Can damage mental health Traumatized people feel & act as though their nervous systems have been disconnected from the present: – Persistent expectation of danger – Imprint of the traumatic event that does not fade – Numbing response of giving up that becomes generalized. Psychologically & mentally, trauma refers to: wounding of emotions, will to live – beliefs about the self & the world – Locally Ana sense AT sell & securely Impacts normal ways of thinking & feeling, so previous coping mechanisms to handle stress is no longer functional. Ђ Victim feels like a thing, a vulnerable object, subject to the will of a power/force greater than themselves Different Kinds of Traumas Natural disasters (flood, fire, hurricane, etc) Man-made catastrophes (war, terrorism, bus disasters, etc) Unintentional violence (car accidents, culpable homicide) Intentional violence (forms of visitation involving threat to life, health & limb) Ђ Trauma caused by nature ?+ Disaster Trauma caused by humans ?+ Atrocity Direct vs. Indirect Trauma Indirect trauma – affects those exposed to or witnessing the traumatic event – symptoms of indirect victims can be identical to those of direct victims – family of the victim, those in helping profession, children in domestic violence situations Can be a victim of direct & indirect trauma at the same time – witnessing a rape/murder while being held hostage.

Single vs. Multiple Trauma Trauma can be a single event, or multiple events (being hijacked more than once) Continuous vs. Complex Trauma Ђ Continuous Traumatic stress: – Situations in which people are exposed to ongoing trauma – Residents of areas with high levels of violent crime – Repeated exposure to violent situations – Develop a numbing response to additional traumatic events, making it difficult to detect they are traumatized – Can seem lethargic or depressed, don’t understand what is going on & so don’t seek assistance


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