1. Sowislo, J. F., & Orth, U. (2012, June 25). Does Low Self-Esteem Predict Depression and Anxiety? A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies. Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0028931

2. The Author is investigating the correlation between low self-esteem and depression. The author is trying to find out if low self-esteem can lead to depression and anxiety. The hypothesis of the study was to evaluate the models and vulnerability between low self-esteem and depression, by analyzing the available longitudinal data.

3. The research conducted in this investigation was a longitudinal study because people were studied and restudied over a period of time. The longitudinal study design is good for looking at the effects or changes over a long period of time, usually as people age. In this case, the researcher conducted several attempts to correlate depression and low self-esteem. The researcher took a group of people who had low self-esteem and calculated the effects by showing several charts that were investigated for years which the researcher analyzed thoroughly covering 77 studies on depression and 18 studies on anxiety.

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4. Sowislo analyzed 18 studies on anxiety and self-esteem and an additional 77 studies on depression and self-esteem. She looked at the vulnerability factors of each symptom and assessed the impact they had on each other. The data she reviewed were collected from individuals ranging in age from early childhood to late adulthood. The studies Sowislo chose were conducted using a variety of measurements and time periods, allowing for a broad review of data.

The final analyses revealed a strong relationship between self-esteem and depression but a weak one for depression and self-esteem. Specifically, Sowislo found that decreases in self-esteem were predictive of increases in depression. But she found only minimal evidence for depression decreasing self-esteem. However, when she looked at self-esteem and anxiety, Sowislo found that the relationship was more reciprocal, with both self-esteem and anxiety negatively affecting each other in similar ways. These findings provide additional and clear evidence of the importance of self-esteem in depression.

5. The results of the study were exactly what I thought that they would be. I can easily see how those with lower self-esteem could fall into the trap of depression. They already feel bad about themselves, so if just a few things happened in their lives that they perceived as negative, then it would be easy for them to slip just a little further away and into a depressed state. But someone who has always generally ok with themselves but happens to experience depression, more than likely after they receive treatment they will go back to being their old self. There are many reasons I believe this research was a good study. She shows collective data and her analysis was very broad and clear. Her research also states that it was a longitudinal study, so her findings are high in validity

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