Survey ON PIGMENTATION AND BRIGTHNESS IN FRESHWATER FISH

Introduction

Bright coloring material is an index of freshness and good quality fish from the consumers’ point of position. The care of the ruddy coloring material of the gills is an indicant of freshness and good quality ( Gopakumar 2006 ) Acccording to Gopakumar, 2006 convex ( pouching and protruded ) oculus is the step of the freshness of fish.Organoleptic trials are sometimes conducted to find the freshness of fish by utilizing gustatory sensation, sight and smell.Organoleptic tonss enable us to find whether a food-product is suited for consumption.The organoleptic features such as organic structure color visual aspect ( light/dark ) and ( shiny/dull ) , nature ofskin ( moist/dry ) , sludge ( present/absent ) .Texture, eyenatureandposition ( protruded/sunken ) , ( shiny/hemorrhage ) , coloring material of gills ( red/light red/brown/pale, xanthous etc ) are used to measure the grade of freshness in fish. ( Kamal,2000 ) .

India holding a rich fish eating community ( N.E, Bengal, Orissa, Bihar ) who prefers brilliantly coloured fish from the market and favor the bright coloring material as the freshness of the fish.

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There are several cosmetic fishes with their brightness and beautiful coloring material forms. A good figure of nutrient fishes holding bright colorss are recorded from Brahmaputra river system Assam ( Dutta 2000 ) North East India is identified as one of the most powerful biodiversity hot musca volitanss of the universe ( Kottelat and Whitten 1966 ) and ( Goswami et al 2012 ) described the North Eastern portion of India as one of the hot spots of fresh H2O fish biodiversity in the universe. About 109 species of bright fish subsequently termed as cosmetic fish have so far been recorded from North East India ( Biswas 1998 ) Although the Indian Major carps can non be categorised into cosmetic fishes but they besides bear certain colorss in their organic structure.

Furthermore, color is a characteristic characteristic of fish. Fish belonging to different species bear specific colorss which can besides be seen as their designation grade. The natural color is regulated by assorted factors like environment, endocrine or habitation.

Brightness and color of fish is non merely of import from consumers point of position but it has attractive force and significance for the life scientist.

MATARIALS AND METHODS

Fishs were collected from different set downing sites, local fish market, from fisherman gimmick every bit good as from certain pool of Guwahati in order to analyze the natural color of fish in their fresh and unrecorded status. Maximum attention was taken at the clip of aggregation to maintain the external morphology consumption for survey. The designation of fishes was done chiefly based on Talwar and Jingran ( 1991 ) .They were kept under observation for 6-7 hours to analyze the station mortem alterations.

Observation

The gathered fishes are identified and their brightness characters are evaluated ( Table1 ) . Further the different station mortem alterations are charaterised as shown in Table 2.

Table 1:Brightness and natural color of fish from different households.

Family

Fish species

Color Pattern

Cyprinidae

Catla catla

Slender fish organic structure is silvern but dark Grey along its dorsum. Pectoral and anal fives are with orange touch

Labeo rohita

It has an elongated organic structure. Head is little but it is with short feelers. Colour is blue or chocolate-brown Greies above. Scales are gray, ruddy or black

Labeo calbasu

The organic structure is blue green in coloring material with little caput and folded lips. The neb consists of four black coloured long shot.

Cirrhinus mrigala

Body colour normally dark Grey on the dorsum and silvery on the sides and belly. Fives are gray, tips of pelvic anal and lower lobe of caudal are tinged orange particularly dring the genteelness season.

Cirrhinus reba

Silvery whie on sides, dark Grey dorsally.Scales darker at edges.Fins may be tipped with orange.

Labeo gonius

Body posses little dark silvery graduated tables, caput is blackish, bears a glistening luster.Greenish black dorsally.

Labeao Bata

Dorsal half of wings aureate yellow, belly silvery.Pelvic and anal fives dark with orange ruddy tips.

Labeo boga

Silvery tinged with orange.Dorsal topographic point above thoracic fin.All fives with ruddy tinged.

Puntius sophore

Small size, ventral and anal fives are bright orange to yellow. Pectoral reddish with tips stained black. A deep unit of ammunition splodge at base of dorsal and caudal five

Puntius ticto

Reflecting silvery organic structure with two black splodges present in one above the thoracic five and one in caudal peduncle part.

Puntius conchonius

Deep aureate yellow edged oscillated splodge nowadays in the caudal peduncle part make it more attractive.

Puntius gelius

Deep aureate yellow edged oscillated splodge nowadays in the caudal peduncle region.Darker edges in the five bases are curious character.

Amblypharyngodon ocean sunfish

Bantam size, reasonably elongated, both profiles every bit arched.Colour silvery with a swoon set from behind operculum to the caudal base.Upper portion of organic structure and all the fives expect the dorsal finely dotted.

Barilius barilia

Moderate in size, elongated organic structure with silver coloring material and has 14-15 blue bars from back to sidelong line, fives are pinkish.

Barilius barna

Body color silvery white shooting with gold and 7-10 deep blue perpendicular sets.

Barilius bendelisis

Body color silvery shooting with purple, presence of 8-9 blackish perpendicular bars widening up to sidelong line and graduated tables tinged with black at their bases

Puntius sarana

Body is milky silvery, beautiful in form.

Ostreobrama cotio cotio

Color silvery with two splodges, one at the scruff and other at the base of dorsal five.

Garra gotyla gotyla

Moderate size. Body is dark brown with light pink belly and flank region.Ventral profile about horizontal.Snout obtuse and with a average proboscis beset with harsh pores.

Rasbora rasbora

Moderate size, outstanding sidelong longitudinal chevrons of bluish black color nowadays from caput to caudal fin base.

Parluciosoma ( Rasbora ) daniconius

Green yellow along the back dots.Lower half of the organic structure silvery white.Fins tinged yellow.presence of a bluish black longitudinal set runs along the sidelong line

Aspidoparia morar

Color silvery, darkest above.Fins yellowish

Cobitidae

Botia dario

An first-class yellow coloured organic structure with 7-8 chocolate-brown perpendicular sets and caudal five with 2 or 3 oblique bars on each side.

Bagridae

Mystus bleekeri

Colour grayish, darkish below and the sidelong line, two longitudinal sets and presence of a dark shoulder topographic point on either side below the sidelong line.

Mystus tengara

Excellent organic structure coloured with 4-5 chocolate-brown longitudinal sets present on wing.

Mystus vittatus

Colour by and large silvery or aureate with a black shoulder spot.On either side there are four bluish-black sets and one is present along the back.

Mystus cavasius

Body chocolate-brown grey dorsally, steel greies ventrally with a all right blue set along the sidelong line.

Aorichthys seengala

Four braces of shot, elongated upper jaw, long maxillary shot, profoundly divided caudal five are the chief characteristic of the fish.

Mystus dibrugrensis

A dark black horizontal band runs between operculum opening & A ; caudal peduncle part along the sidelong line with one each of big black humeral & A ; tympanic musca volitanss give it the cosmetic position.

Rita rita

Body laterally compressed and bit by bit tapered towards the caudal.Dorsal and thoracic fives with a strong saw-toothed spinne.Morphological visual aspect is alone.

Clariidae

Clarius batrachus

Head is slighthly compressed & amp ; enclosed by plates.Body is brown or dark grey in coloring material. Spines absent, two braces of feelers present on upper and lower jaw.

Heteropneustidae

Heteropneustes dodos

Body is blackish, two spinal columns present on dorsal side.Two braces of feelers present on upper and lower jaw.

Anabantidae

Anabus testudineus

A really active fish.Colour gray black and ventral part tinged in yellow.A outstanding dark splodge at caudal peduncle and a black topographic point found at the base of thoracic five.

Gobiidae

Glossogobius giuris

Colour yellowish or gray with irregular marker and six sets present on the body.Dorsal fives supported by spinal columns, anal with a weak spinal column.

Nandidae

Nandus rhea

Body colours blackish tinged with Grey, presence of irregular Blochs along the sides.Body with 3 wide wavy sets, another short set on caudal part, spotted fives.

Schilbilidae

Silonea silondia

Body is silvern in coloring material.

Belontidae

Polyacanthus fasciatus

Brown ruddy with bluish green coloring materials 9-10 blue, green cross chevrons present on the side and slanted towards the rear. Dorsal, anal and caudal fives are variegated white and orange. Filamentous beam of ventral tinged ruddy and opercles, chest and belly are aglow bluish green.

Polyacanthus lalia

Small size, bright coloring material and docile.

Channidae

Channa punctatus

Dark coloring material organic structure with several black sets base on ballss from dorsal to ventral, caudal with alternate black sets

Channa striata

Body colour variable from Grey to black and xanthous sets below the sidelong line

Channa marulius

Body color blackish and a set go throughing from anterior to posterior along the sidelong line and an simple eye at the upper part of caudal five

Channa gachua

Moderate size flank part with several dark splodges, odd fives dark with ruddy borders

Channa barca

Multicolour organic structure makes it an first-class cosmetic fish

Ambassidae

Chanda nama

Bantam size, a silvern longitudinal set nowadays to anal five base and fives tinged bright orange.

Notopteridae

Notopterus chitala

Body color varies from silvery to black.It has a really long attractive anal fin.Olive green dorsal and distinguishable black topographic point on anal five

Notopterus notopterus

Unique organic structure signifier & A ; presence of minute dark musca volitanss on caput and body.Dorsal part has olive green color.

Clupeidae

Gadusia chapra

An ideal size and peaceful in nature.Silvery coloured organic structure.

Mugilidae

Rhinomugil corsula

Dull brownish coloring material organic structure & A ; aureate tinged fins.They are migratory fish.

Sicamugil cascasia

Silvery organic structure with a big xanthous splodge at the caudal five base.They are migratory fish.

Beloniidae

Xenentodon cancila

The silvery needle fish possess 4-5 splodges in between thoracic & A ; anal fin.A horizontal set of silvern coloring material tallies laterally along the wing

Schilbeidae

Alia colia

Clambering silvery organic structure & A ; black coloring material caudal five & A ; other fives borders are grayish.Body extended and strongly compressed.

Siluridae

Ompok bimaculatus

Very delicate with twilight & A ; black topographic point behind opercular opening on sidelong line & A ; at caudal peduncle above the sidelong line.Colour silvery tinged with pink on the venters, a black splodge behind operculum nowadays.

Ompok pabda

Body color silvery frequently tinged with gold.Two sidelong dark sets on the organic structure with a dark shoulder topographic point on the sidelong line.

Ompok pabo

Very delicate with active with silvery Grey and light coloring materials tinged with little musca volitanss.

Wallago attu

Head is larger than bole, organic structure is laterally compressed.Tail is extraordinally long & A ; slender.Two braces of barbells are present on the head.Mouth is big jaw holding teeth.Body color varies from blackish yellow to whitish.

Table2:Post mortem alterations are shown in different households.

Partss of Fish

Family

0-2 hours

2-4 hours

4-6 hours

6 Hours onwards

COLOUR OF SKIN

Cyprinidae

Bright, irredescent pigmentation, no deformation

Pigmentation bright, no bright

Stain starts

Dull pigmentation

Bagridae

No alteration in coloring material

Shiny bright Begin to melt

Pigmentation in the procedure of going discoloured

Colour become dull

Siluridae

Bright, no deformation

Fading of coloring material Begins

Dull pigmentation

Colour is wholly fade

Channidae

Irredescent pigmenation

No important alteration in coloring material

Distortion Begins

Dull pigmentation

Eye

Cyprinidae

Convex, cornea, black,

Bright student

Convex and somewhat sunken, black, dull student

Flat, Opalescent

Cornea, Opaque

Student

Concave in the Centre, Milky cornea, Grey student

Bagridae

Protruded, pupil bright

Protruded, somewhat

Sunken, dull student

Opalescent cornea, opaque student

Concave, Grey student

Siluridae

Convex, bright student

Convex, dull student

Cornea opalescent, opaque student

Concave, Grey student

Channidae

Bulging, bright student

Bulging, dull student

Flat, opaque student

Concave in the Centre

Gill

Cyprinidae

Bright coloring material, no mucous secretion

Less coloured, little hints of mucous secretion

Becoming discoloured, opaque mucous secretion

Yellow, milklike mucous secretion

Bagridae

Red coloring material

Less ruddy

Brown

Dark brown

Siluridae

Bright coloring material

Less coloring material

Becoming discoloured

Yellow

Channidae

Red coloring material

Less ruddy

Brown

Dark brown

Flesh

Cyprinidae

Firm, elastic, smooth surface

Less elastic

Slightly soft

Soft

Bagridae

Firm, elastic

Less elastic

Slightly flaccid

Flaccid

Siluridae

Firm, smooth surface

Less elastic

Waxy, dull surface

Soft

Channidae

Firm, elastic

Less elastic

Velvety

Scales easy detached from skin surface instead wrinkled

Texture

Cyprinidae

Aqueous, transparent,

mucous secretion

Slightly cloudy

mucous secretion

Milky mucous secretion

Opaque mucous secretion

Bagridae

Transparent, mucous secretion

Cloudy mucous secretion

Cloudy mucous secretion

Opaque mucous secretion

Siluridae

Aqueous, mucous secretion

Cloudy mucous secretion

Cloudy mucous secretion

Opaque

mucous secretion

Channidae

Transparent, mucous secretion

Slightly cloudy

Mucus

Milky mucous secretion

Opague

mucous secretion

Consequence

The postmortem alterations happening in fish are really rapid.After decease, fish undergo many sensory, anatomical, physiological alterations.

In the present surveies wholly 55 fishes belonging to different households are taken as the theoretical account to analyze the brightness characters.Further, an analysis has been made on the alterations of some characters such as color of the tegument, oculus, gills, flesh, texture etc. In Table 2 the alterations of features from 0 to 6 hours has been shown from the fishes of the concerned families.It has been found that the coloring material of the fish starts melting after 2 hours.The texture of newly procured fish specimens were found to be steadfast during the initial 1sthour.However, there was impariment in quality of the texture as it became softer with the transition of hive awaying time.By the terminal of 6 hours at that place was entire deformation of color. In the initial two hours, the coloring material of the gill was ruddy, so bit by bit it started going visible radiation ruddy to brown.The damp and slime province of tegument persisted upto the 2neodymiumhr before going prohibitionist within the 3rdto 4Thursdayhr.

FACTORS REGULATING THE BRIGHTNESS AND COLOURATION OF FISH.

There are assorted factors that regulate the brightness and color of fish. Aquatic beings are exposed to extremely variable visible radiation environments, which can impact the coloring material forms.

1.Temperature:

Temperature has a certain impact on the organic structure color of fish.For illustration, it is in the winter months, when the H2O is coldest, that the Anabus species look their best.The ice chest temperature causes them to halt feeding, and their coloring material intensifies as white becomes whiter and ruddy becomes redder.In summer, the heater H2O causes the black coloring material of the same Anabus species to fade.When believing about coloring material and seasonal alterations in H2O temperature, the general regulation is simple, cold H2O enhances colour, particularly black.

2.Light:

Light is one of the environmental factors deeply impacting fish life where it has been seen that in fish life, visible radiation can hold several life impacting features for illustration quality ( Boeuf and Le Bail, 1999 ) Experimental designs utilizing illuming or tank color have shown important difference in behavioral and physiological responses in fishes ( Fanta 1995 ; Papoutsoglou et al ; 2000 ; Volpato et Al. ; 2004 ) All the civilized fishes had lighter coloring material than wild fish species which were darker in visual aspect.

3.Flow of water/different home ground:Hydrobiologically the efficient ecosystem of a reservoir is responsible for stronger texture and dark color in wild fish species. The fishes from reservoir exhibit a inclination to take an active and nimble life ; relatively the fishes from pools are docile. Reservoir have the potency of enhanced quality fish production ( Gupta et al ; 2012 ) There is a huge defference in the feature of the dead H2O organic structure of pool and free fluxing ecosystem of reservoir ( Piska and Krishna 2009 ) .

4.Turbidity:

In a turbid fresh water home ground, the dissolved organic affair tends to absorb short wavelength light towards environment that are rich in long wavelength ( orange/red ) . The increased brightness of ruddy colorss in environments rich in organic affairs could move to heighten coloring material form, clonscoiusness, leting persons to maintains communicating in altered ocular environments ( Jenifer et.al.2012 ) . Ocular signals mediated through differential coloring material forms frequently play an of import function in the control of agonistic behaviour in fish ( Huntingford and Turner, 1987 ) . Sometime it has been seen that societal surbordination consequences in blackening of the tegument and skin darkeining of the low-level fish may move as a societal singal ( Abbott et.al ; 1985 ; O connor et.al ; 1999 ; Hoglund et.al. 2000 ) .

5.Aquatic flora:

The presence of H2O jacinth in the pool degrades the quality of the H2O, which in bend disturbs the normal life style of fish and its quality.This may hold impact on the brightness and color of fish as for illustration it is seen that the fish are by and large dark in visual aspect in a pool where there is H2O jacinth. Excess flora may sometimes forestall sufficient sunshine to make the waterbodies which in bend prevent proper photosynthesis taking to insufficient dissolved O doing a hazard for fish life.

6.Pesticides:

Excessive usage of pesticides amendss the ecosystem, every bit good as nutrient ironss and therefore impact the wellness and safety of the life organism.These pesticides leave residues after their application and it contaminates the dirt and H2O, and presenting relentless menaces to non mark dwellers of the ecosystem, ( Magare and Patil,2000 ) .The accretion of pesticides in aquatic beings and non-target animate beings such as fish, can ensue in increased susceptibleness to diseases, reduced generative capablenesss and altered growing rates ( Elton,1970 ) .This in bend affects the color of fishes, fish look really pale and dull in coloring material.

7.Hardness of H2O:Sometime depositionof heavy metals or industrial residues causes the H2O to go so difficult from its normal status that aquatic beings largely fishes, are extremely affected.Hardness affects pigmentation of fish as it reduces concentration of the coloring pigments like retinoids and carotenoids in the fish organic structure.

Discussion

There are many bright fresh water fishes in the Brahmaputra river system, out of which 55 species were studied. Though color is an of import characteristic from the consumer’s point of position every bit good as the life scientist to find the freshness of fish. Now a yearss panel of adept members judge the freshness of fish has been followed by organoleptic features and therefore scaling of fish utilizing organoleptic mark by multilingual guide.Yet most of the clip the natural colorss in their unrecorded conditions are regulated by certain environmental factors like visible radiation, temperature, salt, turbidness of the aquatic H2O organic structures and non environmental factors like hormonal ordinance during engendering season. Furthermore the different home grounds may take to some difference in natural color and brightness of fish from same species, as for illustration the cultured fishes have ligher coloring material than wild type of same fish species which is darker in visual aspect.

With the proper cognition about the diet and pigment molecules responsible for bright colorss like carotenoids, melanin etc, fishes can be cultivated. Furthermore by Restoration of these pigments one can cultivate fish which will do them more attractive and increases their value in market.

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