Surveies on Phytolith morphotype discrepancies of some members ofGigantochloaof the subfamily Bambusoideae

The phytoliths of three species ofGigantochloaunder the subfamily Bambusoideae were studied. Phytoliths were analyzed utilizing wet-digestion method. Each species shows a array of phytoliths. However the frequence of phytoliths and their size vary among the species which can be used for favoritism of these taxa.

Keywords:Gigantochloa, Phytoliths

Introduction

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Phytoliths are composed of hydrated silicon oxide which is taken up as monosilicic acid by workss through their roots and deposited in inter and intra cellular infinites of works variety meats ( foliage, root, root etc. ) ( Jenkins, 2009 ) . Based on the type of cell in which it gets accumulated, phytoliths attain different forms. Although liliopsids are the outstanding phytolith manufacturers they are besides produced by magnoliopsids, gymnosperms and nonflowering plants. Phytoliths have been used to distinguish between wild and domesticated strains of workss ( Pearsallet al. ,1995 ; Zhaoet Al. , 1998 ; Pipernoet Al. , 2000, and 2002 ; Piperno and Stothert, 2003 ; Pearsallet Al., 2003 ; Piperno, 1988 and Piperno and Pearsall, 1993 ) . Phytoliths can supply an overview of flowered record at an archeological site when macrobotanical remains are scarce or absent. The present work examines the morphology and frequence distribution of phytoliths in the foliages of three species ofGigantochloaof the subfamily Bambusoideae.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

For the present probe about 3 species ofGigantochloaviz. ,G. albociliata,G. atroviolaceaandG. nigrociliatawere collected from Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute ( JNTBGRI ) located at Palode, Thiruvananthapuram. The institute have really good aggregations of “bamboos” including both autochthonal and alien species. The species were identified utilizing the Flora of Kerala, Bamboos at TBGRI ( Koshy, 2010 ) .

Phytoliths were extracted from the foliage samples by wet digestion method ( Carter, 1997 ) . The foliages of these workss were exhaustively washed in distilled H2O and immersed in a detersive solution for nightlong. Then it was once more washed in distilled H2O and dried in oven at 52OC. It was so weighed and undergone digestion. The residue were collected, dried, weighed, and mounted utilizing Canada balsam. Slides were observed under light microscope and microphotographs were taken utilizing Olympus digital camera attached with Olympus trinocular microscope. Phytoliths were described and classified utilizing “PHYTOLITH CORE” ( GPEG ) ( 2014 ) . Measurements were made along the longest axis of the phytoliths.

Observation

1. Gigantochloa albociliata( Munro ) Kurz

SCS, SCB, BP, EAHC ( Fig -1, Table-1 and 2 ) are the different morphotypes observed here. The foliages of the species produced abundant SCS ( Table-3 ) with size runing from 14.5 to 23.9µm length and 8.7µm breadth. SCS are of extended type and constitutes 42 % of entire gatherings. BP type observed with dimensions of 63.8µm long and 49.3µm broad and its frequence is 28 % . SCB ( 23 % ) are found with dimensions of 14.5 µm to 20.3µm long and 8.7 to 11.6µm broad. EAHC ( 7 % ) are noticed with dimensions of 14.5µm long and 3µm broad.

Gigan

Fig.1 a. Short Cell Saddle ( SCS ) , b. Epidermal Appendage Hair Cell, c. Short Cell Saddle ( SCS ) , d. Bulliform Parallepipedal ( BP ) and e. Short cell bilobate

2.Gigantochloa atroviolaceaWidjaja

The species produced assorted phytolith types like BF, BP, CE and SCS ( Fig-2, Table-1 and 2 ) . In the species phytoliths are observed both singly and in associated signifiers. SCS are often ( Table-3 ) observed with a average length of 23.8µm representing 42 % of entire morphotypes. They are elongated with rounded terminals. Bulliform fan ( BF ) type observed with a size runing from 26 to 34.8µm the frequence of which is 28 % .Bulliform parallepipedal ( BP ) are noted with size fluctuation of 46.4 to 130.5µm. Cylindroid echinate ( CE ) with size fluctuation of 58µm to 110.2µm long and 8.7 to 11.6µm broad is besides observed, merely 13 % are of this type.

Gigan

Fig.2. a. Cylindroid echinate ( CE ) , B and c. Bulliform fan ( BF ) , d. Short cell saddle ( SCS ) , e. Bulliform parallepipedal sum ( BP agg ) and f. Bulliform parallepipedal ( BP )

3. Gigantochloa nigrociliata( Buse ) Kuze

SCS, BF, SCR and BP ( Fig-3, Table-1 and 2 ) are observed here of which SCS are found to be abundant in the species with a size fluctuation of 14.5 to 26µm and comprises 40 % of entire phytolith gatherings. Saddles are elongated type ( Table-3 ) . The 2nd dominant type are the bulliform fan ( BF-25 % ) holding a size of 49.3 to 63.8µm. Bulliform parallepipedal ( BP ) are besides observed with size changing from 43.5µm long and 37.7µm broad. They have a frequence of 16 % . SCR ( 19 % ) have dimensions runing from 17.4 to 26.1µm long and 8.7 to 20.3µm broad. Some of them are seen to be spiked rondeaus.

Gigan

Fig.3. a. Bulliform Fan ( BF ) , B. Short cell saddle ( SCS ) and Short Cell Rondel ( SCR ) and c. Short Cell Saddle ( SCS ) .

Table-1. Presence of Phytolith morphotypes in the species ofGigantochloastudied

Sl.No

Speciess

Phytolith morphotypes

BF

BP

Cerium

EAHC

Scandium

SCR

SCB

1.

Gigantochloa albociliata

+

+

+

+

2.

Gigantochloa atroviolacea

+

+

+

+

3.

Gigantochloa nigrociliata

+

+

+

+

Table-2. Frequency ( % ) of Phytolith morphotypes in the species ofGigantochloastudied

Sl.No

Speciess

Phytolith morphotypes frequence ( % )

BF

BP

Cerium

EAHC

Scandium

SCR

SCB

1.

Gigantochloa albociliata

28

7

42

23

2.

Gigantochloa atroviolacea

28

17

13

42

3.

Gigantochloa nigrociliata

25

16

40

19

Table-3. Happening of Phytolith morphotypes in the species ofGigantochloastudied

Sl.No

Speciess

Morphotypes

Abundant

Park

Rare

1.

Gigantochloa albociliata

BP, EAHC, SCS, SCB

BP, SCS, SCB

EAHC

2.

Gigantochloa atroviolacea

BF, BP, CE, SCS

SCS, BF, BP, CE

3.

Gigantochloa nigrociliata

BF, BP, SCS, SCR

BF, BP, SCS, SCR

Discussion

The present survey is about the phytoliths morphotype ofGigantochloa. The phytolith morphotypes, BF was observed inG. atroviolaceaandG. nigrociliatawhereas it is absent inG. albociliata,but BP is present in all the 3 species ofGigantochloa, but observed in least frequence inG. nigrociliata. SCB was noticed merely inG. albociliataand it is present in important sum ( 13 % ) . SCR was found inG. nigrociliatawhereas it is absent in the other two species. EAHC was present inG. albociliatawhereas CE was observed inG. atroviolacea.

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Based on these morphotypes an designation key was prepared

key

BF absent

…….G. albociliata

BF nowadays

CE nowadays

… … ..G. atroviolacea

CE absent

…….G. nigrociliata

A figure of bamboos produce really distinguishable type of phytolith which are really utile in the designation of these species. In order to utilize phytoliths as a tool in systematic designation, it is necessary to acknowledge morphological and frequency fluctuations of phytoliths of different species of bamboos. From the study of Piperno and Pearsall ( 1998 ) it was revealed that saddles ( SCS ) are copiously present in the genusChusquea( Tribe Bambuseae of Bambusoideae ) , bilobates ( SCB ) inPharus( Pharoideae outgroup taxa of Bambusoideae ) and both bilobates ( SCB ) and transverse forms ( SCC ) inRaddiella( Tribe Olyreae of Bambusoideae ) . Krishnanet Al. , ( 2000 ) besides reported the presence of saddles ( SCS ) in the two species viz.Bambusa arundinaceaandDendrocalamus strictusof subfamily Bambusoideae.

From these consequences it can be proved that based on the frequence and morphotype structures the designation of species was rather possible and can be used as a tool for designation of the assorted species of bamboos even in the vegetive phase. The present study is an effort to fix an unreal key for the designation of the three species ofGigantochloaviz. ,G.albociliata, G.atroviolaceaandG.nigrociliata.

Mentions

  1. Pearsall, D. , Piperno, D. , Dinan, E.H. , Umlauf, M. , Zhao, Z and Benfer, R.A. 1995. Distinguishing rice (Oryza sativa,Poaceae ) from wildOryzaspecies through phytoliths analysis ; consequences of preliminary research.Economic Botany,49: 183-196.
  1. Zhao, Z. , Pearsall, R.A. , Benfer, Jr. and Piperno, D. 1998. Distinguishing rice (Oryza sativa,Poaceae ) from wildOryzaspecies through phytoliths analysis ; consequences of preliminary research.Economic Botany,52: 134-145.
  1. Pearsall, D. M. , Chandler-Ezell, K. , and Chandler-Ezell, A. 2003. Identifying corn in neotropical deposits and dirts utilizing cob phytoliths.Journal of Archaeological Science, 30 ( 5 ) , 611 –627.
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  6. PhytCore: Phytolith Data base Morphotype Catalogue 2014 updated. GEPEG, Research group for Palaeoecological and Geoarchaeological Studies, Department of Prehistory, Ancient history and Archaeology, UNIVERSITAT DE BARCELONA. 1-15.
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