Socrates Essay, Research Paper
Socrates was a Grecian philosopher who lived between 470-399 B.C. He turned Grecian attending toward inquiries of moralss and virtuousness and off from those of the celestial organic structures. Socrates spent much clip in the Agora ( market place ) where he held conversations with townsfolk. Socrates believed that existent truth could be found out through idea and coaction with others. He was known for exposing ignorance, lip service, and amour propre. Despite holding many followings, Socrates was disliked by most Athenians. At the age of 70, he was convicted of godlessness, lese majesty and corruptness of the immature. He was originally ordered to go forth Athens, but chose to imbibe toxicant alternatively. This great adult male valued the jurisprudence over his life, and so he chose to imbibe hemlock over go forthing. Socrates is best remembered for his bravery and strong moral beliefs which manifested themselves in his life style. Although Socrates did non brood much on the celestial organic structures, his beliefs that seeking could convey about apprehension of the universe and worlds in it laid a foundation that is still really much a portion of modern scientific discipline.
In the class of Western Civilization, there have been two tests stoping in a sentence of decease imposed upon two persons subsequently deemed grossly unjust and unfair by the finding of fact of history. One test was that of Jesus Christ, the other that of Socrates it was Jesus & # 8217 ; fate, and It was Socrates & # 8217 ; pick. Both philosophers and theologists, carry a political message, a message apt to rub the governing power construction & # 8217 ; s nose in its ain muss. Jesus defined and built a new moral order. All Socrates of all time accomplished was oppugning and examining the democratic beliefs of his twenty-four hours. He refused to specify proper behaviour and what should be done by authorities. Socrates did non construct anything or compose nil ; alternatively he endeavor to destruct the legitimacy of free work forces governing themselves, Both Christ and Socrates were killed at the orders of lesser work forces for what they said. The narrative of Jesus Christ and the universe in which he lived are good known. Now let us look at Socrates, the universe & # 8217 ; s first & # 8220 ; rational & # 8221 ; and the phase he acted upon.
Socrates was the town character. While a member of the in-between category, he was on good footings with Pericles, the opinion blue blood voted the first strategos ( general ) for over 30 old ages. Socrates, the perfect prig, surrounded himself with the aureate blue young person of Athens. But there is a bound to even the most patient of authoritiess. When a legitimate authorities is strong, it can afford to disregard pinpricks of ridicule. But after Athens lost her imperium by losing the Peloponnesian War and had undergone two oligarchic reigns of panic at the custodies of the gilded, Socratified rich childs, her forbearance with Socrates ended.
Socrates was charged in 399 B.C. with & # 8220 ; impiousness against the Gods of the metropolis & # 8221 ; and with & # 8220 ; perverting the young. & # 8221 ; He was guilty on all counts. Socrates & # 8217 ; basic premiss of authorities & # 8212 ; harmonizing to Xenophon & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; Memorabilia & # 8221 ; & # 8212 ; was & # 8220 ; that it is the concern of the swayer to give orders and of the ruled to obey. & # 8221 ; So the swayer should hold entire, unaccounted power. The 2nd charge against Socrates, that he had corrupted the young person of Athens, was even more damning. The first illustrations of the aureate young person he led astray was Alcibiades and Critias, although Socrates & # 8217 ; consequence on the rich immature blue dandies was already mentioned in Aristophanes & # 8217 ; & # 8220 ; The Birds, & # 8221 ; written in 414 B.C. , 15 old ages before he was called to history:
Why, boulder clay ye built this metropolis in the air, _____ line 1280
All work forces had gone Laconian-mad ; they went __ [ Spartan-mad ]
Long-haired, half-starved, common, Socratified,
With scytales in their custodies ; but Oh the alteration!
e all bird-mad now, and copy ____ line 1284
Alcibiades was Socrates & # 8217 ; favourite student. Socrates saved his life on a battleground. But the lesson Alcibiades learned from Socrates was that the swayers have no responsibility to their state ; that their aspirations and desires come in front of the common herd & # 8217 ; s wellbeing and lives. Alcibiades was a Socratified & # 8220 ; superman. & # 8221 ;
The other student of Socrates was Critias. Critias was Plato & # 8217 ; s uncle and Plato wrote a duologue about him. Finally, in 401 B.C. , two old ages before Socrates & # 8217 ; test and decease, a weary, tired peace came to Athens, who had lost a war, her imperium, and many of her citizens. Socrates remained in Athens and kept his oral cavity shut when mildly threatened by his Socratified student of The Thirty. Plato does non touch to these affairs for some ground. He was 25 old ages old, military age, and was urged to portion in his uncle & # 8217 ; s and first cousin & # 8217 ; s authorities, but like so many & # 8220 ; intellectuals, & # 8221 ; he wussed out. He preferred authorities by & # 8220 ; philosopher-kings & # 8221 ; in a book, but ne’er did anything to really achieve it.
Athinais put Socrates on test in 399 B.C. when he was 70, a mature old age sing the times. If Socrates had put on a defence of demanding that Athens live up to its high ideals, possibly he might hold merely been ostracized for ten old ages, a destiny that had happened to both good and bad work forces before him. But alternatively, in conformity with his desiring to destruct the moral legitimacy of a free authorities by utilizing its judicial system to carry through his decease want, he baited both the jury to happen him guilty and to penalize him with decease. Socrates, who ever said that he knew nil while he asked his destructively critical inquiries boasted about how the Oracle at Delphi declared that Socrates was the wisest, most free, merely, and prudent adult male in the universe. In other words, & # 8220 ; I am a sap, but I know I & # 8217 ; m a sap and that makes me smarter than you. & # 8221 ; The jury convicted him on both counts. Then Socrates asked that his punishment be that he be declared a civic hero and Federal at the populace tabular array for life! That did non travel over excessively good. The jury, incensed, gave out the decease punishment. One of Socrates & # 8217 ; adherents suggested a breakout and flight, with the silent collusion of the governments who merely wanted him gone, but Socrates refused. So he drank the hemlock while he put on the poses of a sufferer. After all that he had done for democratic Athens, this is the thanks he got! Christ wept over Jerusalem, but Socrates shed non a tear for Athens. Socrates & # 8217 ; most celebrated student, Plato, figured out the heat was on, so he traveled abroad for 12 old ages, populating on his familial money. Then when the malodor cleared, he gave up his impressions of going a dramatist and alternatively wrote up legion books about his prima adult male, Socrates. He formed an academy, wherein his most talented pupil, Aristotle, studied. Of class, Aristotle formed his ain decisions, most of which differed from Plato & # 8217 ; s.No philosopher male monarchs for Aristotle! Aristotle & # 8217 ; s royal student was Alexander the Great.
& # 8220 ; Cursed be all those who rejoice to see the metropolis in the custodies of a individual adult male or under the yoke of a few work forces! The name of a freewoman is the most cherished of rubrics: to possess it is to hold much, even when 1 has little. & # 8221 ;
Yes, cursed be Socrates, Plato, and all the & # 8220 ; rational & # 8221 ; junior-grade Hitlers, Stalins, FDRs and other big-government butt osculators since.
Although he was good known during his ain clip for his colloquial accomplishments and public instruction, Socrates wrote nil, so we are dependent upon his pupils ( particularly Xenophon and Plato ) for any elaborate cognition of his methods and consequences. The problem is that Plato was himself a philosopher who frequently injected his ain theories into the duologues he presented for any elaborate cognition of his methods and consequences