? As defined by Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary. existential philosophy is “a chiefly twentieth century philosophical motion encompassing diverse philosophies but focus oning on analysis of single being in an unfathomable existence and the predicament of the person who must presume ultimate duty for Acts of the Apostless of free will without any certain cognition of what is right or incorrect or good or bad. ” This is the chief theory behind philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre’s work. Because of the absence of cognition about right and incorrect in existential philosophy. Sartre says that “ [ w ] vitamin E are left entirely. without alibi.
This is what I mean when I say that adult male is condemned to be free” ( 32 ) . In this sense. ‘condemned’ does non hold a negative intension to it. Sartre believes that it is a good thing that people are free to do their ain picks in life alternatively of being locked into a set way without any opportunity to do their ain pick. In this paper. I will reason that people are free to do their picks and that this leads to people being happier and more observant of the their actions. Existentialism is a really complex thought.
To antagonize this complexness. Sartre defines the chief thought behind this doctrine as “existence precedes essence” ( 32 ) When Sartre says this. he means that people exist and are born before they create their ‘essence’ . which is fundamentally what defines us. Humans. artefacts. and workss and animate beings are the three classs of objects in the universe. . For worlds. “existence precedes essence” ( 32 ) . It is the antonym for artefacts. For artefacts. Sartre says “essence precedes existence” . The thought of the artefact comes before it is created.
For workss and animate beings. Sartre says that kernel is the same thing as being. or. in other words. “essence peers existence” . The thought that we are born before we are ‘defined’ topographic points a batch of duty for people in their lives. This duty comes from the feeling that our picks create ourselves and each determination leads to assisting to specify a person’s life. To exemplify this. Sartre gives us of a immature adult male who needs to do a pick that will hold a immense impact on his life.
The pick he has to do is to travel to war against Fascism or to remain at place with his female parent ; “he. at this minute. had the pick between traveling to England to fall in the Free Gallic Forces or of remaining near his female parent and assisting her to live” ( 33 ) . The pick arises because he is the last household member that is populating with his female parent. He does non desire to go forth her alone. even though he wants to contend Fascism. Sartre’s response to this immature adult male would be to merely do a pick and act on that pick because whatever your pick ends up being is the thing that you most want to make.
Whatever the pick. the definition of the immature man’s life alterations. Sartre even goes so far as to state that if a individual does non do a pick of the options that he has. he is still in fact doing a pick non to do a pick. In the universe. there are two different types of objects – objects that are “in-itself” and objects that are “for-itself. ” Objects that are in-itself are things such as artefacts and workss and animate beings that have a fixed and bounded definition. Worlds are objects that are for-itself.
Worlds that have no set definition and the definition is created by the individual and differs by individual. Each human must acknowledge to two different parts of their scruples – facticity ( I am the ego that I am. ) and transcendency ( I am non the ego that I am. ) . Facticity is the given factors in a person’s life. while transcendency is the parts of life that have an unfastened possibility to them. If person denies one or both of these. Sartre says that they have bad religion. a signifier of self-deceit. To explicate bad religion. Sartre uses the illustration of a cafe server.
If the coffeehouse server says that he is non a cafe server. he is really something else. it ends up being denial of facticity. This is a denial of facticity because he really is a cafe server since he is working as a server at the coffeehouse at the clip. On the other manus. the server could state that he could non perchance be anything else besides a cafe server. This would be a denial of transcendency due to the fact that if he wanted to he could be something else ; it merely might take a small spot of work. There are four chief expostulations to the existential philosophy that Sartre believes in and writes about.
These expostulations are ( 1 ) that existentialism leads to passiveness and defeatism. ( 2 ) that existential philosophy is pessimistic. ( 3 ) that existential philosophy is subjectivist and ( 4 ) that our kernel is created before we exist. Sartre successfully responds to each of these expostulations. In footings of existential philosophy taking to passiveness and defeatism. Sartre merely says that this is non true. He backs up his response through the construct of the duty that is given to each individual through existential philosophy.
Because every action that a individual takes causes their kernel to alter and the definition of their life to alter. a individual can non be inactive in making their kernel. By definition. they are active participants in this. Sartre gives fundamentally the same response when sing the expostulation that existential philosophy leads to pessimism. The thought that existentialism leads to pessimism arises from the state of affairs with the immature adult male where Sartre says that whatever pick the immature adult male makes. it has an impact on his kernel. This would take to pessimism because it fundamentally says that whatever determination people make. it doesn’t affair due to the impact originating no affair what.
Sartre would state that the duty given to a individual in making their kernel leads a individual to be optimistic since they can alter what defines them and how they are perceived in the universe based upon each of their actions. It would surely take to pessimism if a individual had no control over their kernel. If it is already predetermined. why do anything? The expostulation that existential philosophy is subjectivist gets broken down into three different parts. with three different responses. The first portion of this expostulation is that it does non truly count what you do.
This comes from the state of affairs of the immature adult male where Sartre says that the individual should merely take and populate with the pick. Even though the existent determination does non genuinely affair. the action is improbably of import. This importance comes from the thought that every action plays a function in making your ego. Under this expostulation besides falls the thought that existential philosophy does non let us to judge other people. Sartre responds by stating that every one of our actions is a judgement of what we believe is right or incorrect.
Our actions so lead us to judge other people because our actions tell what we believe of other people’s picks. which is what creates a person’s kernel. The concluding portion of the subjectivist expostulation is that if we create our ain values. so values have no serious significance. Sartre responds to this in a really simple manner. If this is the instance. that’s excessively bad. The concluding major expostulation to existentialism comes from the doctrine of the Christian faith where people have a psyche. The being of a psyche would bespeak that people have essence before they exist.
One of the chief response to this expostulation comes from Sartre being an atheist and non believing in God. Since he does non believe in God. Sartre says that there is no Godhead. Hence. there is no preset way to life. Even though this plays some portion in the creative activity of this object. there are besides atheist existential philosophers that do non experience this manner. One of the chief philosophers of this type of existential philosophy is Kierkegaard. His doctrine says that each individual chooses their relationship with God. taking a ‘leap of faith’ . and this leads to the creative activity of their kernel.
The Christianity expostulation besides involves the thought that God has a set way for people and that each individual does non do picks. alternatively God guides them to what to make. Sartre would react with the thought that there is no Godhead once more here. Since there is non creator. each individual needs to do the determinations as to his way in life and each determination he takes has an impact on his kernel in life. Sartre knocks down every expostulation that is raised against his thoughts of existential philosophy. He responds clearly and has grounds and ground to endorse all of his determinations up.
Therefore. Sartre’s thoughts are right in their attack to how people should populate their mundane lives. Existentialism is a good manner to look at life because it fills your head with possibility and give you the pick of how to run your life. Because of this optimism and the duty given to people through the weight of their picks. existential philosophy helps out the universe and makes it a better topographic point to populate in. Works Cited “existentialism. ” Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2009. Merriam-Webster Online. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/existentialism Sartre. Jean-Paul. Basic Writings. New York. New york: Routledge. 2001. Print.