Bangladesh is a South Asiatic developing state located between 20. 34? to 26. 38 north latitude and 88. 01 to 92. 42 east longitudes. with an country of 147570 sq kilometer. It has a population of about 128million. It has a boundary line on the West. north and east with India and the sou’-east with Myanmar. The whole state consists of chiefly low and level land except for the hilly parts in the nor’-east and sou’-east. Physiographical the state can split into hills. uplifted land blocks. and the bulk alluvial fields. The Environment of Bangladesh is diverse and mix of traditional and modern methods of land usage.
The primary beginnings of environmental resources in the state can be considered to be the bing natural and human resources. Bangladesh this is really low compared to the denseness of population. and their demands. The environmental resources of the state have been summarized into two major parts. That is:
1. Natural Physical resources
2. Natural Biotic resources
Now I describe the major environmental resources.
Natural Physical resources:
Natural physical resources are divided into many parts. All the parts the most of import parts which reflect the quality of ambiance of Bangladesh is given below:
The land of Bangladesh can be grouped into three major units’ hill dirts. old alluvial dirts and recent alluvial dirts. The hill soils means the Himalayan ranges. Chittagong hills and knolls of sylhet. Old alluvial dirts are seen in the Madhupur and Barind. The dirts of these have been formed on the old alluvial sediment of the Pleistocene era. Recently old alluvial sediments are found in the Gangas alluvial sediment. Teesta silt and Brahmaputra alluvial sediment.
Bangladesh is the largest delta in the universe formed in the universe by the Gangas. the Brahmaputra. and the Meghna river system. The delta is characterized by level with the intricate system of rivers and tidal channels. Three major rivers have a immense catchment country of 1. 554. 000 sq kilometer. distributing over five states. There are 700 rivers. cannels and watercourses in Bangladesh. The chief river system busying the delta formed by the Gangas and the Brahmaputro which one time they entry Bangladesh are known as the Padma and the Jamuna. The Jamuna joins the Padma near Aricha and flows up to chandpur where it joins The Meghna and the combined flow is the Meghna. The river fluxing from the hills situated in the sou’-east of Bangladesh. viz. Karnaphuli. Sangu. Matamuhuri and Knaaf flow into the Bay of Bengal. The of import river in this part is the Karnaphuli which is besides the longest. 274 kilometer.
Climate of Bangladesh:
The clime of Bangladesh is characterized by high temperatures. inordinate humidness. Though more than half the country of Bangladesh is located North of the Tropics. The consequence of the Himalayan mountain concatenation makes the clime more or less tropical. The clime is controlled chiefly by summer and winter air currents and partially by pre monsoon and station monsoon circulation
The state has an about uniformly humid. warm and tropical clime. There are six seasons in Bangladesh viz. Summer. Rain. Autumn. Fall. Winter. and spring.
The hot summer seasons from March to June is characterized by high temperatures in a hebdomad or more yearss are the highest rate of vaporization. and fickle but heavy rainfall.
From June to October is the hot and humid monsoon season with temperatures runing and heavy rainfall and two-third of the average one-year rainfall.
The ice chest and drier winter extends from November to March. When temperatures range from 8C to 15C and minimal temperatures can fall below 5C in the North. The temperatures fall throughout November to December. and in the last hebdomad of December.
Natural Biotic Resources:
Terrestrial and aquatic ecological resources play an of import function in state development. They serve as rich beginnings of nutrient and fuel for the population. Forest provides a broad scope of home ground of wildlife. and the wetland ecosystem provides home ground for aquatic species.
Forests are both environmentally and economically of import natural resources in the tellurian ecology. The entire land under wood in Bangladesh is about 2. 56 million. which includes officially classified and unclassified province lands. Although a important portion of bing forest country. In Bangladesh natural forest country is 31 % and forest plantation is 13 % . The wood of Bangladesh has been cut downing at an speed uping rate. The major causes of deforestation are industrialisation. rapid urbanisation. and high population growing. both for colony and switching cultivation. In recent twelvemonth and estimated figure of 109. 92 million in the urban country and plantation along roads main roads and railroads.
For the intent of Ramsar convention wetland are defined as country of fen. fen. peat land or H2O. Wetlands are priceless constituents of the environment in Bangladesh. The entire country of wetlands in the state has been estimated at seven to eight million Hectors or 50 % of the entire land surface. The wetlands of Bangladesh are progressively being recognized as home ground and flight screen for a big assortment of wildlife. The alimentary merchandises of wetlands in Bangladesh are carried by rivers and floodwater. and the systems downstream. The wetlands of Bangladesh are being drastically affected by the impact of the burgeoning human population. Approximately 2. 1 million wetland have been lost of inundation control. drainage and irrigation development. Wetlands are being continuously lost because of assorted recent developments such as shrimp civilization. which reflect a deficiency of community consciousness of wetland map.
Major Environmental Problems:
Bangladesh is confronted with host of environmental jobs owing to both natural and human factors. The jobs relate to activities in assorted sectors. and are of variable nature. The chief environment issues that that is addressed through different policy. Now that is described briefly below.
characterized as incorporating harmful degrees of S dioxide or N oxide ; acerb rain is damaging and potentially lifelessly to the earth’s delicate ecosystems ; sourness is measured utilizing the pH graduated table where 7 is impersonal. values greater than 7 are considered alkalic. and values below 5. 6 are considered acerb precipitation ; note – a pH of 2. 4 ( the sourness of acetum ) has been measured in rainfall in Bangladesh.
The entire weight or volume of life affair in a given country or volume.
The term used to depict the exchange of C ( in assorted signifiers. e. g. . as C dioxide ) between the ambiance. ocean. tellurian biosphere. and geological sedimentations.
DDT ( dichloride-diphenyl-tricolor-ethane ) –
A colorless. odourless insect powder that has toxic effects on most animate beings ; the usage of DDT was banned in the US in 1972.
The devastation of huge countries of wood ( e. g. . unsustainable forestry
patterns. agricultural and range land glade. and the complete development of wood merchandises for usage as fuel ) without seting new growing.
A species that is threatened with extinction either by direct hunting or home ground devastation.
A gas that “traps” infrared radiation in the lower ambiance doing surface heating ; H2O vapour. C dioxide. azotic oxide. methane. hydro fluorocarbons. and ozone are the primary nursery gases in the Earth’s ambiance.
Industries which specialize in the scientific discipline. engineering. and processing of metals ; these workss produce extremely concentrated and toxic wastes which can lend to pollution of land H2O and air when non decently disposed.
Deleterious. really harmful to living existences.
A bed of the ambiance composed of ozone gas ( O3 ) that resides about 25 stat mis above the Earth’s surface and absorbs solar UV radiation that can be harmful to populating beings.
The illegal violent death of animate beings or fish. a great concern with regard to endangered or threatened species.
The procedure through which fresh ( potable ) H2O becomes salt ( undrinkable ) H2O ; hence. desalinization is the rearward procedure ; besides involves the accretion of salts in surface soil caused by vaporization of inordinate irrigation H2O. a procedure that can finally render dirt incapable of back uping harvests.
Occurs when H2O channels and reservoirs become clogged with silt and clay. a side consequence of deforestation and dirt eroding.
A revolving cultivation technique in which trees are cut down and burned in order to clear land for impermanent agribusiness ; the land is used until its productiveness diminutions at which point a new secret plan is selected and the procedure repeats ; this pattern is sustainable while population degrees are low and clip is permitted for regrowth of natural flora ; conversely. where these conditions do non be. the pattern can hold black effects for the environment.
The remotion of dirt by the action of H2O or air current. compounded by hapless agricultural patterns. deforestation. overgrazing. and desertification.
A works or carnal species whose presence. copiousness. and wellness reveal the general status of its home ground.
Salvage the Environment:
Highlands Water Undertaking
A series of dikes constructed jointly by Lesotho and South Africa to airt Lesotho’s abundant H2O supply into a quickly turning country in South Africa ; while it is the largest substructure undertaking in southern Africa. it is besides the most dearly-won and controversial ; expostulations to the undertaking include claims that it forces people from their places. submerges farming areas. and squanders resources
Inuit Circumpolar Conference ( ICC ) :
Represents the 145. 000 Intuits of Russia. Alaska. Canada. and Greenland in international environmental issues ; a General Assembly convenes every three old ages to find the focal point of the ICC ; the most current concerns are long-range conveyance of pollutants. sustainable development. and climate alteration.