Self- esteem is very significant in the
personality of a human being, it alters one’s ability to judge another and
relate to self. Possessing an exceptional self-esteem leads to a positive
viewpoint in life and it permits a person to live with their potential.
Self-esteem is defined as an individual’s attitude about him or herself,
including along a positive and negative dimension (Baron & Byrne, 1991
cited in Shukla & Kang, 2017).

       According to Shukla & Kang (2017) as
cited by Rubin (2002) self-esteem is relatively high during
childhood, it may begin to take shape in childhood, but it can continue
throughout life. A positive viewpoint on self and life during childhood is
essential because it’s building up the child’s confidence and self acceptance.  During adolescence, self-esteem is somewhat
lower because this is the point where they need to stand as an independent
individual, adolescents care about what others think and say towards them,
other factors lower the self-esteem of adolescence are expectations, failures
and the idea of how they are going to be accepted in the society regardless of
who they are. After adolescence, self-esteem rises slowly to middle adulthood
and its peak found in late midlife due to stable job and income, relationship
and family.

      According to Veni & Merelene (2017)
self-esteem is not related to chronological age, but to the people’s quality of
social integration and adaptive capacities to cope with life events, including
physical and cognitive decline. Ability to function in the society, occurrence
of health problems and the stigma in old age are some factors affecting the
self-esteem of old people. Self-esteem is a crucial aspect of the adaptive
processes of all stages in life.

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      Self-esteem is a vital part in one’s
self, this can shape how we develop during childhood and affect who we become
as adult. During childhood and adolescence self-esteem begin to develop. As
such, it is important to adolescents to develop a positive self-concept and
high self-esteem in order to better their chances for a happy and satisfying
adulthood ( Shukla & Kang , 2017) 


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