Slide 1. Title
Slide 2. Introduction
Urbanization is a worldwide phenomenon. It is altering the landscape and kineticss of metropoliss from Asia to Latin America. The United NEations reported in 2003 that by twelvemonth 2017. developing states will be more extremely urbanised. The rapid urbanisation rate of major and little metropoliss throughout the universe is straight impacting the environment. Urbanization is a reversible coin ; it comes with benefits but it besides poses challenges.
Slide 3. Environmental Benefits of Urbanization
Lesser land use- as more and more people flock to the metropoliss. migrators leave their rural lands in exchange of a smaller lodging unit or land. Land and lodging installations are expeditiously utilized to supply shelter for the turning urban population.
Easier entree to services- most of the basic societal services and installations are found in the metropoliss. Populating at that place allows a individual easier entree to wellness. instruction and chances. that are seldom found in rural or distant countries. This is particularly true for Third World states. Easier entree to instruction may ensue to an individual’s higher degree of environmental consciousness. This leads to a person’s openness to environmental concerns and issues.
Employment- a important figure of people chose to populate in the metropolis for work. Cities are the seats of political power and economic chances. Rural occupants sought the metropoliss for greener grazing lands. A lumberman may interchange his axe or proverb for blue-collared work in the city. Basically. more occupation chances in the urban topographic points may trip environmental saving in rural countries. Peoples who used to kill or sell wild life animals may set down themselves a more rewarding work in an urban topographic point.
Slide 4. Environmental Challenges of Urbanization
Poverty and overpopulation- looming population resulted to increasing figure of urban hapless. The cities’ capacity to suit the demands of the occupants is over-stretched. The resources now become scarce and urban migrators turn to slums for safety. Overpopulation breeds jobs such as hapless life conditions and unemployment. The UN-HABITAT ( 2004 ) observed that the rate of urban hapless growing is higher than the rate of urban population growing. It is a fact that urban poorness contributes to higher offense rates in different metropoliss.
Garbage/waste direction problem- one major environmental concern brought by urbanisation is godforsaken direction. Highly-urbanized metropoliss produce dozenss of refuse mundane and these are non decently managed. The environment is taxed to a great extent as non-recyclable stuffs incrementally overload the planet each hr.
Pollution- the ozone layer- is withdrawing. The chloro-fluorocarbons ( CFCs ) emanations in the atmosphere wreak mayhem on the earth’s protective shield. Air pollution has ne’er been so worst in history with the outgrowth of industries. mills and rushs of vehicles. The land is adulterated with toxic wastes from chemical mills. Bodies of H2O are contaminated with human and industrial refuse
Slide 5. Environmental Challenges of Urbanization ( Continued )
Water problem- due to overpopulation. entree to clean and drinkable H2O is really hard. Water supply is short and in some metropoliss. H2O has transcended into a trade good. Rather than a free resource. drinkable H2O is bought. Businessmen earn many dollars in retailing H2O for the hapless. Sad to talk. H2O is a planetary job as affected by pollution and clime alteration.
Unemployment and underemployment- the inflow of migrators coming in the metropoliss to seek for work has drained employment beginnings. Unemployment chances decline as more and more occupation searchers struggle to happen gold in urban mines. To quiet their hungry tummies. others settle for contractual and underpaid places. Unemployment shackles maximization of human potency.
Agricultural threat- urbanisation tends to busy more land infinite and in its class for enlargement. agricultural lands are sacrificed. What used to be rice or maize Fieldss are now subdivisions or commercial composite. Urbanization’s advancement calls for more land and substructure. By making change overing agricultural infinites into commercial 1s. agricultural economic system and production is reduced.
One of the receivers of 1996 Dubai International Award for Best Practices is one municipality in Cote d’ Ivoire. Adjame. Abidjan exemplifies a best pattern in get the better ofing challenges of urbanisation.
The city manager initiated community-based development enterprises to turn to the issues of unemployment. poorness and environmental debasement. Neighborhood communities. known as CDQs. were formed to promote citizens to take part and make something to better their life and economic conditions. The municipality banked on capacity edifice of CDQs to advance authorization and economic autonomy.
CDQs undertakings include environmental activities such as street cleansing. drainage cleansing and refuse aggregation. They put up a healthful scene for lodging. Commercial endeavors were operated and infrastructure betterments like route care and route lighting were besides done.
In 1994. CDQs built and managed wellness centres for its 19 quarters. The first wellness centre opened a twelvemonth subsequently. To advance entrepreneurial spirit among immature Ivorians. combined micro-incubators and developing plans were launched. May of 1995 saw the gap of first shops operated by the trainees.
Adjame has shown the universe that through authorization. urbanisation challenges can be thwarted. By being united in taking actions to antagonize unemployment and environmental debasement. the CDQs proved that they can make important stairss to personal and community development. The residents’ ownership of the community-based development plans made the enterprises sustainable. They were able to tackle their possible and work together for the benefit of the greater population. The people became stakeholders-not simply beneficiaries- of CDQ’s development attempts.
Another best pattern besides awarded in 1996 is the Shelter Upgrading Program in Agadir. Morocco.
This plan is handled by the Morrocan National Shelter Upgarding Agency or ANHI. Agadir is a large metropolis devastated by an temblor in 1960. Families having lower income where provided lodging installations. Beneficiaries were chiefly homesteaders and slum inhabitants.
Aside from improved lodging conditions. the citizens were besides helped through counsel as they integrate into the economic. political and societal environment of the metropolis. This made the households familiar with the milieus and the socio-cultural ambiance. The community people were besides involved in planning and execution of incorporate plans.
The ANHI addressed poorness by supplying low-priced lodging to households fraught by shelter jobs. By forming these households which are largely headed by a adult female figure. the menace of poorness. offense and environmental sanitation is minimized. The active battle of the community people in the plan made it a strategic manner of work outing one negative facet of urbanisation.
Thank you for listening.
United Nations. ( 2004 ) .World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision Data Tabled and Highlights.New York: United Nations.
United Nations Human Settlements Programme ( UN-HABITAT ) . ( 2004 ) .The State of the World Cities 2004/2005: Globalization and Urban Culture.London: Earthscan.
Dubai International Award for Best Practices.Retrieved December 23. 2004 from h ttp: //dubai-award. diabetes mellitus. gov. ae/winner96. htm