Sigmund Freud was an Austrian doctor. brain doctor. and laminitis of depth psychology. who created an wholly new attack to the apprehension of human personality. Through his accomplishment as a scientist. physician and author. he combined ideas prevalent at the clip with his ain observation and survey to bring forth a major theory of psychological science ( Encarta. “Sigmund Freud” ) . Sigmund Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious head and the defence mechanism of repression.

He is besides renowned for his redefinition of sexual desire as the primary motivational energy of human life which is directed toward a broad assortment of objects ; every bit good as his curative techniques. including his theory of transference in the curative relationship and the presumed value of dreams as beginnings of penetration into unconscious desires. II. Psychoanalysis Freud’s history of the sexual generation and nature of neuroticisms led him of course to develop a clinical intervention for handling such upsets.

This has become so influential today that when people speak of ‘psychoanalysis’ they often refer entirely to the clinical intervention ; nevertheless. the term decently designates both the clinical intervention and the theory which underlies it. The purpose of the method may be stated merely in general footings – to re-establish a harmonious relationship between the three elements which constitute the head by unearthing and deciding unconscious repressed struggles ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. iep. utm. edu/f/freud. htm ) . a. The Id. Superego. and Ego

The head is broken down into three divisions: the Id. Ego. and Superego. The Id is the constituent of the personality that is wholly unconscious and contains all the inherent aptitudes. The Id is what Freud referred to as the basic animalistic thrust that a individual is born with. It satisfies the wants of hungriness. thirst. riddance. sex and reproduction ( libido ) . Freud referred to the libido as the psychic energy associated with the sexual inherent aptitude. He subsequently expanded the construct to include the energy associated with all the life inherent aptitudes. The Superego is the moral constituent of the personality.

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It likes to experience in control. This is what predicts the effects of the actions you are believing about doing. The Superego develops its ethical motives through socialisation. The Ego is the go-between between the Id and Superego. It allows the Id to see adequate pleasance so it doesn’t become dying and besides so that the Superego won’t give the Id excessively hard of a guilt trip. Adolescents who have weak self-importance strength tend to hold behavioural jobs. B. The Conscious. Subconscious. and Unconscious The witting is the portion of your head that is what you are presently believing.

This is how you are able to see the professor and tie in him with his voice. The subconscious is the degree where information is stored that you don’t utilize all the clip. Information at this degree can be retrieved easy though. The unconscious is where dramatic information is stored so that a individual will non retrieve it. It is invariably forcing this information out of the unconscious degree into the witting degree. c. Defense Mechanisms Defense mechanisms are the rational attacks of the self-importance to cut down or take anxiousness. All of the undermentioned mechanisms have two things in common.

The first common thing is that all of the ego-defense mechanisms are all unconscious and the individual is incognizant that they are making this. The 2nd is that they falsify or distort world. i. Repression Repression is the mechanism by which the self-importance prevents anxiety-provoking ideas from being entertained on the witting degree. For Freud. the mechanism of repression was of critical importance because repressed ideas do non halt holding an influence on our personality. but they are merely non readily available in the consciousness.

The acknowledgment of the wider demands and scientific issues which his empirical survey of men’s unconscious motivations brought to visible radiation. together with the increasing realisation of the curative troubles involved in many of his instances. doubtless augmented Freud’s finding to seek out to the extreme every indicant of pent-up “sexuality. ” . and this brought him much unfavorable judgment. which was merely comparatively sound ( Putnam. 153 ) . two. Displacement Displacement is the permutation of one demand satisfier for another.

For illustration. the self-importance may replace an available object for one that is non available. or it may replace a non anxiety-provoking object or activity for one that does do anxiousness. With supplanting. what a individual truly desires is repressed and is replaced with something safer. three. Identification Identification can be used to depict the inclination to increase personal feelings of worth by consorting oneself with psychologically with a individual. group. or establishment perceived as celebrated. four. Denial of Reality

Denial of Reality is the mechanism that involves the denial of some fact in one’s life despite abundant grounds for its world. A individual utilizing this mechanism is non in touch with at least some portion of world and this could impair normal operation. An illustration would include the refusal to believe a loved 1 has died due to their negative properties. v. Projection Projection is the mechanism by which something that is true of the individual and would do anxiousness if it were recognized is repressed and projection onto person or something else alternatively.

It is the quashing anxiety-provoking truths about oneself and seeing them in others alternatively. This is most normally seen. There are some people who will decline to fault themselves for their failures ; alternatively they put the incrimination on person or something else. six. Undoing Undoing is when a individual commits an unacceptable act. or thinks about making so. and so engages in ritualistic activities designed to expiate for or undo the unacceptable act or idea. An illustration of this can even be read in the Bible. when Pontius Pilate “washes his custodies clean” after reprobating Jesus to be crucified. cognizing full good he was guiltless.

seven. Reaction Formation Reaction formation is the suppression of an anxiety-provoking idea by overstating its antonym. Peoples who tend to expose reaction formation are more intense and excessive in their emotions. eight. Rationalization Rationalization is the mechanism when a individual gives a rational. logical. nevertheless wrong. alibi for behaviour or ideas that otherwise would do anxiousness. nine. Intellectualization Intellectualization is the defence mechanism that minimizes the negative emotions that are associated with an event by detached. logical analysis of the event.

x. Regression Regression is the mechanism of returning to an earlier phase of development when emphasis is encountered. This is most normally seen when a individual is fixated in one of the earlier phases of psychosexual development. which will be discussed subsequently in this paper. eleven. Altruistic resignation Altruistic resignation is a defence mechanism postulated by Anna Freud by which a individual internalizes the values of another individual and lives his or her life in conformity with those values. twelve. Designation with the attacker

Designation with the attacker was another mechanism postulated by Anna Freud by which the fright caused by a individual is reduced or eliminated by internalising the feared person’s values and idiosyncrasies. III. Psychosexual Theory Freud believed every kid goes through a sequence of developmental phases. and the child’s experiences during these phases determine grownup personality features. In fact. Freud believed that for all practical intents. the grownup personality is formed by the terminal of the 5th twelvemonth of life ( Hergenhahn. 40 ) .

The psychosexual theory. Freud believed. is made up of five chief parts: Oral. Anal. Phallic. Latency. and Genital. During each of these five phases. a individual is said to hold a specific erogenous country. which is the organic structure portion that is the beginning of pleasance. If a kid is either over gratified or under gratified during the phase they are in. they so develop a certain arrested development. A arrested development is identified as the point to which an grownup reasoning backwards under emphasis. A arrested development is more likely to happen during the first three phases.

It is the libido which undergoes a procedure of historical development in each homo from babyhood through adolescence to adulthood in a series of “plateaus” which Freud called Psychosexual Stages of Development. But merely what happens to the libido as it passes through the assorted phases of psychosexual development led Freud to a more generalised theory of the Neuroses. and to his first distinct avowal of the doctrine of Dualism ( Pasotti. 46 ) . a. Oral The unwritten phase was said to happen between birth and about twelve to 18 months. The erogenous country during this phase is the oral cavity.

At this point. the baby is pure Idaho that merely has two simple frights: falling and forsaking. They are dependent on other people to carry through their pleasance. This first phase can be broken down into two phases: Oral Incorporative and Oral Sadistic. The Oral Incorporative phase occurs during the first six months of life. The Id experiences pleasance by sucking. savoring. get downing. and acquiring a full tummy. It is important that the kid experiences adequate pleasance without going frustrated. If the kid gets anxiousness without acquiring pleasance. it will so fixate here since it has non received adequate pleasance.

This can be witnessed in grownups who are tobacco users and those who are in changeless demand of liquids. The Oral Sadistic phase occurs during the last five to six months of the unwritten phase. The Id now experiences its pleasance through mastication. It besides doesn’t like to see hurting. This is why babies like teething rings. so that they can seize with teeth down on them to diminish the hurting they are experiencing. It besides gets pleasance at gnawing on whatever it can. Those who are fixated here are frequently seen masticating on either pen caps. toothpicks. and their nails. b. Anal The anal phase was said to happen between 12 to 18 months until three old ages.

It experiences pleasance through the impulse and feeling of necessitating to travel to the bathroom. For them it is every bit close to experiencing back in the uterus as anything else. During this phase is when a individual has their first brush with the Superego. This occurs when the parents say that you are no longer allowed to travel to the bathroom in your nappies. Some parents tend to acquire enamored developing done rapidly and excessively early. These parents normally ridicule their kid if they are unable to acquire it right and are frequently excessively stiff. Other parents can besides be truly relaxed when it comes to developing their kids and it occurs excessively late and with small control.

There are two possible results if a kid becomes fixated during the anal phase of development. The anal-retentive personality is the arrested development of the kids whose parents were excessively rigorous during their enamored preparation. These people have the changeless demand for control ; they must hold everything under control. organized. in order. and pay inordinate attending to detail. The opposite arrested development consequences in an anal-expulsive personality. as a consequence of their parents being excessively relaxed with their enamored preparation. These people have a deficiency of ego control. and normally tend to be mussy and careless.

A good illustration of these antonyms can be seen when you watch the telecasting demo The Odd Couple. Felix would be the illustration of the anal-retentive personality. while Oscar is the illustration of a individual who has an anal-expulsive personality. c. Phallic The phallic phase occurs between three to either five or six old ages of age. The pleasance during this phase is an emotional sexual reaction. which occurs through the fond regard to the parent of the opposite sex. For male child during this phase it is referred to as the Oedipal phase. For misss during this phase it is referred to as the Electra composite.

During the Oedipal phase. the boys show sexual emotional fond regard with their female parents that consequence in them to go immune to their male parents. During the Electra composite. misss show sexual emotional fond regard toward their male parents that consequence in them to experience resentment towards their female parents. who are accused of robbing them of their clip with their male parents. Freud thought this to be a natural procedure. This lays the foundation for how they will work with the opposite sex down the route. Fixation occurs when the male childs feel that they are non near plenty to the female parent. which cause problem with adult females subsequently.

If the female parent had avoided him he will experience that all adult females will avoid him. However. if the female parent is excessively attached the male child will experience that no other adult female can compare to her. Arrested development in misss occurs when they are non near plenty to the male parent. ensuing in problem swearing work forces subsequently if her male parent avoided her. If the male parent is excessively close. nevertheless. the miss will get married person who is like her male parent. but doesn’t comparison to him. Boys suffer a emasculation anxiousness. where the boy believes his male parent knows about his desire for his female parent and hence frights his male parent will emasculate him.

He therefore represses his desire and defensively identifies with his male parent. Girls suffer a phallus enviousness. where the girl is ab initio attached to her female parent. but so a displacement of attachment occurs when she realizes she lacks a phallus. She desires her male parent whom she sees as a means to obtain a phallus replacement ( a kid ) . She so represses her desire for her male parent and incorporates the values of her female parent and accepts her built-in ‘inferiority’ in society. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //changingminds. org/explanations/learning/freud_stage. htm ) d. Latency This phase occurs between the ages of six and twelve old ages of age.

During this phase sexual feelings are repressed and are substituted with other activities. This is the clip where the male childs become close friends with their male parents and when the misss become closer with their female parents. During this phase. Freud said. is when they are larning how they should move when they become an grownup. e. Genital This phase begins at pubescence. around the age of 12. and continues throughout the remainder of life. Around the age of 12 the generative variety meats will complete developing. The kid grows out of their selfish. pleasure-seeking demands and becomes a realistic grownup that is a portion of society.

IV. Dream Analysis Dream analysis. which Freud talked about in his book The Interpretation of Dreams. is what most people believe to be his most of import part. Harmonizing to him. a dream is caused when the events of the twenty-four hours trip unacceptable urges in the unconscious head. doing them to seek witting look. The two most of import types of dream work are condensation and supplanting. Condensation occurs when a dream component represents several thoughts at the same clip. for illustration one individual in a dream can stand for multiple people in the dreamer’s waking life.

Displacement occurs when an unacceptable dream-thought is replaced by a idea that is symbolically tantamount but is considered more acceptable. By general consensus “The Interpretation of Dreams” was Freud’s major work. the one by which his name will likely be longest remembered. Freud’s ain sentiment would look to hold agreed with this judgement. As he wrote in his foreword to the 3rd English edition. “Insight such as this falls to one’s batch but one time in a life-time.

” It was a perfect illustration of serendipity. for the find of what dreams mean was made rather incidentally–one might about state accidentally–when Freud was engaged in researching the significance of the neuroticisms ( Jones. 350 ) V. Conclusion Today. Freud’s method is merely one among many types of psychotherapeutics used in psychopathology. Many expostulations have been leveled against traditional depth psychology. both for its methodological rigidness and for its deficiency of theoretical asperity. A figure of modern psychologists have pointed out that traditional depth psychology relies excessively much on ambiguities for its informations. such as dreams and free associations.

Without empirical grounds. Freudian theories frequently seem weak. and finally fail to originate criterions for intervention ( Columbia Encyclopedia. “Psychoanalysis” ) . VI.

Plants cited

Books • Hergenhahn. B. R. An Introduction to Theories of Personality. Seventh Edition. Upper Saddle Ridge. New Jersey: Prentice Hall 2007. • Jones. Ernest. “The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud: The Formative Years and the Great Discoveries. ” 1856-1900 Vol. 1. 1953. • Pasotti. Robert N. The Major Works of Sigmund Freud: A Critical Commentary. New York. New York: Monarch Press 1974.

Journals/Magazines • Putnam. James J. “The theories of Freud. Jung and Adler: 1. The work of Sigmund Freud. ” Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. 12. Issue 3. August 1917. pp. 145-160 • Renterghem. A. W. Van. “Freud and his school: New waies of psychological science. ” Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. 9. Issue: 6. February 1915. pp. 369-384 Encyclopedias • Encarta. “Sigmund Freud. ” 2007. • The Columbia Encyclopedia. “Psychoanalysis. ” 2007. Internet • hypertext transfer protocol: //changingminds. org/explanations/learning/freud_stage. htm • hypertext transfer protocol: //www. iep. utm. edu/f/freud. htm

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