Sumerian Civilization Essay, Research Paper
Civilizations have been created throughout the history of the universe. There have been 100s of established civilisations that have worked because of three of import cardinal traits. A civilisation must hold metropoliss, specialised workers, and some signifier of composing system. ( Krieger.et.al.31,32 ) These three things are what scholars believe do a civilization & # 8220 ; civilized & # 8221 ; . ( Krieger.et.al.31 )
The Sumerians, who lived in the southern portion of Mesopotamia, are known as the first group of people to go civilised. ( Krieger.et.al.31 ) The first, and most of import measure they took was the creative activity of metropoliss. Even the word civilisation comes from the Latin word for metropolis. ( Krieger.et.al.31 ) The Sumerians had built at least a twelve metropoliss by 3000 B.C. ( Krieger.et.al.31 ) A metropolis is non merely people populating closely together, it is a communing centre for people to merchandise, sell and socialise. A trading centre is critical to a civilisation. This is where civilians get different goods and services that they may non hold in their society. Each individual specializes in a peculiar sort of work and exchanges goods with other specializers. ( Krieger.et.al.32 ) These specialised workers are the 2nd cardinal trait in making a civilisation.
The Sumerians lived in Sumer, one of their twelve or so metropoliss. ( Krieger.et.al.31 ) In Sumer, Scribes, twenty-four hours in and twenty-four hours out, would compose letters for people, copy down Torahs, and maintain concern records for merchandisers. ( Krieger.et.al.32 ) They were corner rocks in this peculiar society. They were besides specializers. They performed their occupation in exchange for nutrient, vesture, and shelter. ( Krieger.et.al.32 ) Seems like a pretty sweet trade if you knew how to read and compose. There were many types of specializers for all types of occupations ; headmasters, merchandisers, priests, throwers, smiths, and weavers. ( Krieger.et.al.32 ) The specializers who made things by manus were called craftsmans. They became a really of import societal group as metropoliss developed. ( Krieger.et.al.32 ) An impo
rtant specialisation was obtaining nutrient. As people became more and more skilled in making this, surpluses in nutrient were created.
( Krieger.et.al.32 ) In Sumer, excess nutrient was traded to other specializers for their goods and sometimes to pay for revenue enhancements. ( Krieger.et.al.32 ) It was a really efficient manner of acquiring everyone what they wanted. Now, because there were people who were truly good at acquiring nutrient, raising nutrient was no longer a full clip occupation. ( Krieger.et.al.32 ) This made it possible for people to specialise. Get it.
The 3rd and most utile trait of a civilisation is a system of composing. This besides made its introduction in Sumer with the Sumerians. ( Krieger.et.al.32 ) There signifier of authorship was called & # 8220 ; cuneiform & # 8221 ; , which is a Latin word for cuneus. ( Krieger.et.al.32 ) Writing became a necessity in metropolis life for priests, merchandisers, or anyone else that had to maintain path of something. ( Krieger.et.al.33 ) Finally, other signifiers of composing came into drama such as pictographs, ideograph, and cuneiform marks. ( Krieger.et.al.33 ) Pictographs were symbols of normally traded points such as cattle, a donkey, or a poke of grain. ( Krieger.et.al.33 ) Ideograms were thoughts that had a related symbol such as a house for safety. ( Krieger.et.al.33 ) Cuneiform marks stood for syllables alternatively of a whole word. ( Krieger.et.al.33 ) With these they could set together anything from concern records to poems. ( Krieger.et.al.33 ) Because they now had a manner of tracking things through authorship, their society could work on a more efficient and accurate footing.
These three co-occuring traits of a civilisation have been put together many times over 1000s of old ages and have successfully created many civilisations. I think that bookmans are decidedly right in presuming that these are the chief traits one must hold in seting together a on the job civilisation. I find it astonishing that people were pass oning and trading and finally living 1000s of old ages ago. It is truly interesting to read about how civilisations were started and how they advanced through the ages.