Education is the social institution by which society provides people with important knowledge, including
a. job skills.
b. basic facts and information.
c. cultural norms and values.
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all
On which of the following continents do we find the most countries with high rates of illiteracy?
a. Africa
b. Europe
c. South America
d. North America
a. africa
Getting into college in Japan, compared to the United States, is more a matter of
a. athletic ability.
b. performance on achievement tests.
c. family ties.
d. being rich.
b. performance on achievement tests
In the United States today, about what percentage of the adult population has a high school diploma?
a. 48 percent
b. 68 percent
c. 88 percent
d. 98 percent
c. 88%
In the United States today, approximately what percentage of people over the age of twenty-five have earned a four-year college degree?
a. 31 percent
b. 51 percent
c. 75 percent
d. 90 percent
a. 31%
In the United States, the focus of education has always been
a. what is philosophical.
b. what is practical and job-related.
c. what is theoretical.
d. All of these responses are correct.
b. what is practical and job-related
The functions of schooling include
a. socializing the young.
b. cultural innovation.
c. helping to integrate a diverse society.
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all of these
Which of the following is a latent function of schooling?
a. ensuring some common culture
b. teaching about the U.S. way of life
c. providing child-care
d. teaching job skills
c. providing child care
Which of the following statements applies the symbolic-interaction approach to schooling?
a. If teachers think some category of students is superior, those same students may end up doing superior work.
b. Teachers convey specialized knowledge that children are not likely to learn at home.
c. Some categories of students are tracked into better classes than others.
d. Schools are intended for learning, but they also are places where many people meet their eventual partners.
a. if teachers think some category of students is superior those same students may end up doing superoior work
One result of tracking in schools is that
a. the brightest students get the worst teachers.
b. students do not get to study what they are interested in.
c. the students who get the best schooling are usually those who are more privileged to begin with.
d. students from disadvantaged backgrounds end up in higher tracks where they cannot do the work.
c.the students who get the best schooling are usually those who are more privileged to begin with
Jonathan Kozol criticizes the U.S. educational system for
a. focusing too much on students’ future careers.
b. making too little use of achievement tests.
c. unequal funding that makes some schools far better than others.
d. paying some teachers more than they are worth.
c.unequal funding that makes some schools far better than others
An example of the cultural capital advantage of well-to-do students in U.S. schooling is parents who
a. spend more time reading to their children.
b. value schooling and encourage their children.
c. encourage the development of imagination in their children.
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all
Comparing school performance, researchers have found that the most important cause of the achievement gap between rich and poor children is
a. differences in schools.
b. differences in home environments.
c. differences in personal ability.
d. differences in personal health.
b. differences in home environments
As income-level goes up among U.S. families, we find that
a. there is no difference in the share of children who attend college.
b. the share of children going to college goes down.
c. the share of children going to college goes up.
d. more women, but fewer men, go to college.
c. the share of children going to college goes up
Community colleges are an important part of higher education in the United States because they
a. enroll over 40 percent of all college students.
b. greatly expand the opportunity to attend college.
c. enroll almost half of African American and Hispanic undergraduates.
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all
Considering both African Americans and Hispanic Americans over the age of twenty-five,
a. women and men are equally likely to have completed four or more years of college.
b. men are more likely than women to have completed four or more years of college.
c. women are more likely than men to have completed four or more years of college.
d. both men and women are more likely to have completed four or more years of college than Non-Hispanic White Americans.
c. women are more likely than men to have completed four or more years of college
Which of the following correctly states the effect of additional schooling on average income?
a. Earning a high school diploma and a college degree do not change average income levels.
b. Earning a high school diploma does not affect income, but earning a college degree raises income.
c. Earning a high school diploma raises income, but earning a college degree does not affect income.
d. Earning a high school diploma and earning a college degree both raise income levels.
d. earning a high school diploma and earning a college degree does not affect income
According to Theodore Sizer, bureaucracy harms schooling by
a. imposing uniformity on culturally diverse schools.
b. emphasizing test scores and other numerical ratings.
c. expecting all students to progress at the same rate.
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all
Which of the following categories of the U.S. population has the highest dropout rate?
a. Asian Americans
b. African Americans
c. Hispanics
d. non-Hispanic whites
c. hispanics
Research suggests that the level of functional illiteracy in the United States is about what share of adults?
a. about 14 percent
b. about 34 percent
c. about 54 percent
d. about 74 percent
a. 14%
The problem of functional illiteracy means that
a. many young people leave school without having learned basic skills.
b. many older people have forgotten the lessons they learned in school.
c. a significant share of U.S. children never attend school.
d. many teachers in U.S. schools do not know how to teach.
a. many young people leave school without having learned basic skills
To improve U.S. schooling, A Nation at Risk recommended
a. requiring all students to complete several years of math, English, social studies, science, and computer science.
b. improving teacher training.
c. raising teachers’ salaries.
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all
. Magnet schools encourage
a. students to specialize in specific areas of study.
b. school busing for cultural diversity.
c. students to take control of their own learning.
d. students to complete their education in fewer years.
a. students to specialize in specific areas of study
Charter schools are
a. private schools that typically enroll high-income students.
b. public schools that have the freedom to try new programs and policies.
c. private schools that have a religious curriculum.
d. public schools that are run by private companies.
b. public schools that have the freedom to try new programsadd policies
Which of the following concepts refers to the practice of including people with disabilities in regular educational classes and programs?
a. tracking
b. mainstreaming
c. chartering
d. the magnet school policy
b. mainstreaming
Applying the sociological perspective, we see that the high rate of obesity in the United States reflects
a. bad personal choices people make about their lives.
b. cultural forces that encourage people to eat large amounts of unhealthy fast food.
c. our long history as a nation of people with poor health.
d. All of these responses are correct.
b. cultural forces that encourage people to eat large amounts of unhealthy fast food
Approximately what percentage of U.S. adults is overweight?
a. 24 percent
b. 44 percent
c. 64 percent
d. 84 percent
c. 84%
Society shapes human health because
a. cultural patterns define what is or is not healthy.
b. social inequality affects a population’s health.
c. society’s technology affects people’s health.
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all
In the world’s poorest nations today, life expectancy is as low as about
a. fifty years.
b. sixty years.
c. seventy years.
d. eighty years.
a. fifty years
According to the World Health Organization, about how many of the world’s people suffer from serious illness caused by poverty?
a. 1 million
b. 10 million
c. 1 billion
d. 10 billion
c. 1 billion
If you were to visit a low-income nation to study its high death rates, what would you find to be the most common causes of death?
a. cancer and heart disease
b. infectious diseases
c. accidents
d. old age
b. infectious diseases
Poor health in low-income nations reflects which of the following factors?
a. limited safe drinking water
b. limited access to medical personnel
c. the lack of a nutritious diet
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all
Which of the following diseases is the biggest killer in today’s high-income nations?
a. heart disease
b. influenza
c. pneumonia
d. cholera
a. heart disease
Today, more than a century after the onset of the Industrial Revolution, there has been an increase in the share of deaths caused by which of the following?
a. infectious diseases such as influenza and pneumonia
b. chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer
c. infant deaths immediately following birth
d. workplace related accidents
b. chronic diceases such as heart disease and cancer
Which of the following is an example of a chronic illness?
a. influenza
b. cancer
c. accidents
d. pneumonia
b. cancer
Social epidemiology is the study of
a. the biological basis of disease.
b. the availability of doctors around the world.
c. the age at which people die.
d. the distribution of health and illness in a population.
d. the distribution of health and illness in a population
Research shows that masculinity is linked to health because
a. our culture’s definition of masculinity encourages stress and heart disease.
b. men learn to be strong and avoid illness.
c. men avoid many of the lifestyle dangers common to women.
d. young men are less likely to be victims of homicide.
a. our cultures definition of masculinity encourages stress and heart disease
The greatest cause of death among young people in the United States today is which of the following?
a. cancer
b. stroke
c. accidents
d. kidney disease
c. accidents
In the United States, which of the following factors has a strong link to life expectancy?
a. race
b. gender
c. social class
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all
Which of the following statements about gender and health is correct?
a. Women have a higher suicide rate than men.
b. Men have fewer accidents than women.
c. Women generally have better health than men.
d. Women are more likely to be victims of homicide.
c. women generally have better health than men
In the United States, how does life expectancy of white people compare to that of black people?
a. It is about four years longer.
b. It is about the same.
c. It is about two years shorter.
d. It is about four years shorter.
a. it is about four years longer
Which of the following categories of the U.S. population has the highest life-expectancy?
a. white men
b. white women
c. African American men
d. African American women
b. white women
The greatest preventable cause of death in the United States is
a. sexually transmitted diseases.
b. automobile accidents.
c. cigarette smoking.
d. drinking alcohol.
c. cigarrette smoking
Which of the following categories of people in the United States is especially likely to smoke cigarettes?
a. married people
b. divorced people
c. people with college degrees
d. people in the labor force
b. divorced poeple
Research shows that college women believe
a. physical looks are less important than “what’s inside.”
b. being thin is key to being attractive.
c. they are thinner than men would like them to be.
d. All of these responses are correct.
b. being think is key to being attractive
In the United States, the most widespread health problem related to eating is which of the following?
a. anorexia
b. bulimia
c. obesity
d. malnutrition
c. obesity
In which region of the United States is the problem of obesity most widespread?
a. the West Coast
b. the Southwest
c. the South
d. the Northern Plains
c. the south
Which of the following is a factor contributing to widespread obesity in U.S. society?
a. fewer of today’s jobs involve the physical labor common in the past
b. more work around the house is done by machines
c. the typical diet involves both more food and more salty and fatty food
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all
Which sexually transmitted disease infects 25 million U.S. adults (about one in six)?
a. syphilis
b. genital herpes
c. gonorrhea
d. AIDS
b. genital herpes
An exception to the general decline of infectious diseases in the United States is the increase in ______ after 1960.
a. cancer
b. obesity
c. flu
d. sexually transmitted diseases
d. sexually transmitted deceased
Which of the following world regions is experiencing the most severe epidemic of AIDS?
a. Latin America
b. sub-Saharan Africa
c. the Middle East
d. eastern Asia
b. sub sahara
Upon infection, people with HIV
a. display obvious symptoms.
b. get very sick right away.
c. display no symptoms at all.
d. get mildly sick from time to time.
c. displays no symptoms at all
Which of the following is considered a behavior placing people at high risk of HIV infection?
a. anal sex
b. sharing needles
c. using drugs that impair judgment
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all
The concept of “euthanasia” refers to
a. assisting in the death of a person suffering from a terminal illness.
b. people’s legal “right to die.”
c. providing medical treatment to seriously ill people.
d. providing medical assistance to those who cannot afford it.
a. assisting in the death of a person suffering from a terminal illness
Which of the following statements about the “right to die” is true?
a. Voters in Oregon approved a physician-assisted suicide law.
b. The U.S. Supreme Court has stated that there is no “right to die.”
c. Physician-assisted suicide is legal in the Netherlands.
d. All of these responses are correct.
d. all
Holistic medicine asserts that
a. the most important task is treating symptoms of disease.
b. patients should rely on themselves—not just physicians—to ensure their health.
c. treatment of patients should be impersonal.
d. All of these responses are correct.
b. patients should rely on themselves not just physicians to ensure their health
In which of the following nations is almost all medical care under the control of government?
a. China
b. Great Britain
c. Japan
d. the United States
a. china
The concept “socialized medicine” refers to which of the following?
a. government insurance programs that pay for medical care
b. a medical system mostly owned and operated by the government
c. programs to improve health by giving people support groups
d. All of these responses are correct.
b. a medical system mostly owned and operated by the government
Which of the following is the most common way people in the United States pay for medical care?
a. private insurance programs
b. the government’s universal health care program
c. HMOs
d. Medicare and Medicaid
a. private insurance programs
In the United States, an important medical issue is
a. a surplus of nurses.
b. a shortage of nurses.
c. the fact that many hospitals are going bankrupt.
d. doctors making less and less money.
b. shortage of nurses
In his structural-functional analysis, Talcott Parsons claimed that society responds to illness by
a. punishing ill people.
b. withholding treatment to those who need it most.
c. using the “sick role” to relieve ill people of many daily responsibilities.
d. forcing people, sick or not, to perform important work.
c. using the sick role to relieve ill people of many daily responsibilities
From a social-conflict point of view, capitalism fails to support human health because
a. it does not encourage development of new medical techniques and technologies.
b. physicians have little financial incentive to work.
c. it makes quality of care dependent on income.
d. All of these responses are correct.
c. it makes quality of care dependent on income
Current research on human genetics promises to
a. not just treat disease, but stop it before it develops.
b. give people information about their future medical condition.
c. allow parents to assess the health profile of a future child.
d. All of these responses are correct.
d.all
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