1. What are the indispensable necessities of an ideal signifier of concern administration? Explain the standards for the choice of the signifier of administration. ( 20 )

2. What is channel of distribution? Discuss the assorted factors which influence the pick of channel of distribution. ( 20 )
Channelss of Distribution

A channel of distribution or trade channel is defined as the way or path along which goods move from manufacturers or makers to ultimate consumers or industrial users. In other words. it is a distribution web through which manufacturer puts his merchandises in the market and passes it to the existent users. This channel consists of: – manufacturers. consumers or users and the assorted jobbers like jobbers. selling agents and retail merchants ( traders ) who intervene between the manufacturers and consumers. Therefore. the channel serves to bridge the spread between the point of production and the point of ingestion thereby making clip. topographic point and ownership public-service corporations. |

3. ( a ) “One adult male control is the best in the world” remark. “one adult male control is the best in the best in the universe if that adult male is large plenty to pull off everything”because if one merely proprietor in exclusive proprietary can command every state of affairs and can bear all the hazard and besides can pull off everything than he / she is the 1 who can pull off or manage every good or bad state of affairs in his or her life. But in todays modern coevals its non like this. if you see any where than there would be any concern or any occupation we could see in partnership or there would be two or more proprietor of that concern or occupation. And in that occupation or concern everything is shared between the all proprietors of that. hazard is besides bear non merely by one proprietor but by all the proprietor it is shared. for illustration: suppose there are three proprietor in any concern than if any one had done any thing incorrect in go throughing some information about how there concern is. than he entirely dont have to bear the hazard but because of him they both besides have to bear the hazard. In this hazard bearing is besides limited for one. because he entirely dont have to bear all the the hazard. At last but non the least I would state caputs off to the people who is the lone proprietor of the concern or any thing and who can bear all the hazard without any one ‘s aid and wish they would accomplish there end in there life

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( B ) What is stock exchange? Explain its assorted maps. ( 10+10 ) Stock Exchange ( besides called Stock Market or Share Market ) is one of import component of capital market. Stock Exchange is an organized market for the purchase and sale of industrial and fiscal security. It is convenient topographic point where trading in securities is conducted in systematic mode i. e. as per certain regulations and ordinances. It performs assorted maps and offers utile services to investors and borrowing companies. It is an investing mediator and facilitates economic and industrial development of a state. Stock exchange is an organized market for purchasing and selling corporate and other securities. Here. securities are purchased and sold out as per certain chiseled regulations and ordinances. It provides a convenient and secured mechanism or platform for minutess in different securities. Functions of a Stock Exchange

The efficient operation of a stock exchange creates a contributing clime for an active and turning primary market for new issues. An active and healthy secondary market in bing securities leads to positive environment among investors. The followers are some of the of import maps of a stock exchange. * Supplying Liquidity and Marketability to Existing Securities: The basic map of a stock exchange is the creative activity of a uninterrupted market where securities are bought and sold. It gives investors the opportunity to divest and reinvest. This provides both liquidness and easy marketability to already bing securities in the market. * Pricing of Securities: volatility/”title=”handling the Share monetary value fluctuations” & gt ; Share monetary values on a stock exchange are determined by the forces of demand and supply. A stock exchange is a mechanism of changeless rating through which the monetary values of securities are determined. Such a rating provides of import instant information to both purchasers and Sellerss in the market. * Safety of Transaction: The rank of a stock exchange is wellregulated and its traffics are good defined harmonizing to the bing legal model.

This ensures that the puting public gets a safe and just trade on the market. * Contributes to Economic Growth: A stock exchange is a market in which bing securities are resold or traded. Through this procedure of disinvestment and reinvestment nest eggs get channelised into their most productive investing avenues. This leads to capital formation and economic growing. * Spreading of Equity Cult: The stock exchange can play a critical function in guaranting wider portion ownership by modulating new issues. better trading patterns and taking effectual stairss in educating the populace about investings. * Providing Scope for Guess: The stock exchange provides sufficient range within the commissariats of jurisprudence for bad activity in a restricted and controlled mode. It is by and large accepted that a certain grade of healthy guess is necessary to guarantee liquidness and monetary value continuity in the stock market.

4. Distinguish between the followers:
( a ) Commerce and Industry

( B ) Ad and Promotion
Difference between Ad and Promotion:
1. Ad is paid signifier of thoughts. goods and services while promotion is non paid by the patron. 2. Ad comes from an identified patron while promotion comes from a impersonal and impartial beginning. 3. Ad is governable by the administration while promotion is non governable because it comes from a impersonal beginning. 4. Ad is less believable in comparing to promotion while promotion is more believable because it comes from an impartial beginning. 5. Ad is what you or your administration says and promotes about you or your administration but promotion is what others say for you or your administration. 6. In advertisement same content is repeated by the patron while in promotion it is non by and large possible. 7. Ad ever carries a positive message about your administration because it is the content you pay for but promotion can be positive or negative because it comes from an impartial beginning. 8. In advertisement you have full opportunity to demo your creativeness but in promotion creativeness is limited because it comes from non paid beginning. 9. Ad is targeted to the practicular audiences by the patron while in promotion it is non focused. 10. Most of the times in advertisement societal duty is ignored while in promotion particular focal point is given on societal duty.

( degree Celsius ) Departmental Organization and Public Corporation

( vitamin D ) Wholesalers and Retailers ( 4?5 )

WholesalerWholesaler denotes a type of jobbers between the manufacturers and retail merchants. They by and large sell goods and trade goods to the retail merchants. industrial consumers and professional users. There are two types of jobber like maker agents and merchandiser jobbers. The maker and selling them in little measures to the retail merchants who serve the ultimate consumers.

Jobbers
* It is the first nexus in the concatenation of distribution which links between industries and retail merchants. * The jobber trade is conducted in majority measures.
* Most of the minutess are effected on the footing of recognition. * The capital demand of this concern is heavy.
* This type of trade trades in specific goods. Retailer denotes the last linkage in the channel of distribution between the manufacturers and the consumers. The constitution engaged in selling goods for personal ingestion is known as retail trade. The retail merchants have close contact with the customers/consumers because they attend them personally. Retailing constitution is an old age concern and are found in every countries of the state Retailers


* It is the last nexus in the concatenation of distribution which links jobbers and consumers.
* It is conducted in little measures.
* Most of the minutess take topographic point on hard currency footing.
* This type of concern normally require less capital.
* This type of trade trades in assortment of goods.
* It gives a batch of accent on proper show and advertizement.




5. Write short notes on the followers: ( 4?5 )

( a ) Development Banks

A development bank is like a life being that reacts to the social-economic environment and its success depends on responding most competently to that environment” . Kheradjou assigns an of import undertaking to the development Bankss. He feels that these Bankss should respond to the socio-economic demands. They should fulfill the developmental demands of the economic system and their success is linked to the satisfactory growing of the economic system. A development bank has the chance to advance endeavors i. e. to gestate investing proposals and to excite others to prosecute them or itself to transport them through. from ‘conception’ to ‘realization’ . In rule. a development bank is good suited to presume this sort of function. Yet. endeavor creative activity is fraught with costs and hazards which development bank can non pretermit. Development Bankss can providentially set about them merely when they have the needed fiscal strength. proficient expertness and the managerial accomplishment to bank

( B ) Insurance
Insurance is the just transportation of the hazard of a loss. from one entity to another in exchange for payment. It is a signifier of hazard direction chiefly used to fudge against the hazard of a contingent. unsure loss. An insurance company. or insurance bearer. is a company selling the insurance ; the insured. or policyholder. is the individual or entity purchasing the insurance policy. The sum to be charged for a certain sum of insurance coverage is called the premium. Risk direction. the pattern of measuring and commanding hazard. has evolved as a distinct field of survey and pattern. The dealing involves the insured presuming a guaranteed and known comparatively little loss in the signifier of payment to the insurance company in exchange for the insurer’s promise to counterbalance ( indemnify ) the insured in the instance of a fiscal ( personal ) loss. The insured receives a contract. called the insurance policy. which inside informations the conditions and fortunes under which the insured will be financially compensated.

( degree Celsius ) Government Company
Government company is a company which either registered as a Private Company or as a Public company with the Registrar of Companies under the Companies Act. 1956. & A ; the Government has taken over or purchased 51 % or more capital of the company. The staying capital may be taken over by the populace.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. Steel Authority of India Limited. etc are some illustrations of Government Company.

Harmonizing to Section 617 of the Indian Companies Act. 1956. a Government company means. “any company in which non less than fifty one per centum of the portion capital is held by the Cardinal Government or any State Government or partially by the Cardinal Government and partially by one or more State Governments” .

( vitamin D ) Warehousing
A warehouse is a commercial edifice for storage of goods. Warehouses are used by makers. importers. exporters. jobbers. conveyance concerns. imposts. etc. They are normally big field edifices in industrial countries of metropoliss and towns and small towns. They normally have lading docks to lade and unload goods from trucks. Sometimes warehouses are designed for the burden and unloading of goods straight from railroads. airdromes. or havens. They frequently have Cranes and forklifts for traveling goods. which are normally placed on ISO standard palettes loaded into palette racks. Stored goods can include any natural stuffs. packing stuffs. trim parts. constituents. or finished goods associated with agribusiness. fabrication and production.

Historically warehouses were a dominant portion of the urban landscape used from the start of the Industrial Revolution through the nineteenth century and into the 20th century: the edifice remained when their original use had changed. There are four identifiable types of warehouses. [ 1 ] The cotton industry was co-terminus with the development of the warehouse. and all five types were represented in Manchester. United Kingdom. Warehouses in Manchester were frequently extravagantly decorated juxtaposing with the modern position of warehouses which are assumed to be standard industrial edifices.

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