A type of democracy in which the people direct the day-to-day affairs of the government. 6. How is a representative democracy different from a direct democracy? A type of democracy in which the people select representatives to direct the day-to- day affairs of the government on their behalf. 7. What is a constitutional monarchy? A form of government headed by a king or queen who is subject to the law. 8. Should Canada have a monarch? Explain. Opinion. 9. List the three main parts of Canada’s constitution. A description of the powers of the provincial and national legislatures as well as their arts and authority.

A Charter of Rights and Freedoms that outlines the rights and basic responsibilities of all citizens. A method for changing the Constitution. 10. Complete the following chart. Federal Responsibilities Shared Responsibilities Provincial Responsibilities National defense Immigration Education Foreign policy Agriculture Charities Aboriginal affairs Health care Health services and hospitals Postal services Natural resources Licenses Banking system Environmental issues Highways Marriage and divorce law Provincial Court system Criminal law Provincial police and prisons Federal prisons 1 .

Why is a constitution necessary for a complex organization? Varied. 12. What shared ideas or values hold our country together? 13. What issues separate regions or provinces and pull our country apart? Opinion. 14. Our government is divided into three branches. Identify each. Legislative executive judicial 15. What does our splitting our government into three branches say about our view of leadership and decision making? Opinion – tries to keep each balanced by the others 16. What is a federal system of government?

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A form of government with regional governments dealing with local issues and a entrap or national government deals with issues of concern to all regions. 17. What are municipal governments? The governments of towns and cities. 18. Who decides what form municipal governments will take? The provinces. The Federal Government 19. How often must the Federal Parliament meet? Once a year. 20. What is the purpose of the question period? It gives the opposition a chance to raise issues with the government. 21 . How often must the federal parliament hold elections? At least every 5 years. 22. What is a constituency?

An area with a population of approximately 100,000 people; it elects a representative o be a Member of Parliament. 23. How many people live in a typical constituency? 100,000 24. How many seats or members of parliament were there in 2001? 2000 – 301 with 178 from Quebec and Ontario; 282 in 1986. 25. Describe the speaker’s two main roles in parliament. Controls debates in the House of Commons or a provincial legislature. Impartially applies the House’s rules to all members. 26. What qualities does the Speaker need in order to do a good Job? Opinions – should center on fair and impartial. 7. What is the role of the opposition in Parliament? To scrutinize the actions of the government. 8. What is the role of a party caucus? It is a private meeting of a party’s MSP that allows free discussion of concerns and expressions of opinions, where a party leaders explain their positions to supporters. 29. What are the requirements for becoming a Senator? Be a Canadian citizen; 30 years of age; own $4000 of property. 30. How does someone become a Senator? Appointed by the Governor General based on recommendations of the Prime Minister. 31 . What is the role of the Senate?

Provides a final check on the House of Commons; may also introduce its own isolation; provides a forum for the debate of regional issues; may investigate issues that the House of Commons will not or cannot deal with. 32. Explain why you believe Canada should or should not have a Senate. Opinion. 33. Describe the role of the Governor General. Gives formal assent to all bills before they become law; acts as an advisor to the government on constitutional issues. 34. How is the Prime Minister chosen? The Governor General asks the leader of the largest party in the House of Commons to form a government. 35.

Tell what the Prime Minister does in his role as head of government. Asks the Governor General to name new Judges and Senators. Decides on the best time to ask the G to hold an election. Chooses cabinet ministers. Has the final say in the policies of the government. 36. Tell what the Prime Minister does in his role as national leader. Addresses Canadians on issues of national concern and explains the goals of his party and government. Represents Canada with other nations and at international meetings. Works with the Premiers to coordinate or share responsibilities. 37. Tell what the Prime Minister does in his role as party leader.

Acts as spokesperson for his party. Gives out patronage appointments. Leads his MSP in Parliament. 38. How are cabinet ministers chosen? They are MSP selected for cabinet roles by the PM. 39. What are the characteristics of an ideal cabinet? Reflects the cultural, linguistic and social diversity of Canada; reflects both genders and each region and the major ethnic groups. 40. Why is it important that Cabinet represent all regions and groups in Canada? Opinion. 41 . What is the role of a cabinet minister? Responsible for his department’s efficient and effective operation and budget; represents the department in Parliament and to the public. 2. What is the role of a party whip? To ensure the MSP of a party are present to vote and support the party position in Parliament; to discipline MSP who speak out against party policy. 43. Describe the roles of civil servants. Permanent employees of the government who perform the on-going functions of government; senior civil servants advise ministers and help draft new laws. 44. Complete the following chart that outlines how a law is created. Cabinet minister has an idea for a bill. 1. Idea is explained to cabinet 2. Cabinet approves the idea 4. Cabinet examines the draft bill 3. Lawyers draft the bill 5. Binge and caucus approve the bill 6. Bill introduced in the house for 1st reading 8. House debates and approves the bill in principle 7. Second reading 9. A Parliamentary Committee examines the bill in more detail 10. The House has an opportunity to amend the bill 12. House passes the bill 11. 3rd reading – debate and vote 13. Senate examines, debates and amends the bill 14. Bill passes the Senate Governor General gives formal assent; bill is now law. 45. At which stage does the public have input into the proposed law? At the committee stages and through letter to the editor, e-mails etc. O MSP, radio talk wows, protests or demonstration. 46. Why do you think there is such a lengthy process for making a law? Opinion. 47. Why do you think private members are rarely successful in introducing and having a new law passed? Opinion. Provincial and Territorial Governments 48. List four areas for which Provincial governments are responsible. Education environment health care social welfare transportation. 49. How to Provincial governments and the Federal government solve disputes over which has control over things such as the environment or taxes? Varied – may include negotiation, reference of a dispute to the Supreme Court.

Local Governments 50. What is the head of a town council or municipal government called? Mayor, reeve, chairperson, overseer, warden 51 . What names are given to other elected members of the municipal government? Councilors, loudspeakers, controllers 52. What is the role of a council? They represent their own ward or an area of the municipality. 53. What is the role of the municipality and its various departments? To provide basic services such as firefighting, police, road maintenance, sewers, water, parks becoming increasingly involved in social services and housing. 54. What is the role of a mayor?

Leader of the town council. 55. Why might municipal governments been given so little power when Canada was established and only one in ten Canadians lived in a city? Varied. 56. How is this a problem today when over 70% of Canadians live in cities? Varied – may include: cities such as Toronto and Vancouver have more people than some provinces and feel they should have more powers to service their areas of responsibility. 57. How are aboriginal band councils different from municipal councils? Have more dealings with premiers and federal cabinet ministers than most mayors and councilors.

The Citizen and Government unit 2-10 35 Resource: Counterpoints: Exploring Canadian Issues, Chapter 10 Choosing the Government 1 . Who can vote in Canadian elections? Citizens aged 18 or more. 2. When must provincial and federal elections be held? At least every five years (4 in BC) on dates determined by the premier or prime minister. 3. When are local or municipal elections held? Varies from 2 to 3 years, usually on fixed dates. 4. When might a Prime Minister or Premier call an election? Usually toward the end of a term when the PM thinks his government is most popular or earlier if needed to confirm the publics support. 5.

Who has to approve this session? The governor or lieutenant governor. 6. What is the role of volunteers in an election? They support a candidate in the election by doing much of the work. 7. Why are election campaign expenses limited by law? To prevent a party with lots of resources from launching a massive campaign against candidates with fewer resources; to keep the “playing field level”. 8. Why must contributions or more than $200. 00 per year to a political party be made public? To hold the parties accountable for the money they receive; to prevent large supporters from having secret influence over candidates or parties. Why must candidates in an election pay a deposit that is only returned when they submit their list of election expenses? To ensure openness with respect to funding etc. 10. What do you think about the fact that candidates who win more than 15% of the votes in an election being reimbursed for 50% of their expenses? Opinion. 11. What are public opinion polls? A survey of a cross section of Canadians to give information about what they think and how they may act. 12. How are the results of these polls used in elections? To predict what voters will do; to help shape a party’s activities to garner the axiom public support. 3. Should the publication of opinion polls be allowed during elections? Explain. Opinion. 14. What is a polling station? The place where people cast their vote; usually a church or school. The Electoral System 15. Why do some people object to the first-past the post method of electing candidates? They say it does not necessarily reflect the wishes of a large number of voters. 16. Describe the advantages of proportional representation as a method for selecting candidates. More political views are represented. 17. What are some of the potential drawbacks of proportional representation?

Those elected do not always represent a specific area; often results in unstable minority governments. Political Parties 18. What is an ideology? A shared set of beliefs. 19. What ideologies are supported by left wing parties? Make changes to improve the life of citizens; government should play a larger role in providing services. 20. What ideologies are supported by right-wing parties? Changes should be treated with caution; government should have the smallest possible role; law and order is essential to protect society and its traditions. 21 . What ideologies are supported by a centrist party?

Tradition is important but necessary changes are k; government should play a role only when it improves the lives of citizens; law and order is important to encourage and protect the rights of citizens. 22. What are the current parties active in federal politics? AND, Liberals, Conservative, Bloc Quebec. 23. What parties are active in BC politics? Liberal, AND, Green Party. 24. Why do people Join a political party? To improve the quality of life in a community, region or nation; they believe strongly in an ideology or a party goals; attracted by power and influence. 25.

Why do non- overstatement organizations attract some people more than a political party might? Varied – perhaps because they have a narrower or single focus which appeals more to an individual. Influencing Government and Role of the Mass media 26. List several pressure groups and what cause they promote. Varied – see examples in figure 10-14 on p. 259 of the text. 27. What is the role of a lobbyist in putting pressure on the government? Varied – know “who” to contact to influence decisions; paid to promote a point of view; are often former government employees. 28. Some people are concerned that the ownership of the media (e. . TV, newspapers, radio) is concentrated in the hands off few people. How could this affect the workings of government? Varied. Civil Disobedience 29. List the three principles of civil disobedience. Should not involve violence. Must be directed against laws that are seriously harmful. Requires taking responsibility for one’s actions – a willingness to face punishment shows the strength of one’s beliefs. 30. Why did Henry Thoreau develop this concept? He felt that the actions of the majority did not necessarily equate to “rightness”, Just their numbers; he felt that citizens were obligated to oppose unjust government actions. 1 . (Research and) describe how Mohammad Gandhi used civil disobedience in India. Varied. 32. (Research and) describe how Martin Luther King used civil disobedience in the United States. Varied. 33. When did men such as King and Gandhi believe it was proper to use civil disobedience? Varied. 34. In May 2005 a person protesting how courts decide issues of custody and financial support in cases of marriage breakdown in favor of women secretly released 200 crickets as a protest. Explain why this would / would not be a valid instance of civil disobedience according to King and Gandhi. Opinion. 35.

Describe the Colloquia Sound protest of 1993 and discuss how it was a good/bad example of civil disobedience. Varied. Canada’s Legal system unit 2-11 / 46 Resource: Counterpoints: Exploring Canadian Issues, Chapter 1 1 1. What is the purpose of law? Varied. The Rule of Law 2. What does the term rule of law mean? Where all people are subject to the law – with no exceptions. 3. What does the Magna Cart symbolize? The guarantee of the rights of citizens (to trial by Jury and habeas corpus). 4. What is the role of the Constitution of Canada in our legal system? It defines and limits the legal powers of law makers. 5.

What is the purpose of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms in our legal system? It protects citizens’ freedoms and guarantees their democratic, mobility, legal, equality and language rights. The Main Categories of Law 6. What is the difference between civil and criminal law? Civil law deals with relationships between individuals or groups; criminal law deals with matters that affect society as a whole. 7. List three areas covered by civil law: Contracts. Property. Personal relationships. 8. What was the Endured versus McClellan case about? A dispute over who wrote a song and who had a right to the proceeds of the song. Why does only the federal government make criminal laws? 10. Identify and describe the three basic elements of criminal law in Canada. Presumption of innocence. Need to prove the defendant committed an illegal act. Show that the accused intended to commit an illegal act. 11. What is the basis of English Canada’s common law? Decisions of Judges in England’s royal courts. 12. What is the basis of statutory law? Acts of Parliament. 13. How is civil law in Quebec different from that of English Canada? It is based on French traditions of “Roman LaW’ in which all laws are codified in a single book which is used as a guide.

The Charter of Rights and Freedoms 14. List the three legal rights protected by section 7 to 14 of the Charter that you think are the most important. Explain your choices. Varied opinions based on figure 11-7 on page 276 in the text. 15. Why was the appeal of the Regina versus Sakes case successful? The Charter states that a defendant is innocent until proven guilty – the Narcotics Act forced Sakes to prove his innocence instead of the prosecution proving his guilt. 16. In what areas have the powers of the police been restricted since the introduction of the Charter?

The right to know the reasons for arrest; to eve a Judge decide if one is being legally detained; to contact a lawyer; to speedy trial. 17. What is your response to those who argue that these restrictions interfere with the ability of law enforcement officers to carry out their duty? Varied. The Court System 18. What type of cases are held in PC’s Supreme Court? Civil and criminal Jury and non-Jury cases. 19. What type of cases are held in PC’s Provincial Courts? Criminal, family youth, traffic and by-law matters as well as small claims. 20. Why is it important that people convicted of an offence can appeal their conviction? Varied. 21 .

On what basis are appeals made? Usually that an error of law was made in the trial. 22. What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of a Jury trial? Opinion. 23. Why do you think Juries are rarely used for less serious crimes? Opinion. 24. What is the role of the Supreme Court of Canada? It decides constitutional issues; is the final appeal for criminal cases. 25. Why is it considered important that members of the Supreme Court of Canada come from each region of Canada? Varied – may include: to reflect regional issues and concerns. 26. Who is Beverly McLaughlin? She was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 2000. 7. What do Supreme Court of Canada Judges consider when they make their decisions? Whether or not a law applies too case. Whether or not there is a wrong that needs correcting. Whether or not changes in a law must be made. The Penal System 28. List five options a Judge has when sentencing a person convicted of a crime. Fines to the court. Restitution to the victim. Community service. Time in prison. Probation. 29. What is the longest sentence a Judge can impose? Life (25 years before eligible for parole). 30. What is a dangerous offender? A person convicted of serious crimes who shows no evidence of remorse. . What is the goal of our corrections system? To protect society; to rehabilitate offenders. 32. Define the term rehabilitation. A belief that inmates can be brought back to society as useful citizens by providing educational, vocational and counseling programs. 33. What aspects of our correctional system do some people criticize? It is felt by some that prisons are too comfortable and don’t punish offenders enough. 34. Explain why you think the correctional system should be easier or harder on people. Opinion. 35. What is the cost of keeping someone in Jail for a year? $60,000 per year. 36.


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