Discrimination involves exhibiting a negative behavior towards members of a social group, other than one’s own, and can result in limiting members of one group from opportunities that are available to others. Types of stigma a) Self stigma – this is where one has stigma of oneself and includes feelings of self hatred, shame and blame. It is associated by; 0 hiding illness or concerns from others. 0 Avoiding company of friends and family. 0 Avoiding services that can help incase of disease. B) Felt stigma – this are the attitude, perceptions (views) or feelings that people have towards HIVE positive people. Enacted stigma – this comprise of action(s) directed towards a HIVE positive person. D) Associated stigma – this is stigma directed towards family and friends of HIVE positive persons or those suffering from illness associated with HIVE/AIDS. Causes of stigma Ignorance, lack of knowledge. Attitudes and perceptions. Fear of unknown. Effects of stigma Reduced morale among the infected and the affected. Loss of work due to sacking and absenteeism. School drop out Depression Stigma Poor health due to avoidance of treatment.

Lack of support Low self esteem Lack of disclosure he health worker who travels to a faraway clinic to get her monthly us antiterrorism, fearing that her colleagues will find out that she is HIVE p doctor who self – tests and self – medicates and discusses his/her status confidentiality How to manage/reduce stigma Health education about stigma reduction Continuous counseling change of attitude among HCI Accepting positive criticism Practicing confidentiality and privacy Integration of services Formation of psychosocial support groups Use of role model members e. Peers educators Educate on importance of disclosure Implementation of policies Improve on customer care services Self awareness Self awareness is a set of attitudes a person holds towards him/herself known to the individual-being yourself and not your image. It is being aware of your own inner-core knowing/understanding yourself beyond the name, status/title, role/skills and profession. When one is a stranger to oneself, they are separated from others too. You cannot touch others when you are out touch with yourself. Understanding oneself helps you accept others. It is not easy to know oneself but can develop the ability to do so.

To know yourself, you must recognize the need to change. To accept yourself with all your faults and strengths/ have appositive outlook to life Need to understand yourself well, your Behavior Motivations Feelings Beliefs/values Power/priorities/competence Where we are in our life’s Journey Self awareness builds our self confidence. Benefits of self awareness Promotes self acceptance and development of a positive attitude Improves self esteem Enables an individual to respond appropriately to various situations in life, avoid risky and damaging behavior. Self esteem Self esteem is the overall picture of oneself.

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It is the worth or price tag that individual laces on themselves, the core perception and belief of oneself; an individual’s self rating. Benefits of self esteem Self confidence Good interpersonal relationships Good communication Assertive skills Good academic performance or Job satisfaction and good performance at work. Impact of low self esteem Self hatred Lack of confidence Self criticism How to improve self esteem How to improve low self esteem By practicing self acceptance- acceptance of who we are regardless of status, gender etc Be aware of your self-criticism and replace your negative thoughts with positive ones Affirm self overtime

Improve communication skills Characteristics of high self esteem Positive high image Self confident Self motivated and self disciplined Participants do the shield and share Greatest achievement Greatest fear Greatest ambition Most important person in your life Attitude Attitude is how one perceives self. Positive attitude boosts our self esteem while negative attitude lowers hence embarrassments. N.B.: participants share their most embarrassing moments in life Attitudes at work place 1 . Enthusiastic: To be enthusiastic at work is about a mental state. You need to make the decision to be enthusiastic.

Start by saying, “l will be an eager participant in this project or task. ” Attack your task with energy. Do not drag your feet. The more you tell yourself, “This is so boring,” or whatever the excuse maybe the worse you will feel. Get interested in the work and the energy will come naturally. Then decide to be eagerly involved. 2. Efficient: Strive to be the most efficient worker in your team. To be efficient means “performing or functioning effectively with the least waste of time and effort. ” When you are effective, you are producing the intended result. When you are efficient you o it with the least waste of time and effort.

That means you are capable and competent. 3. Excellence: A little pressure is good since it makes you push yourself harder. Strive for excellence in everything you do. Do not be contented with good. Go for great. Exceed expectations by knowing good is sometimes not good enough. Give everything your utmost best. You will naturally see how this becomes your career booster. When you strive for excellence in everything you do, you quite naturally surpass others in your work. That gets you ahead. 4. Early: Have you ever thought about being early as an attitude in the workplace that an get you ahead?

Yes, especially when your workplace practices flexi time. Many people take flexi time for granted. They stroll in and out at their own pace, not knowing they have probably wasted productive time. Start early at work. Some of my most productive days are those I start early before the phone rings and before my staff walks in with questions. Clear your e-mails from last night, craft that important e-mail when there are no disturbances. 5. Easy: Make every effort to be the easiest to work with in the office. Now, I am not saying compromise on your need for excellence.

For example, this means not to complain and grumble each time there is a team meet. No one likes to work with someone who nags all the time. When you are easy to work with, you make working enjoyable for the rest too. The five effective work habits are: 1 . Volunteer for Assignments 2. Be Nice to People 3. Prioritize Your Work 4. Stay Positive 5. Highlight a Problem But Bring Solutions What is stress? This is the body (behavioral, emotional, physical, mental) response to anxiety producing events. There are two types of stress; Gestures – positive stress, normal, necessary and manageable.

It arises from happy events. Distress – negative stress, abnormal, regressive and disturbing. It arises from sad/unhappy events. The body response to stress Heart pounds faster Muscles tighten Blood pressure rises Breathing quickens Senses become sharper The physical changes increase your strength, stamina , speed your reaction time and enhance your focus preparing you to either fight or flee from danger at hand. Signs and symptoms of stress There are four groups of signs and symptoms namely.

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