Sociology which is known as the scientific discipline of society. is one of the youngest every bit good as one of the oldest of the societal scientific disciplines. It is one of the youngest scientific disciplines because merely late it came to be established as a distinguishable subdivision of cognition with its ain distinguishable set of constructs and its ain methods of enquiry. Sociology is besides one of the oldest of the scientific disciplines. Since the morning of civilisation. society has been as a topic for guess and enquiry along with other phenomena which have agitated the restless and speculative head of adult male. Even centuries ago work forces were believing about society and it should be organized and held positions on adult male and his fate. the rise and autumn of the peoples and civilisations.

Though they were believing in sociological footings they were called philosophers. historiographers. minds. law-givers or visionaries. Therefore. “Broadly it may be said that sociology had a four crease beginning: in political doctrine. the doctrine of history. biological theories of development and motions for societal and political reforms. Though sociology came to be established as a separate subject in the nineteenth –century due to the attempts of the Gallic Philosopher Auguste Comte. It is incorrect to say that no societal idea existed before him. Four 1000s of old ages work forces have reflected upon societies in which they lived. In the Hagiographas of Plato. Aristotle. Manu. . Kautilya. Confucius. Cicero and others we find major efforts to cover methodically with the nature of Society Law. Religion. Philosophy. etc. Plato’s Republic. Aristotle’s Politics. Kautilya’s Arthashastra. Confucius Analets. Cicero’s ‘ On Justice” are some of the ancient beginnings of societal idea. However. sociology as an independent scientific discipline came to be established merely in the nineteenth century. The Establishing Fathers of Sociology:

Auguste Comte ( 1798-1857 )
Auguste Comte. the Gallic philosopher. is traditionally considered as the Father of Sociology. Comte who invented the term Sociology was the first adult male to separate the subject-matter of Sociology from all the other scientific disciplines. He worked out in a series of books. a general attack to the survey of society. Comte is regarded as the male parent of Sociology non because of any important parts to the scientific discipline as such. but because of the great influence he had upon it’ . It would be more appropriate to see him as a philosopher of scientific discipline instead than as a sociologist. Auguste Comte introduced the word sociology for the first clip in his celebrated work ‘Positive Doctrine At About 1839’ . The term “Sociology” is derived from the Latin word ‘Socius’ . intending comrade or associate. and the Grecian word ‘Logos’ . intending survey of scientific discipline. Thus the etymological significance of sociology is the phenomena topic to natural and invariable Torahs. the find of which is the object of probe. Auguste Comte devoted his chief attempts to an enquiry into the nature of human cognition and tried to sort all cognition and to analyze the methods of accomplishing it. He concentrated his attempts to find the nature of human and development. He besides laboured to ‘establish the methods to be employed in analyzing societal phenomena.

Auguste Comte believed that the scientific discipline follows one another in a definite and logical order and that all enquiry goes through certain phases. ( viz. the theological. the metaphysical and the positive or scientific or empirical ) . Finally they arrive at the last or scientific phase or as he called the positive phase. In the positive phase. nonsubjective observation is substituted for guess. Social phenomena like physical phenomena. he maintained. can be studied objectively by doing usage of the positive method. He thought that was clip for enquiries into societal jobs and societal phenomena ) enter into this last phase. So he recommended that the survey of society be called the scientific discipline of society. i. e. sociology. Comte proposed sociology to be studied in two chief parts: ( I ) the societal statics and ( two ) the societal kineticss. These two constructs represent a basic division in the capable affair of sociology. The societal statics trades with the major establishments of society such as household. economic system or civil order.

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Sociology is conceived of as the survey in interrelatedness between such establishments. In the words of Comte. “the statistical survey of sociology consists in the probes of Torahs of action and reaction of different parts of the societal system. He argued that the parts of society can non be studied individually. “as if they had an independent existence” . If statics examines how the parts of societies are interrelated societal kineticss focuses’ on whole societies as the unit of analysis and reveals-how they developed and changed through clip. “We must retrieve that the Torahs of societal kineticss are most recognizable when they relate to the largest societies” he said. Comte was convinced that all societies moved through certain fixed phases of development and that they. progressed towards of all time increasing flawlessness. He felt that the comparative survey of societies as a whole was a major topic for sociological analysis. His major workes are: ( I ) Positive doctrine and { two ) Positive civil order. Herbert Spencer ( 1820-1903 )

It was the Englishman Herbert Spencer. known as one of the most superb minds of modern times who contributed a great trade to the constitution of sociology. as a systematic subject. His three volumes of rules of sociology published in 1877 where the first systematic survey devoted chiefly to the sociological analysis. He was much more precise than Comte in stipulating the subjects of particular Fieldss of sociology. Harmonizing to Spencer. the Fieldss of sociology are mentioned in the sociological survey of associations. communities. the divisions of labor. societal distinction and stratification. the sociology of cognition and of scientific discipline and the survey of humanistic disciplines and aesthetics.

Herbert Spencer stressed on the duty of sociology to cover with interrelatednesss between the different elements. in his narrative to give an history of how the parts influence the whole and are in bend related upon. He insisted that sociology should take the whole society as its note for analysis. He maintained that the parts of society are non arranged unsystematically. The parts bore some changeless relation and this made society as such a meaningful” entity. a tantrum topic for scientific question. Herbert Spencer’s another part is his celebrated “Organic Analogy” in which society is compared with the human being. Spencer was influenced by the theory of organic development of his modern-day. Charles Darwin. Even L. F. Ward. Summer and Giddings who were extremely influenced by the being theory of society advocated by Spencer’s rules of sociology and the adult male versus the province. Emile Durkheim ( 1858-1917 )

Prof. Durkheim. the Gallic mind. like Spencer. considered societies as such to be of import units of sociological analysis. He stressed the importance of analyzing different types of society relatively. “Comparative sociology is non a peculiar subdivision of sociology. it is sociology itself” he maintained. In Durkheim’s theory ultimate societal world is the group. non the single societal life has to be analysed in footings of societal facts. Harmonizing to him. societal facts are nil but corporate ways of thought. feeling and moving which though coming from the single “constraint” or force per unit area on him.

These societal facts are the proper survey of sociology and to them all societal phenomena should be reduced. he opined. Further. each societal fact. he felt. must be related to a peculiar societal surroundings. to a definite type of society. ” Emile Durkheim besides mentioned assorted Fieldss of sociological question such as general sociology. sociology of faith. sociology of jurisprudence and ethical motives including subdivisions on political organisations. societal organisation. matrimony and household. The sociology of offense. economic sociology including sub-section on measuring of value and occupational groups. Demography including surveies on urban and rural communities. and sociology of Aesthetics. His major plants are—The division of labor in society. The regulations of sociological method. Suicide. The simple signifiers of the republic life and so on. Max Weber ( 1864-1920 )

Max Weber’s attack is about contrary to that of Durkheim. For Weber. the person is an unit of society. He opines that the determination of sociological Torahs is nil but a means to understand adult male. In his system sociological Torahs are “empirically established chances or statistically generalizations of the class of societal behavior of which an reading can be given in footings of typical motivations and purposes. Sociological method is a combination of inductive or statistical generalization with Verstchen ( understanding ) reading by assistance of an ideal type of behavior. that assumed to be rationally or purposefully determined. Weber devoted much of his attempts to elaborate a particular method of understanding for the survey of societal phenomena. He stressed the importance of keeping objectiveness and neutrality of value opinions in societal. scientific disciplines.

He wrote much on such subjects as faith. assorted facets of economic life. including money and division of labor. political parties and other signifiers of political administration and authorization. bureaucratism and other assortments of large- scale administration. category and caste. the metropolis and music. His influence on modern-day sociologists particularly those of analytical school is quickly increasing. His major plants are: Economicss and society. The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalist economy. The City and Bureaucracy and assorted others books and essays. These four initiation male parents “Comte. Spencer. Durkheim and Weber-it seems. agreed upon the proper capable affair of sociology. ( 1 ) First all of them urged the sociologists to analyze a broad scope of establishments from the household to the province. ( 2 ) Second. they agreed that a alone subject-matter for sociology is found in the inter-relations among different establishments. ( 3 ) Third they came to the common consensus on the sentiment that society as a whole can be taken as typical unit of sociological analysis. They assigned sociology the negotiations of explicating wherein and why societies are likewise or different. ( 4 ) Finally. they insisted that sociology should concentrate on societal Acts of the Apostless or societal relationship regardless of their institutional scene. This position was most clearly expressed by Weber.


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