The present methods being utilized by instructors. counsellors and decision makers in covering with instances of undiscipline and juvenile delinquency in our secondary schools have non been sufficient or effectual for managing all delinquent behaviors in our schools. hence the high prevalence of undiscipline and delinquency issues. This paper is non geared towards puting difficult and fast regulations on how to use the mechanism of sublimation in covering with juvenile delinquency. but at pulling the attending of the school counsellor to the relevancy of the rule of Sublimation in covering with juvenile delinquency. and to excite the counsellor’s creativeness in planing programmes that will function as alternate mercantile establishments for available sexual and aggressive energies in adolescence to forestall them from imparting this sexual and aggressive energies straight into delinquent behaviors like colza. sexual torment. vandalization of belongings. contending. armed robbery. terrorist act etc. The paper is hence tailored to turn to the undermentioned: * Who is a juvenile delinquent?
* What are the present methods used by counsellors in undertaking juvenile Delinquency and what is missing in these methods?
* What is Sublimation mechanism of Psychoanalytical Counseling Theory? Recommendations are given at the terminal of this paper.
Sublimation is one of the defense mechanism mechanisms defined in Freud’s
psychoanalytical theory of reding as one of the ways in which the self-importance trades with anxiousness doing state of affairss in the person. This mechanism could be a really utile tool in forestalling and managing juvenile delinquency issues in secondary schools in Nigeria. The value of sublimation has been recognized a long piece ago and forms the footing of the Psychoanalytical theory of calling pick ; in which calling pick is regarded as a direct effect of sublimation whereby people’s personality traits and urges lead them to take callings that will fulfill their basic urges. What in the first case is sublimation?
The Oxford Dictionary of Psychology ( Colman. 2003 ) defined sublimation in Psychoanalysis as a defense mechanism mechanism by which a repressed or unconscious thrust that is denied satisfaction is diverted into a more acceptable channel or signifier of look. as when aggression is diverted into playing or watching violent athleticss. or when libido is directed into artistic or originative activity. Negative psychic energies ( sexual and aggressive energies. libido ) which harmonizing to Freud is available to human existences ; embedded in the Idaho. which could hold been expressed straight in signifier of delinquent sexual and aggressive behaviors by juveniles can be diverted into applaudable and rewarding cultural. societal and artistic chases. These sexual and aggressive energies are a portion of the decease inherent aptitude in worlds referred to by Freud as ‘thanatos’ . In classical depth psychology human personality has two basic impulses: * The impulse to populate or life inherent aptitude called EROS
* The impulse to decease or decease inherent aptitude called THANATOS
Gross ( 2010 ) in his account of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of aggression said that Thanatos represents an congenital destructiveness directed chiefly against the ego with the purpose of cut downing tenseness and aggression to the barest lower limit ; in an effort to reinvent the ideal province that was enjoyed in the uterus. and the lone manner of traveling back to the ideal. is through decease. Self directed aggression nevertheless. struggles with the life inherent aptitudes. Eros ; but because of the strength of the destructive urge it can non be suppressed but is being displaced towards others in the signifier of inappropriate and socially unacceptable sexual and aggressive behavior. “More positively. aggression can be sublimated into athletics. physical businesss and domination and command of nature and the universe in general” ( Gross 2010. Pp. 451 ) . Deviating sexual and aggressive energies or sublimating this energy is the focal point of this paper. If these destructive energies are diverted into socially acceptable chases. there will be none of the destructive energy available to juveniles for prosecuting in delinquent behaviors.
It is pertinent at this point to guarantee that the footings ‘juvenile’ and ‘delinquents’ or ‘juvenile delinquency’ is decently understood. Juvenile delinquency is utilized in this work to mention to a series of behaviors engaged in by immature or vernal individuals ( juveniles ; harmonizing to the Illustrated Oxford Dictionary Revised edition ) that is damaging to life and belongings of the society. which will be considered condemnable behaviors if exhibited by grownups. Delinquent behavior targeted in this paper are chiefly behaviours related to sexual and aggressive energies ; among which are ; vandalization of belongings. sexual torment of all sorts including colza. combat. armed robbery. intimidation. cultism. all gangster behaviour etc. These behaviors characterize our secondary schools and prevent the schools from accomplishing their intent of wholistic instruction and development of single pupils ; hence changeless attempts to maintain these delinquent activities at its barest.
The fact that these behaviors still prevail at a upseting rate in our educational establishments. apparent by studies of such activities daily in the intelligence and other paperss: The Dailytimes on the 29th of October 2011. published a instance of one Franca Ogbu of Modibbo Adama University of Technology. Yola who was bathed in acid by Nkire Bright Chibuzo a fellow pupil merely because she failed to accept his progresss for friendly relationship ; a statement in the World bank publication in 2007 ; that force and other signifiers of torment in schools are common in many states ( World bank. 2007 ; in Ajuwon. Fawole and Osungbade ; 2011 ) . Laetitia’s ( 2010 ) averment that “sexual maltreatment by male pupils is peculiarly debatable at secondary school degree. with most studies placing them as the premier culprits of sexual abuse” ( p. 23 ) and the fact that the ratio of attempted to completed self-destruction among striplings is much higher than that for any other age group. anyplace from 50:1 to 200:1 ( Garland and Zigler 1993. in Weiten and Llyod. 2003: Pp 309 ) ; motivates the proposal of a new method which in my believe counsellors chiefly. educational psychologists and instructors can use to fascilitate the attainment of the ends of the educational establishments and aid the transmutation of our state. Nigeria. WHO IS A JUVENILE DELINQUENT?
The Illustrated Oxford Dictionary Revised Edition defines the word juvenile merely as a immature or vernal individual while The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English defines delinquency as illegal or immoral behavior or actions particularly by immature people ; and delinquent as behaving in a manner that is illegal or that society does non O.K. of. From the above definitions we can deduce a definition of a juvenile delinquent to be a immature individual prosecuting in illegal and immoral behaviors or acting in ways non acceptable by society. Upadhya and Singh ( 2008 ) states that Juvenile delinquents are basically felons. child in age and they violate the jurisprudence of the land and commit offenses like larcenies. chancing. rip offing. choice pocketing. slaying. robbery. devastation of belongings. force and assault. vagrancy. snatch. abduction. and other sexual offenses. He besides pointed out the fact that juvenile delinquency should be taken as a ruddy signal and serious challenge to the society.
It should be paid attending to because if non decently handled. immature delinquents go a lasting concern to society. Ayanniyi ( 2011 ) besides describes delinquency as being at the base of every other menace to the well being of striplings. He asserts that it takes the signifier of rebellion due to parental misdirection of independency. aggression in order to show stamina ; gender due to miss of ego control. and hooliganism due to heightened emotionality. Many striplings engage in one signifier of delinquent behavior or the other during their secondary school old ages and a batch of factors could be responsible for or lend to this Acts of the Apostless of sexual and aggressive force like. socioeconomic background. hapless subject methods utilized by parents and instructors. ignorance etc. but one dimension of the job that I would wish to convey to visible radiation is the fact that every person possesses libido and because striplings are at the extremum of their development libidinal energies could besides be at its extremum.
These energies must be burned either positively or negatively. the chief push of this paper is to excite Counselors to guarantee that these energies do non happen negative look in the striplings by imparting them positively. There is no oppugning the fact that striplings. adolescents or juveniles have a inclination towards delinquent behavior and it is obvious that most delinquent behaviors are related to sex and aggression. the bone of contention so is the cause of this inclination towards delinquency in most striplings. Many grounds have been proposed for these behaviors. Hall ( 1904 ) in Gross ( 2010 ) characterized teenage as a period of storm and emphasis. Harmonizing to Gross ( 2010 ) grounds suggest that emotional reactions are more intense and volatile during adolescence compared with other periods of life but more of import indexs of storm and emphasis are mental upsets and delinquent behavior. hence battle in delinquent behavior is an indicant of storm and emphasis. Some research workers cite early adulthood as one cause of delinquency ( Brukks – Grunn and waren. 1985 and Peterson and Crocket. 1985 both cited in Gross. 2010 ) .
A survey ; carried out by Capsi et Al ( 1993 ) cited in Gross ( 2010 ) . of all the kids born in Dunedin. New Zealand between April 1972 and March 1973. followed up every two old ages from age 3 to 15 found out that early maturing misss will be more at hazard for: early delinquency ( interrupting Windowss. acquiring rummy. stealing etc. . acquaintance with delinquent equals and delinquency. utilizing arms. shoplifting etc. ) Several theories have been propounded to explicate aggression ; Lorenz’s ethological attack considers aggression to be natural in all species and of import to the evolutionary development of the species. This means that every person has the inclination to be aggressive and supports the fact that we need to airt that aggressiveness instincts into aggressiveness in artistic chases. aggressiveness in cultural shows ; here in Africa some of our cultural dances involves a batch of aggressive energies. if the aggressive energies in adolescents is channeled towards cultural engagement which will be rewarded there will be small aggressive energies left for offense.
Fraustration – Aggression Hypothesis ( FAH ) by Dollard et Al ( 1939 ) in Gross ( 2010 ) agreed with Freud that aggression is unconditioned but they argued that it will be triggered merely by thwarting state of affairss and events. We could hold with this hypothesis to the extent that possibly the aggression displayed by juveniles in Nigeria is a reaction to the frustrating economic. societal. political and spiritual crises in the state ; like deficiency of employment chances. hapless wellness installations. subjugation of the hapless by the affluent etc. In the facet of immoral behavior. World Wide Web. teenhelp. com published that despite diminutions in rates of adolescent gestation in the U. S. . about 820. 000 teens become pregnant each twelvemonth. That means that 34 per centum of adolescents have at least one gestation before they turn 20. 79 per centum of adolescents who become pregnant are single. The figure of unwanted gestations is peculiarly high among adolescents ( Dray. 2012 ) and largely terminates with an abortion.
This statistics are apparent of the fact that socially unacceptable sexual behavior is every bit prevailent among adolescents. My sentiment is in line with Freud’s theory. I believe that at birth sexual and aggressive energies in signifier of libido are available to all persons but are inconsequential at childhood due to the fact that kids have non developed the physical capacity to expose this aggression in really harmful ways and besides because they are capable to command by grownups. but in teenage as they grow towards independency in determination devising they besides develop the capacity to expose aggression in harmful ways. This coupled with the legion physical and cognitive alterations they experience which give rise to several crisis like the individuality crisis described by Erickson ( 1968 ) in Weiten and Llyod ( 2003 ) . peer group force per unit area etc predisposes them to use sexual and aggressive energies wrongly.
Whatever be the instance Juvenile delinquency is a societal unease in Nigeria as a state and peculiarly in our secondary schools and is a arrow to the fact that reding and educational psychologists have to lift up to the juncture. alteration or follow new schemes in other to better the present state of affairs. It is of import to observe that pedagogues soon have evolved and adopted a batch of utile schemes in covering with the job of juvenile delinquency. without which. I believe the scenario would hold been worst. Let us analyze some of these methods. WHAT ARE THE PRESENT METHODS USED BY COUNSELORS IN TACKLING JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND WHAT IS LACKING IN THESE METHODS? In most secondary schools in Nigeria. the counsellor’s occupation is to form calling twenty-four hours ( s ) or hebdomad. handle uninterrupted appraisal records and to go to to the concerns of pupils who come to the guidance clinic voluntarily or are reported to the school governments for misbehavior.
This may non be sufficient because many pupils will non on their ain semen to the counsellor with their jobs and many instances of aggression and sexual misbehaviour will travel unreported. hence a demand for a preventative method like sublimation that addresses the cause of delinquency. Teachers normally use penalty ( aversive stimulation even at the pre – primary and primary degrees of instruction ) and support to undertake job behavior. Punishment as we all know should non be a preferable disciplinary method due to the fact that it has several negative deductions to the behavior of the kid. Weiten and Llyod. ( 2003 ) have pointed out three negative side effects of penalty as follows: * Punishment frequently triggers negative emotional responses. including fright. anxiousness. choler and bitterness. which can make a assortment of jobs including ill will towards the individual transporting out the penalty. * Heavy penalty can ensue in the general suppression of behavior. and scholars who are often punished may go withdrawn and inhibited due to fear.
Thorndike’s jurisprudence of consequence besides implies that when larning in the schoolroom is followed by a negative effect like failure or penalty acquisition is inhibited. * Physical penalty frequently leads to aggressive behavior. with kids frequently subjected to physical penalty going more aggressive than the mean child. This indicates that penalty could really increase aggressive delinquent behavior and so its usage in the acquisition environment should be limited if non wholly avoided. preventative methods of behaviour direction stay a first option. Besides the fact that teachers lack accomplishments on how to decently use both penalty and support for behaviour alteration normally leads to intensifying the job. Managing delinquent behaviors in the schools should be a collateral attempt between the school disposal. the counsellors. the schoolroom instructors and professional educational psychologists who are skilled in behaviour alteration techniques. but few if any secondary school in Nigeria employs the services of a professional behavior director.
Beyond the disciplinary efforts at behaviour direction or direction of juvenile delinquency. the focal point of this paper is on a preventative method whereby. energies that would hold been channeled into delinquent behavior are diverted into societal. cultural and artistic chases therefore forestalling juvenile delinquency in schools. WHAT IS SUBLIMATION MECHANISM OF PSYCHOANALYTICAL COUNSELLING THEORY Sublimation mechanism is one of the defense mechanism mechanisms proposed by Sigmund Freud as methods by which the self-importance trades with struggles and anxiousness doing state of affairss in the person. Freud believes that persons are in a changeless province of struggle and anxiousness due to ineffective kineticss between the three subsystems of the single the Idaho. the self-importance and the superego. due to the fact that repressed stuffs
in the unconscious degree of consciousness are ever fighting to come to consciousness and are continuously suppressed unconsciously by the person. due to developmental issues which result in struggles. like the individuality crisis identified by Erickson ( 1968 ) in Weiten and Llyod ( 2003 ) and the Quest for Independence identified by Osarenren ( 2002 ) and from day-to-day happenings.
He besides believes that Conflicts rooted in childhood experiences or prolonged and troublesome ; and that sexual and aggressive urges are more likely to hold far making effects and are at the root of personality upsets. neuroticism or maladjustment ( Weiten and Llyod. 2003 ) . Freud took this place based on his belief that sex and aggression are capable to more complex and equivocal societal controls than other basic biological impulses and are thwarted more regularly and that the norms regulating sexual and aggressive behaviors are really elusive and capable to misunderstanding. this potentially harmful sexual and aggressive urge could be diverted into less harmful. originative. productive and socially acceptable chases through a procedure of supplanting known as sublimation. What is this supplanting? Displacement is the procedure of directing the end of psychological energy from one object to another ; it can besides be referred to as object permutation.
When the object which is supposed to be used to fulfill tenseness decrease is no longer available or has lost some of its power. the single redirects psychological energy towards another object for satisfaction of tenseness decrease and at any point that the new object fails to fulfill tenseness decrease it is displaced for another object. or substituted with another object. ( Hansen. Warner and Sevic ; 1977 ) . Weiten and Llyod ( 2003 ) specify supplanting as deviating emotional feelings normally anger from the original beginning to a replacement mark. This is really utile in guidance ; a counsellor can assist an angry or normally angry juvenile to ever travel to the gym and package a punching bag when angry alternatively of contending or to follow pugilism as a athletics. Sublimation as a signifier of supplanting harmonizing to Freud involves imparting aggressive or sexual energy into rational. human-centered. cultural and artistic chases ( Hansen et al ; 1977 ) . It is a procedure whereby the single modifies the look of crude urge into behaviors that are socially acceptable.
Wade and Tavris ( 2000. p 478 ) show a similar position saying that sublimation is when displacement “serves a higher cultural or socially utile purpose. as in the creative activity of art or innovations. ” Sublimation allows us to move out socially unacceptable urges by change overing them into a more acceptable signifier. A common illustration is when a sadist becomes a sawbones or a tooth doctor. or when a individual sing utmost choler adopts kick packaging as a manner of venting the choler tolerably. It is a deflecting release for psychic energy created when we are faced with the disagreement of uncomfortable ideas ; illustration I am angry.
I go out and chop wood. I end up with a utile heap of firewood. I am besides fitter and cipher is harmed. a individual with strong sexual impulses becomes an creative person. a adult male who has extra-marital desires takes up family fixs when his married woman is out of town. Many athleticss and games are sublimations of aggressive impulses. as we sublimate the desire to contend into the ritualistic activities of formal competition. World Wide Web. changingminds. org If sufficient options for deflecting release of psychic energies are made available in secondary school the incidences of delinquency should cut down significantly. sublimation will besides be a better option for managing undiscipline in schools than penalty. RECOMMENDATIONS
In the visible radiation of the bow traveling the undermentioned recommendations are given for the usage of sublimation in pull offing behavior jobs in secondary schools: * Train pupils with job sexual and aggressive behaviors on how to sublimate sexual and aggressive energies. For case a pupil who ever gets into a battle could be trained to work off from heated statements into cycling or even painting a image of the statement scenario or the individual he was reasoning with in his room and a pupil who sexually harasses misss could take up larning to play animal melodies on a piano or painting images of beautiful misss as an mercantile establishment for release of sexual energies. * Foster creativeness in the striplings by both direct and indirect instruction of creativeness. The psychoanalytical theory of creativeness depicts creativeness as the sublimation of sexual energy and libidinal wonders ( Bargquist. 2000 cited in Ortese. 2009 ; Fairbairn. 1938 ; and Grotjahn. 1957 ; both cited in Ortese 2009 ) have besides proposed that creative activity is damages for destructive urges.
Fostering creativeness is one of the cardinal ways to sublimate destructive energies. * See to the creative activity of several nines such as scientific discipline and proficient nines. imperativeness nines. play societies. argument nine. cultural military personnels. misss guide. Man ‘O war Society. boys scout etc. in secondary schools where this nines are non already existing. In schools where this nines are in being. counselors should intercede with staff members to guarantee this nines are functional and that there is assortment in the activities of this nines to keep freshness and sustain involvement of pupils. The rules of motive should be applied to keep involvement where motive is non intrinsic but normally sublimation activities should be per se motivated. Engagement in the legion activities of the nine will run down up sexual and aggressive energies go forthing non for delinquent Acts of the Apostless. Activities of Man O’ War nine for case will run down up a batch of aggressive energies.
* The counsellor should utilize every technique within their agencies to guarantee the engagement of every pupil in at least one extracurricular activity of their pick in line with their involvement and abilities ; as with calling pick which harmonizing to Brill ( 1949 ) in Olusakin and Ubangha ( 1998 ) . is non a consequence of an inadvertent agreement but as a agency of sublimation ; in his sentiment peoples personality traits and urges lead them to take callings that will fulfill their basic life urges. so I think that striplings will take extracurricular activities that will supply an mercantile establishment for their sexual and aggressive energies. Pulling from the rule of supplanting explained above they may be a demand for the stripling to alter from one activity to another if he finds the first activity insufficient for the dissipation of sexual and aggressive energies. unneeded limitations should non be put on the adolescents refering the activity to partake in.
* Students who contravene the school regulations and ordinances alternatively of being punished could be given options of undertakings to work on or partake in similar. picture. horticulture. larning how to play some musical instruments. take parting in featuring competitions etc. . depending on the nature of their misbehaviour. * Planing learning experiences in such a manner as to guarantee active engagement of the pupils is another manner of assuming what can be described in scientific term as free extremist energies. * In most instances counsellors should promote group work in transporting out both curricular and extracurricular activities. designation with work groups could supply that sense of belonging among equals that adolescents normally seek and could take to turning away of the demand to conform to peer force per unit area from bad groups and mobster groups merely to ‘feel among’ . * Keeping this mechanism in head counsellors should be originative as to agencies through which they can re – channel sexual and aggressive energies in striplings into wholesome and acceptable ventures or chases. Decision
There are several techniques that could be derived from the legion guidance theories and utilised in public presentation of the counsellor’s responsibilities in the Secondary schools. The rule of sublimation is one of such techniques. Counselors in secondary schools should avail themselves the chance of bettering their public presentation by experimenting with this mechanism. Care should be taken nevertheless. to analyze more and obtain a complete apprehension of how this mechanism can be applied and to plan good thought out programmes in this respect.
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