA tribunal and nationally known writer on probation. condemnable justness. and domestic force. besides commented on the usage of batterer plans for adult females: | |If we truly want to offer our services to female batterers. there are better ways to make them than | | | |to rely on the coercive powers of a condemnable justness system that excessively frequently gets it incorrect in separating| | | |out batterers from victims. If the prosecuting officer or justice asks you to help the tribunal by offering | | | |batterer intercession plans for women…just say NO. Offer. alternatively. to assist develop officers. | | | |prosecutors. and Judgess on how to collar. prosecute. and countenance sagely ( Klein. 2001. p. 2 ) . | | | |–Andy Klein |
Safety Considerations for Mediation and Couples Counseling Referrals.
Intervention schemes that require concerted engagement typically assume an equal relationship in which both parties are free to openly take part. Mediation. for illustration. is a procedure through which equal parties are engaged in dialogues to decide a struggle. Because of the built-in instability of power between an maltreater and a adult female who is abused. mediation and twosomes reding are inappropriate in domestic force instances. A victim of domestic force who. by definition. is being controlled by her spouse is significantly compromised in her ability to negociate freely and is non on an equal terms with her spouse. Womans who are abused may besides be encouraged to change their behaviour so that they do non “provoke” their spouses into mistreating them. therefore. keeping the victims accountable for the maltreatment. Any focal point on pacifying the maltreater diverts resources or intercessions away from safety and answerability. Besides. many adult females report being threatened or assaulted after joint consumption or guidance Sessionss for things they said or did during the session ( Frank & A ; Golden. 2002 ; National Institute of Corrections [ NIC ] . 2001 ; NYS PDVIP. 2003a ; State of New York.
1998 ) .
Safety Considerations for Renewing Justice Practices.
Community and renewing justness patterns. which can be efficaciously used in concurrence with belongings and juvenile offenses. may non ever be “restorative” or appropriate for adult females who are abused. As an apprehension of power and control and the kineticss of domestic force are non reflected in many renewing justness patterns. they are unsafe for domestic force instances. Conferencing ( besides known as Family Group Conferencing ) routinely requires adult females who are abused to hold face-to-face visits with their maltreaters. Besides. communities may alter understanding programs if they see maltreaters are holding jobs with implementing them. therefore making the potency for maltreaters to pull strings effects and avoid answerability for the offenses they committed ( NIC. 2001 ; NYS PDVIP. 2003a ) . Circles ( besides known as Sentencing. Mending. Peacemaking. or Community Circles ) chiefly use dialogue. mediation. consensus edifice. and conflict declaration tactics that. because of power differences between the maltreater and the adult female who is abused. are unsafe and inappropriate. Besides. duties are frequently unsuitably assigned to adult females who are abused and their support groups. and results are frequently focused on an increased community capacity to “resolve disputes” ( NIC. 2001 ; NYS PDVIP. 2003a ) .
Safety Considerations for Routine Mental Health Assessments.
Domestic force is non the consequence of a mental wellness issue. nor does a adult female who is abused. typically. hold a mental unwellness. The rate of mental unwellness among adult females who are abused is no higher than that of the general population. and mental unwellness on the portion of the adult female who is abused is by and large non the cause of the force. When a adult female who is abused has no related mental wellness issues. an assessment implies that the woman’s position as a victim of domestic force is in some manner connected with a mental wellness job. Thus. adult females who are abused should merely be referred for mental wellness appraisals for grounds that are non connected to the maltreatment. Few mental wellness suppliers have specific preparation in measuring for domestic
force or in supplying supportive services. Like an order to finish a batterer plan. an order to finish a mental wellness appraisal can be used against the adult female who is abused in a figure of ways ; for illustration. it may lend to losing detention of her kids ( Crager et Al. . 2003 ) .
Schemes to React to Court Ordered Referrals That Are Dangerous.
Probation officers have legion chances for “teachable moments” in which they can educate Judgess. prosecuting officers. defence lawyers. constabulary officers. other condemnable justness professionals. and community stakeholders about the nature and kineticss of domestic force. women’s usage of force. predominant attacker designation. and the important demand to revise condemnable justness protocols that re-victimize adult females who are abused through unintended effects. In some legal powers. probation sections are developing protocols. which prohibit probation officers from mandating or mentioning adult females to unsafe patterns. When Judgess refer or mandate adult females to these patterns. the probation sections respond to the Judgess with an account of how the patterns are unsafe to adult females. why the section has restricted usage of them. and provides them a transcript of the departmental protocol. A strong coaction with local domestic force advocators is the basis to a probation response that supports the safety of adult females who are abused while minimising the impact of potentially unsafe patterns. Advocates are a enormous beginning of information and support for probation officers on general domestic force issues and concerns confronting adult females who are abused. and can supply feedback on proposed policies. referrals. and patterns.
The too bad inflow of adult females who are abused into the condemnable justness system calls for the expert and principled engagement of probation officers to advance their safety. Fortunately. probation officers are good positioned to presume this extra duty of justness on behalf of adult females who are abused. At every chance. probation officers should do available hotline Numberss. contact information. and descriptions of locally
available domestic force plans and services to adult females who are abused. Victim safety should stay paramount even when there may be viing involvements or a sensed benefit of a plan. policy. protocol. or process. Achieving this end requires an enlargement of traditional impressions of probation’s authorization of wrongdoer answerability and public safety. Domestic force is a complex issue that demands probation officers implement supervising programs that contain schemes for the many obstructions and hazards to accomplishing safety that adult females who are abused brush. Enormous alteration has been happening within the condemnable justness system sing transmutations in attitudes and beliefs about domestic force. Increasingly. domestic force is seen as a serious offense that warrants swift and strong jurisprudence enforcement. court-based. and correctional responses aimed at keeping maltreaters accountable for their actions. Probation officers are taking on outstanding functions in conveying about the societal alteration necessary to dispute domestic force. Probation is in a alone place to back up the safety of adult females who are abused and cut down the negative impacts of apprehension and prosecution of adult females who are abused as portion of a double apprehension for domestic force. or other offenses. Anytime a probation officer encounters a adult female who is abused or her maltreater. regardless of who is the student nurse. the officer has a important function in potentially forestalling further domestic force or even homicide.
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