Social entrepreneurship is an application of entrepreneurial enterprises in the societal domain. It witnesses the persons with advanced solutions to society ‘s most pressing societal jobs who are called as societal enterprisers. Social entrepreneurship is at the early phase, short of conceptual lucidity, theory and definition but with a high spirit of inspiration, motive and passion. The challenge of academe is to put a tendency to raise more consciousness, support and engagement. This paper examines the function of a new type of histrion that has late emerged as a societal enterpriser, who tackles societal and ecological jobs with entrepreneurial agencies. This paper provides groundss through exemplifying instances of societal enterprisers from India and attempts to construct lucidity on the construct of societal entrepreneurship and excite farther enquiry. The article follows a measure in this way.


Social entrepreneurship is turning quickly and acquiring much required attending from all sectors. Now media started concentrating on societal entrepreneurship and its impact. Social entrepreneurship is become an added content along with concern entrepreneurship in the Universities and colleges curriculum to chiefly sensitise the immature coevals with schemes of several outstanding societal enterprisers and societal organisations. The grounds behind this increasing attending to societal entrepreneurship are plentifulness. The most appealing ground is the inspiration that one gets by reading the narratives of why and how they do and what they do and how they win against all the challenges at making new values for the society and bettering the lives of people dramatically through their services. Nichols, A. , 2007 Social entrepreneurship entails inventions designed to explicitly better societal good being, housed within entrepreneurial organisations which initiate, guide or contribute to alter in society. Social entrepreneurship is emerged as an application of heads and activities embedded with societal motivation. The concern entrepreneurship aims at wealth creative activity and economic development but the societal entrepreneurship focuses on creative activity of societal goodness and doing the universe better topographic point for life in harmoniousness.


A modest attempt to lend to the societal entrepreneurship landscape, this paper aims to carry through the undermentioned aims:

To follow an academic positions on societal entrepreneurship.

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To supply instance surveies to understand the societal entrepreneurship from practician position.

To propose ways to propagate more of societal entrepreneurship for creative activity of societal values.


This paper is structured as follows. First, reappraisal of literature on constructs made available to derive conceptual lucidity from academic position. Following, It discusses the history of societal entrepreneurship in India and content analysis of identified instances is provided for understanding the societal entrepreneurship from societal enterpriser position. Finally, the narratives featured in this paper showcase the work of societal enterprisers whose inventions are brining life changing tools and resources to people in developing the universe. The instances featured in this paper are awardees of the societal enterpriser of the twelvemonth of India 2012, 2011 and 2010 severally from The Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship, a sister organisation of the World Economic Forum. The paper is concluded with how it is possible for person to emerge as societal enterpriser with never-say-die will to present an advanced thought coupled with a scheme for action that adds societal value.

Historical background:

India has a rich tradition in continuing moral values in peculiar in footings of acknowledging one ‘s responsibility towards the others/ society. Chakraborty ( 1987 ) , for case, found that the orientation of ‘giving ‘ and the demand to carry through one ‘s responsibility towards the society ( as opposed to carry throughing single demands ) is deep-seated in Indian societal values and individuality.

Similarly, McClelland ( 1975 ) found that Indians have a societal accomplishment motive, which is characterized by a desire for lending to the corporate wellbeing and accomplishment of super-ordinate ends. Historically excessively, these values have influenced India ‘s rich history of societal action, volunteerism and philanthropic gift. This fact is besides manifested by the history of legal position of voluntary sector organisations in India. As long back as in the nineteenth century, the so authorities of India had enacted two separate Acts of the Apostless – the Societies Registration Act, 1860 and the Indian Trusts Act, 1882 – which were aimed to modulate and to supply legal position to not-for-profit entities which existed for the benefit of the society

Indian Independence Movement, led by our male parent of state Mahatma Gandhi and others had the vision of societal transmutation and it was non merely a battle for political freedom. The whole motion was on making an sceptered society. It influenced non merely a big figure of industrialists of the clip but besides became a steering rule of many big societal ventures in the post-independence India.

Even after India gained independency in 1947, the thought of developing an sceptered society was carried frontward by many societal minds, like Vinoba Bhave, Baba Amte, Jai Prakash Narain and others influenced many young person to fall in the development/social sector.A

In the early old ages of independency excessively, the developmental policies of authorities of India envisaged and invited engagement of non-governmental organisations and voluntary bureaus to back up the state-sponsored plans through its Central Social Welfare Board, National Community Development Program, National Extension Service, etc. The Government of India recognized the function and importance of the voluntary non-governmental organisations on household public assistance, wellness and instruction hence high degree of precedence and importance shown in the five twelvemonth programs clip to clip. India has witnessed great parts of societal enterprisers in the recent yesteryear in taking the state to greater highs with important societal value creative activity. Recently, the discourse on societal entrepreneurship has been fuelled by a figure of high profile concern enterprisers who have turned their attending to societal causes.

Academic position of Social Entrepreneurship:

The undermentioned literary reappraisal on Social Entrepreneur and Social Entrepreneurship would give a conceptual lucidity on this freshly emerging field. For illustration, Drucker ( 1985 ) suggested that “ the enterpriser ever hunts for alteration, responds to it, and exploits it as an chance ” regardless of whether that chance is commercial or societal in nature. Often, nevertheless, the focal point in “ entrepreneurship ” surveies is on merely “ for net income ” activities while the term “ societal entrepreneurship ” has focused chiefly on activities with societal intents. In recent old ages, the term “ societal entrepreneurship ” has emerged to depict the application of entrepreneurial activities with an embedded societal intent.

Dees, J. G. , 2001, Social entrepreneurs play the function of alteration agents in the societal sector, by: Adopting a mission to make and prolong societal value ( non merely private value ) ; Acknowledging and unrelentingly prosecuting new chances to function that mission ; Engaging in a procedure of uninterrupted invention, version, and larning Acting boldly without being limited by resources presently in manus ; Exhibiting heightened answerability to the constituencies served and for the results created.

Thompson, 2002, Peoples with the qualities and behaviours we associate with the concern enterpriser but who operate in the community and are more concerned with lovingness and assisting than “ doing money ‘ . ”

Austin, J. , Stephenson, H. , & A ; Wei-Skillern, J. , 2006, Social entrepreneurship is an advanced, societal value-creating activity that can happen within or across the non-profit, concerns or authorities sectors.

Mair, J. & A ; Marti, I. , 2006 Social entrepreneurship: Advanced theoretical accounts of supplying merchandises and services that cater to basic demands ( rights ) that remain unsated by political or economic establishments.

A societal enterpriser identifies and attempts to work out societal jobs with advanced solutions on a big graduated table. As concern enterprisers employ capital, forming assorted factors of production by taking important hazard to make new ventures and transform whole industries, societal enterprisers act as the alteration agents for society. They seize chances that others miss in order to better, invent and circulate new attacks and progress sustainable solutions that solve the society ‘s most urgent societal jobs. This inaugural creates a societal value instead merely net income as the traditional concern enterprisers seeks to accomplish.

The occupation of a societal enterpriser is to acknowledge when a portion of a society is stuck and to supply new ways to acquire it unstuck. He or she finds what is non working and solves the job by altering the system, distributing the solution and carrying full societies to take new springs. Identifying and work outing big scale societal jobs require a committed individual with a vision and finding to prevail in the face of dashing odds. Ultimately, societal enterprisers are driven to bring forth mensurable impact by opening up new tracts for the marginalized and disadvantaged, and unlocking society ‘s full potency to consequence societal alteration.

From the above reappraisal it is animating to observe that a societal enterpriser

Has advanced solution to the most urgent societal issues ;

Acts as the societal alteration agent

Assures and sustains the societal return on public service attempts

Dreams up and takes duty for advanced thoughts for positive societal alteration.

These words are non merely animating but do us to understand in simplest signifier that societal entrepreneurship is an effort to carry through a societal demand by get downing a new enterprise.

Inspiring new ways to work out jobs:

Anshu Gupta of Goonj: Clothing for Development

Based in New Delhi, Goonj had demonstrated that ‘cloth ‘ can be a powerful development resource for India ‘s last-mile communities. Goonj collects, kinds, repurposes and redistributes the extra and under-used resources of urban families to the rural and urban hapless, where ‘material poorness ‘ is the deepest. Village and slum communities, in exchange of fabric and stuff, conduct self-organized local development and substructure edifice plans, taking to more than 500 substructure undertakings every twelvemonth – such as the puting up of schools, concrete roads, Bridgess, Wellss, irrigation canals and lavatories across 1500 villages.A Goonj ‘s ‘Cloth for Work ‘ attack spurs behavior alteration on both the demand and supply sides: fringy communities begin to believe in their ain capacity for catalysing alteration and urban India learns to lend ( instead than dispense ) stuff, based on what the hapless demand.

Every twelvemonth, Goonj collects, reproduces and conveyances 1,000 metric tons of stuffs to extremist hapless communities in 21 provinces through a country-wide web of 250 grassroots NGOs, 200 engaged concern houses, 200 schools and 500+ voluntaries. Its large-scale, ‘last-mile ‘ webs have made Goonj, the most efficient channel for large-scale catastrophe rehabilitation in the state. Through its non-monetary and non-market theoretical account, Goonj is therefore making ‘cloth and material rich ‘ communities where the meager resources of hapless households can be freed up for pressing outgo ( instead than for the purchase of fabric ) , small town and slum substructure activities can be independent of finance/funding, and a virtuous rhythm of self-respect, empathy and mutuality is revved up between flush and marginalized India.

Neelam Chhiber of Industree Crafts

Industree three-base hits incomes of fringy craftsmans by traveling them from being ‘piece rate workers ‘ to proprietors and enterprisers of grassroots community enterprises. It works both at the production and market terminals of complex supply ironss and has impacted more than 10,000 craftsmans populating below the poorness line, by seting them in charge of their ain endeavors. At the manufacturer ‘s terminal, Industree incubates community endeavors and common production entities that are jointly owned by craftsmans and local enterprisers ( typically unemployed or under employed young person ) . At the market terminal, Industree ‘s multi-retail trade name, Mother Earth, and aggressive gross revenues force, set up with investing from the Future Group, offers the new producer- enterpriser with a direct market platform to the Indian retail market, guaranting steady concern of high volumes and smooth hard currency flows, year-on-year. For every 100 Indian rupees of gross addition for Industree, manufacturer incomes increase by 58 Indian rupees. As a consequence, community endeavors incubated by Industree, and owned by artisanal communities, interrupt even within their first twelvemonth of operation. In add-on, 13 % of the trade name Value of Mother Earth has been locked into a MBT for craftsmans to buy at par. As of August 2011, Industree has incubated 13 SHG-based community-owned endeavors and common production units in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, and straight impacted more than 10,000 fringy manufacturers and their households, of which 61 % unrecorded below the poorness line, gaining less than one US dollar a twenty-four hours. Industree besides trains and beginnings merchandises from 400 crafts-based collectives and SHGs in 10 Indian provinces, opening up the Mother Earth trade name and market platform for them. In 5 old ages, Neelam Chibber and her squad purpose to straight impact more than 50,000 single craftsmans by incubating their endeavors and easing their variegation into newer merchandises, trade names and markets, beyond those offered by Mother Earth.

Rajiv Khandelwal and Krishnavtar Sharma: Aajeevika Bureau

Co-founded by Rajiv Khandelwal and Krishnavtar Sharma in 2004, Aajeevika Bureau is headquartered in Udaipur, with offices in Ahmadabad, Jaipur and seven blocks of southern Rajasthan, where, every twelvemonth, an estimated 800,000 rural workers migrate seasonally to Gujarat and Karnataka. All of Aajeevika Bureau ‘s clients are unskilled and semi-skilled work forces and adult females with one-year household incomes of less than INR 36,000. They are typically unviable for ego aid group or microfinance loans due to their migratory position and deficiency of assets. Aajeevika Bureau offers rural seasonal migrators photo individuality and fiscal services, accomplishments preparation, and partnerships with local authoritiess and concerns, largely at their finish points in urban markets. Over five old ages, more than 50,000 ultra-poor seasonal migrators have straight accessed the Bureau ‘s services, registering 50-80 % growing in their incomes every bit good as increased citizenship entitlements. Additionally, Aajeevika ‘s theoretical account has been replicated by more than 30 civil society organisations in Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.A


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