Trichoderma, with an estimated 130 described species, is a species-rich genus of micro Fungis belonging to the Ascomycota phylum. These Fungis are prevailing over broad geographic parts in all climatic zones and can be isolated from about every dirt, disintegrating wood, compost or other organic affair ( Hoyos-Carvajal et al. , 2009 ; tr5 ; Harman et al. , 2004 ; Berg et al. , 2005 ; De Respinis et al. , 2006 ) ( TR1 ) . They are singular for their rapid growing, capableness of utilizing diverse substrates, and opposition to noxious chemicals ( Kubicek et al. , 2003 ) . Some of the species are of economic importance because of their production of enzymes and antibiotics, or usage as biocontrol agents ( Gams and Bissett, 1998 ; Hjeljord and Tronsmo, 1998 ; Sivasithamparam and Ghisalberti, 1998 ) . Kubicek et al. , 2003 ) ( TR6 ) . Harmonizing to Hoyos-Carvajal et Al. ( 2009 ) these species can organize intimate associations with works roots, supplying an endemic degree of biological control or stimulating works growing by bring forthing soluble signifiers of mineral foods and growth-promoting metabolites ( tr5 ) .

Three of import features that some strains of Trichoderma have been shown to exhibit are the ability to ( 1 ) protect seeds and seedlings from beings that cause muffling off, ( 2 ) be rhizosphere competent and protect the subterraneous parts of turning workss from onslaught by pathogens, and ( 3 ) enhance works growing and development ( Harman & A ; Taylor, 1990 ) . Most Trichoderma isolates non merely quickly colonise the rhizosphere of seedlings but besides persisted at considerable population degrees and remained active against works pathogens ( Abassi et al. , 2002 ; Yang et al. , 2003 ) .

2.2.2 Trichoderma spp. and biological control of works diseases

A reappraisal of the biological science and systematic of the genus Trichoderma by Samuels ( 2001 ) showed disease controlled by Trichoderma spp. Some of these diseases include Rhizoctonia damping-off in radish ( Lifshitz & A ; Baker, 1985 ) , com and soya bean ( Kommedahl et al.. , 1981 ) ; cucumber fruit putrefaction caused by Rhizoctonia solani ( Lewis & A ; Papavizas, 1980 ) ; greymould on tomato ( Migheli et al. , 1994 ) , grapes and strawberry ( Elad ef al. , 1995 ; Harman et aI. , 1995 ) ; take-all disease in wheat ( Ghisalberti & A ; Sivasithamparam, 1991 ) , and sclerotinia sclerotiorum in pea ( Knudsen & A ; Eschen, 1991 ) and a wilt-complex, preponderantly caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. , Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum Schldl. in lentil and garbanzo. Harmonizing to Howell ( 2003 ) , six mechanisms are employed by Trichoderma spp to supply biological control against diseases. These include: ( I ) mycoparatism and production of fungicidal metabolites, ( two ) competition and rhizosphere competency, ( three ) enzymes secernment, ( four ) initiation of defence responses in workss, ( V ) metamorphosis of sprouting stimulations and ( six ) adjunct mechanisms ( increased works growing, opposition to emphasize, etc. )

In tomato production, the most outstanding biological control activity of Trichoderma spp. has been the suppression of damping-off caused by Pythium. This soilborne pathogen poses serious menaces in nursery and field production with considerable harm to works, peculiarly in the early phases of seedling growing ( Blancard et al. , 1994 ; Moulin et al. , 19994 ; Rachniyom & A ; Jaenaksorn, 2008 ) . By and large, pythium-challenged seedlings are removed from the field as no chemical control is available. Verticillium wilt caused by V. dahliae is besides another fungous disease, which can do with considerable output loss in tomato. This fungus can last in dirts for many old ages and infect their hosts by come ining the vascular system and are transported within the conductive xylem ( Green, 1981 ) whereby it interacts with foods and H2O motion upward and downward. Recent survey by Jabnoun-Khiareddine et Al. ( 2009 ) showed that Trichoderma spp. have the possible to supply disease control against this soilborne pathogen. These writers tested three different strains ( T.harzianum, T. virens and T. viride ) with verticillium wilt causal agents in tomato grown in growing chamber and under nursery conditions. Trichoderma spp. reduced the radial growing of all verticillium wilt agents. In growing chamber, the foliage harm index was reduced by 60 % though all verticillium-challenged workss showed disease symptoms. Inoculating workss with T.virens increased the fresh and rootmasses by ca. 40 % , whereas T.harzianum and T.viride had no consequence thereof. Conversely in the nursery, all the Trichoderma strains increased the fresh root and shoot mass by more than 50 % as compared to the untreated workss. These writers postulated that mycelial decrease growing was chiefly due to the of import competitory potency of the adversaries used and the decrease of resting constructions copiousness of verticillium spp. isolates compared to the untreated.

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2.2.3 Trichoderma spp. and works growing publicity

Trichoderma is no longer considered as biological control agent merely but besides as works growing foil. This is supported by the reported growing publicity of several species of workss treated with Trichoderma spp. ( Windham et al. , 1989 ; Bailey and Lumsden, 1998 ; BjAA¶rkman et al. , 1998 ; Yedidia et al. , 1999 ; Naseby et al. , 2000 ; Brimner and Boland, 2003 ; Trico3 ) . Enhanced tomato seedling growing with T. harzianum was investigated under nursery conditions ( Ozbay and Brown, 2004 ) . Four hebdomads after seeding, root colonisation of tomato seedlings by T.harzianum strains was more 90 % . In add-on, T. harzianum strains T22 and T95 increased the shoot tallness, root calliper, shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight by % severally. These isolated had no important consequence on the root fresh and dry weights. The mechanisms involved in growing publicity by Trichoderma spp. were non clearly elucidated. Gravel et Al. ( 2007 ) studied the consequence of T.atroviride and seven other biological control agents on growing of tomato grown under aquicultures conditions. The production or debasement of indole acetic acid ( IAA ) by T.atroviride was investigated as possible mechanisms for works growing stimulation. T. atroviride synthesized IAA from different characteristic precursors in vitro. In fact, the add-on of L-tryptophan, tryptamine and tryptophol in the civilization medium stimulated the production of IAA by 417 % , 718 % and 3108 % severally. This supports that theory that microbic IAA could hold been involved in the growing stimulation. In nursery conditions, the growing of seedlings inoculated withT. atroviride increased as the concentration of L-tryptophan increased in the pouches. This suggests that the synthesis of IAA through tryptophan-dependent tracts by T. atroviride, affected the growing of the tomato seedlings. These writers concluded that growing stimulation was the synergic consequence of legion manners of action exhibited by T. atroviride including a ordinance in the concentration of IAA in the rhizosphere and a ordinance of the concentration of ethene within the roots.

Increased mineral consumption by Trichoderma inoculated workss has besides been suggested as possible mechanism for works growing publicity. The potency of Trichoderma harzianum strain T-203 to bring on a growing response in Cucumis sativus workss was studied in dirt and under nursery conditions ( Yedidia et al. , 2001 ) . Twenty eight yearss after intervention induction, T. harzianum inoculated workss increased the cumulative root length, shoot length, leaf country and dry weight by 75 % , 45 % , 80 % and 80 % severally. Similarly, an addition of 90 and 30 % in P and Fe concentration severally, was observed. To better qualify the consequence of T. harzianum during the early phases of root colonisation, experiments were carried under axenic aquicultural growing. T. harzianum-inoculated workss increased root length shoot length and dry weight of roots and dry shoot weight by ca. 45 % , 60 % , 24 % and 40 % , severally as compared to command five yearss after T.harzianum vaccination. Shoot Zn, P and Mn concentrations increased by 25, 30 and 70 % , severally. The findings of this survey suggested that the betterment of works nutritionary degree may be straight related to a general good growing consequence of the root system following T. harzianum vaccination



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