The annotated bibliography includes 10 different articles that talk medical touristry and its sustainability. The research besides highlights few different types of medical touristry such as ayurvedic, dental and generative and besides negotiations about the issues in medical touristry such as organ trafficking and medical malpractices which affects the sustainability of this industry.

Medical touristry is going more and more popular across the Earth and Asiatic states like Thailand, India and Singapore have become the chief hub for this industry. The ground for their popularity is its geographical nature, clime and cost. As a consequence, many tourers take up medical intervention like massage therapy while they are basking their trip.

Some of the writers have stated the few grounds for the roar in this industry. First, people are tired of waiting in long waiting lines for their intervention. Second, the place state does non hold the necessary equipments or the physicians are non qualified to handle the unwellness like ayurvedic intervention. Third, people find it cheap to acquire a surgery done in Asiatic states like India over USA.

The articles look at the pros and cons of medical touristry and weigh the sustainability of this industry consequently. Some of the authors have discussed medical touristry sustainable plenty, as the industry takes into the history of the socio-economic factors. Some of the writers have predicted that, by the terminal of 2012, the turnover of this industry in Asia would be around 4.4 billion dollars. Hence many states are seeking to venture out in this industry.

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1. John, C. ( 2006 ) . Medical Tourism: Sea, Sun, sand and surgery. Tourism Management. Vol 27 ( publish 6 ) . Pp 1093-1100

This article illustrates the beginning of medical touristry. The cause for roar in this industry is the high outgo for medical intervention in the place state, patients had to wait in long waiting lines for intervention and some states had high engineering and sustainable environment which would suit in the patient ‘s budget.

Although many states are seeking to venture out in this industry, Asiatic states have become a cardinal hub for medical touristry. Some people refer medical touristry as an abroad travel to obtain medical, surgical and dental attention along with their vacation trip. The chief countries of surgery attention include decorative surgery, suction lipectomy, chest sweetening or decrease, oculus surgery, dental surgery and so on.

Asiatic states like India, Thailand and Singapore have dominated this industry and have been pulling tourer across the Earth. There are many states that have entered this industry but are non able to pull more patients. As a consequence, they started to concentrate on other medical countries such as malignant neoplastic disease. The middle-east states like Lebanon and Dubai have built their ain medical attention metropolis DHCC ( Dubai Health Care City ) . The primary purpose for constructing this wellness attention metropolis was to pull tourer by supplying the best quality of service. By making so, they are able to be at par with the Asiatic states. Some states advertise medical touristry by in-flight magazine and administering booklets to riders who board a flight.

The article besides talks about the different states are following new schemes and holistic attack to pull more tourer. The rise in medical touristry reflects the economic system of the state. This leads to more difference in the monetary value among many states. Research shows that India is the most significant portion of the market, thereby doing beltway surgery in India rather cheap every bit compared to other states.

This article shows the development of medical touristry across the Earth. It besides discusses the assorted factors that led to the development of this industry and different techniques used by different states to advance medical touristry. The article besides discusses how the industry is deriving impulse, turning well and makes it sustainable plenty.

2. Ivy, T. , & A ; Calvin, C. ( 2005 ) . Supplementing growing with medical touristry. Particular Report: Medical Tourism. Vol. 9. ( publish 8 ) . Pp 306 – 311.

This article reflects the development of medical touristry, the responsibilities and maps private sector and authorities to advance medical touristry. The usage of new and improved engineering has contributed a batch for advancing medical touristry in western states. Thailand ‘s Bumrungrad infirmary was the first infirmary in Asia which focused on pulling foreign patients. Government in several states are taking enterprises to organize a commission for the development of this industry. The authorities is besides seeking to assist the state by supplying public wellness services for its citizens.

Over a twosome of old ages, there has been a diminution in the figure of foreign patients sing U.S. The chief ground for diminution is rigorous in-migration regulations and security cheques. Patients have found an option for US and that is European states like U.K, France, Germany and Australia. Malaysia has a record for holding more than 100,000 foreign tourers every twelvemonth. However, Thailand led the Asia Pacific Region by holding more than 400,000 foreign patients a twelvemonth. The other ground why patients prefer Malaysia and Thailand over other states is because of the monetary value. People find it much cheaper to acquire a articulatio genus surgery done in Thailand than in U.S.

The enlargement in this industry is straight relative to the quality of medical services that are offered to the patients. The chief purpose is to fulfill and carry through all the outlooks of the foreign patients when they arrive for the intervention. The diary besides throws visible radiation on the infirmaries and medical Centres in Australia that dainty different signifiers of malignant neoplastic disease. The nursing squads are trained to specialise as oncology nurses, while the skin doctors and radiotherapists take attention of any sort of skin complications. The medical attention is besides supported by latest engineering, hardware and package. Some of the health care suppliers offer a Texas Ranger of non-medical services like logistics agreement and cordial reception services.

The article besides talks about different schemes in marketing medical touristry. Patients surf the cyberspace, read books, magazines and watch pictures online to larn more about their unwellness and besides checkout the best topographic point and monetary value where the unwellness can eliminate. Word Of Mouth besides plays an of import function in choosing the right topographic point for the medical touristry.

This article gave me an thought about the development of medical touristry. It besides highlighted the function played by the authorities and private sector to maintain medical touristry sustainable. The article besides discusses how quality of service dramas an of import function to maintain this industry sustainable and besides shows different tools by other states to publicize medical touristry.

3. Horowitz, M.D. ( 2007 ) . Medical Tourism: Globalization of the Healthcare Marketplace. Medscape General Medicine diary. Vol. 9. ( Issue 4 ) . Pp 33.

This article talks about people who circumvent the services offered in their state and choose to go to other state for medical attention. Other ground why people go to other state is because the cost of intervention is much cheaper as compared to their place state. Peoples from hi-tech state come down to Asiatic states like India and Thailand for their intervention through assorted agencies like Ayurveda, root cell etc. This article besides discusses about the old tendency where people travelled to extremely developed states like USA for surgery or any wellness attention. The physicians and doctors are extremely qualified and have an experience of more so seven old ages.

The research shows that 1000000s of patients have travelled to India and Thailand in 2004 and the Asiatic states would gain more than 4.4 Billion Dollars by 2012 through medical touristry. Many states are viing among themselves by offering scope of services in medical, surgical and dental field with latest engineerings and attractive environment.

States in Central and South America have become major Centres for decorative and fictile surgery, bariatric processs and dental attention. Asiatic states like India, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand have patients being treated for cardiac and orthopedic surgery. The chief ground why these states are able to pull more medical tourers is because it is cheaper than USA and European states. The other ground for offshore travel is to hold processs and interventions that are non available in their place state like root cell therapy.

The services provided in medical touristry provide economic system for the state. As a consequence, it creates chances to better the entree and quality of attention available to the citizens of the state.

The article reflects the birth of medical touristry and its sustainability in turning states. The article besides states that medical touristry is deriving impulse particularly in Asiatic states like India and Thailand. It besides highlights the grounds which motivate the patients to go abroad for medical attention.

4. Denise, S. ( 2009 ) . Ayurvedic Tourism in Kerala: Local Identities and Global Market. In Tim, W. , Peggy, T. , & A ; Chang, T.C. ( Eds. ) , Asia on circuit: Researching the rise of Asiatic touristry. ( Pp 138-148 ) . Oxon: Routledge.

Ayurveda is one of the filed of medical touristry that earns the highest gross in most of the South-Asian states like India. Ayurveda intervention attracts 1000000s of patients to see India every twelvemonth. The intervention is done in a traditional manner which is why it is linked to cultural touristry. Ayurveda is one of the traditions in India with Kerala being the hub. Kerala has the patients coming from West Asia, South East Asia and citizens from northern districts.

Ayurveda is traveling planetary since ayurvedic practioners from Kerala are migrating to different states to learn and pattern Ayurveda. Due to this, many ayurvedic clinics and pharmaceuticals have been installed to pull more patients. The environment of Kerala is an added advantage to pull many tourers, hence it is besides known as “ God ‘s Own State. ”

Over a twosome of old ages, ayurvedic doctors ( vaidyas ) have come up with a new manner of holistic selling of Ayurveda. Rather than holding the patient imbibe a herbal juice and medical specialty, they are introduced to rub down therapy and different manners of relaxation. This in a manner has helped the industry to pull more patients thereby gaining more gross. Since there is a bigger range of Ayurveda in India, many pupils study ayurveda and on completion, they are recruited to different ayurvedic Centres and resorts to pull more tourers.

In today ‘s universe, people prefer ayurvedic intervention over general medical specialties or surgeries for a twosome of grounds. Since it is the traditional manner of handling unwellness, people are certain of the results. Second, the environment of ayurvedic Centres is such that it helps people to loosen up when they are on their vacation trip. They might opt-in for a massage therapy every bit good. Ayurvedic doctors and their patients are bonded by shared word of oral cavity and moral that is medico-religious.

This article is exceptionally utile to do medical touristry sustainable. The ayurvedic intervention / touristry provide a nexus between medical touristry and Indian civilization. This article provides an in-depth cognition of human organic structure and explains how ayurveda helps in eliminating the unwellness, relaxation of min, organic structure and psyche. Ayurveda touristry is besides achieving energy in pulling more tourers every twelvemonth, thereby doing medical touristry more sustainable.

5. Writings, G. ( 2002 ) . Generative touristry as moral pluralism in gesture. Journal of medical moralss. Vol 28 ( publish 6 ) . Pp 337-341.

Another subdivision of Medical Tourism is Generative Tourism. It involves the patient to go from one society or state where the intervention is non available to another society or state where they can obtain the type of reproduction they aspire. This article deals with internal moral pluralism, coerced conformance and international harmonisation.

Generative touristry is non restricted in most of European states, USA and Australia. USA is known for this phenomenon for long clip, particularly for abortions. The author has carried out research in Belgium which indicate that 30 % of patients coming for In Vitro Fertilization ( IVF ) , come from different states. The petition for oocyte contribution computes 60 % of patients from other states with France exceeding the list.

The factors which lead to generative touristry are as follows:

The intervention may be forbidden by jurisprudence on moral evidences.

Lack of expertness or equipment in the place state.

Long waiting list in the place state.

Cost is high in place state.

Some patients are non entitled for aided reproduction.

The writer besides tells us different ways to extinguish generative touristry. A good manner to convey to an terminal to this is by following a jurisprudence or process whose primary purpose is to hold safety issues and good medical attention and non enforcing rigorous Torahs on anyone. Generative touristry can besides be circumnavigated by handling the citizens of the place state and curtailing the freedom of motion i.e. prevent people from traversing boundary line for intervention.

In democratic states, the political parties have rights to setup a commission based on their ends, values and rules. Peoples adopt generative touristry when there is a moral struggle. The writer besides highlights the two degree of tolerance i.e. internal and external.

The research shows how generative touristry started and how the growing of this subdivision is sustainable in medical touristry. It tells us that there are people who have moral values and would non take up reproduction touristry.

6. Turner, L. ( 2008 ) . Cross-border dental attention: ‘Dental touristry ‘ and patient mobility. British Dental Journal. Vol 204 ( publish 10 ) . Pp 553-554

The above article lays accent on dental touristry, a field of medical touristry, which is directed towards globalisation. As worlds consume different types of culinary arts and drinks, they are bound to hold dental jobs like tooth decay, root canal or suffer from shed blooding gums. It takes a batch of attempt for the tooth doctors to bring around these jobs. As a consequence, dental surgeries are going more expensive due to which many insurance companies are loath to supply insurance for it.

There are many socio-economic factors which have led people travel overseas for surgery. First, private alveolar consonant attention in their place state is rather expensive. Second, the patients did non wish to wait long plenty for the operation. Third, patients understand the fact that low cost need non bring forth hapless consequence. The motion of dental touristry is more regional than planetary. Australian touristry companies promote states like Bangkok and Thailand as inexpensive Centres for dental intervention.

There are ever two sides of a coin. If one is virtue, the other is demerit. The demerits or the hazards associated with dental touristry are the cost and incommodiousness caused to people when they travel overseas. If the surgery is non carried out successfully, it leads to several complications or jobs due to which patients will be forced to see their local tooth doctor. This in bend will be them more money. Patients are more likely to see their local tooth doctor every bit long as they provide high-quality, low-cost and intervention on regular footing.

The ground why I preferred this article is because it addresses the sustainable issues of dental touristry in the society. The article besides lays emphasis on the advantages and hazards associated with dental touristry.

7. Bramstedt, K.A. , & A ; Jun, X. ( 2007 ) . Check list: Passport, Plane Ticket, Organ Transplant. American diary of organ transplant. Vol 7 ( publish 7 ) . Pp 1698-1701.

This article throws visible radiation on organ organ transplant across the Earth. It discusses about patients who would go abroad for organ graft and besides states the fact that patients would hold to wait in long queue in-order to acquire the graft done. This procedure is termed as transplant touristry. The article besides portions information about the function of insurance companies when a graft takes topographic point.

The beginning of an organ is by and large from a citizen, either life or deceased, of the state where graft is performed. Research shows that in the 2004, 26500 variety meats were transplanted in US and 7000 patients died waiting for an organ. Several insurance companies are happening solutions to the job of organ handiness, long waiting period, medical and surgical cost by advancing transplant touristry.

For a graft, the patient has to go to recipient ‘s state. The giver undergoes several trials and is evaluated on the footing of his fittingness after the graft. The article besides highlights the moralss of transplant touristry. Everyone prefers to hold a life giver over a asleep 1. The life givers face many jobs before they make a concluding determination of donating their organ. Some of them are forced by their partner to donate an organ so that they could gain some money out of it.

Although life giver produces a good result, there are ever minor hazards associated with it pre or station organ transplant. One of the hazards is that the giver may confront hygiene as an issue in abroad infirmary. Another issue is the long-run attention of givers who experience several complications. The giver has a force per unit area to look after his ain wellness insurance along with his fiscal crisis.

I have chosen this article because it portions all the necessary information about transplant touristry i.e. the hazards, issues, moralss, and benefits. The article besides discusses about assorted diseases one can contract if graft is non carried out successfully. It besides inside informations some of the safety and ethical issue with transplant touristry.

8. Budiani-Saberi, D.A. , & A ; Delmonico, F.L. ( 2008 ) . Organ Trafficking and transplant touristry: A commentary on the Global Realities. American Journal of organ transplant. Vol 8 ( publish 5 ) . Pp 925-929.

The article portions information about immoral rules of conveyance touristry, frequently referred as organ trafficking. Transplant sawboness have reported an ethical issue of purchasing and selling variety meats across the Earth. This article chiefly focuses on the major features and the up to what level the trafficking of human variety meats is being done worldwide.

Organ trafficking requires transportation of people by many ways such as menace, abduction, usage of power, for doing money by remotion of variety meats for organ transplant. In organ trafficking, the money or any signifier of finance becomes the top precedence instead than the wellness of the giver. The writer besides declare the fact that if the graft takes topographic point as per the Torahs and regulations, one can non name it as organ trafficking.

The research shows that two states that are extremely responsible for organ trafficking are Pakistan and Philippines. They do non possess any legal rights to transport out organ transplant. During the author ‘s visit to China in 2004, he reported the fact that more than 11,000 illegal grafts were carried out on executed captives. The Human Transplantation Act has been adopted by China which puts a prohibition on commercialisation. As a consequence, it has reduced the graft activity by half.

Administrations such as W.H.O are seeking for options to get the better of this trade of organ trafficking. W.H.O. held a regional audience in Kuwait that opposed transplant touristry and medical professionals who tried to gain net income by assisting in trading variety meats. The Kuwait statement laid down certain regulations and ordinances that are followed by states which carry out transplant touristry.

The ground why I chose this article is because it gave me interesting facts about organ trafficking. My inquiries about How, where and why organ trafficking is done were answered. Due to organ trafficking, the industry of medical touristry is going less sustainable.

9. Tony, L.H. , & A ; George, B.P. ( 2009 ) . The incorporation of telemedicine with medical touristry: A survey of effects. Journal of cordial reception selling and direction. Vol 18 ( publish 5 ) . Pp 512-522.

This diary discusses small spot about medical touristry, the impact on medical touristry worldwide, the usage of telemedicine to spread out medical touristry, the factors that led to patient trueness and patient satisfaction.

The writer highlights the term telemedicine as the usage of assorted systems to pull out information and aid in communicating when the patient is distant from the medical attention unit. It is described as an art of utilizing information and communicating system to better one ‘s wellness, mental power, behaviour attitude and thought.

The article besides examines the benefits and significance of telemedicine with regard to medical touristry. Telemedicine helps in patient satisfaction when the physician follows-up their patients station surgery. With the usage of latest engineerings, there are many call Centres that have been setup by the authorities or private sectors that enables the patient and the physicians to interact whenever there is any job / question.

The article besides highlights the advantages of telemedicine as a post-medical circuit. It helps the organisation to derive patient trueness. With the follow-up programme, the infirmaries have a good chance obtaining a feedback or any kind of recommendations. As a consequence, this would assist them to do the necessary alterations and would do certain the patients receive the intervention as per their ain comfort. By using telemedicine, the organisation has a high rate of pulling more foreign patients. The writer besides discusses about the demerits of telemedicine. If the service is non used expeditiously, it could lose its patients and would impact the industry adversely.

Through this article we learn how engineering plays an of import function in medical touristry. It besides emphasizes on the sustainability of medical touristry by agencies of telemedicine. The article besides discusses how SERVQUAL graduated table can be modified and put in good usage to accomplish more patient trueness and patient satisfaction.

10. David, R. ( 2010 ) . Health Tourism: Social public assistance Through International Trade. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

The article tells us about the malfunctions and the hazards associated with the medical touristry. There are different instances where people have been given inappropriate medical specialties or drugs, ensuing in erroneous trial consequences or unnatural reaction. This may sometimes ensue in the decease of a patient. The writer besides tells us about the hazards when one treated at place.

In many states, the physicians try to rip off the patients by proposing them to undergo a series of unwanted trials which are non at related to patient ‘s unwellness. By making so, they earn a batch of money and guarantee the patient a guaranteed result of their surgery. A research reported the decease of more than 90,000 patients in U.S.A. due to carelessness and medical mistakes.

The writer besides discusses about other diseases one might contract due to nutrient, air or H2O in other states. The patients may besides endure from minor jobs after their surgery. This may be due to miss of post-surgical followup. The other ground is because the place physician may non happen it easy to take over the instance of a physician from other state.

The article besides highlights the issues related to medical malpractice in the industry. The author tells us the fact, that some physicians are bound to do errors since they are human. The writer suggests the patient to be ready with the inside informations of the physician, the infirmary and environment, before undergoing any intervention. Understanding the Torahs and ordinance of a state, might assist the patient to lodge a instance against the physician if anything goes incorrect. However, there are different regulations in different states which make it hard for a patient to action a physician.

The writer besides emphasizes on the function played by the media in advancing medical touristry. Media is strong plenty to do or interrupt the repute of any organisation. Thus, many physicians would be excess careful in-order to be good in the eyes of the media.

There are several different countries which have been selected as it addresses the menaces and hazards linked to medical touristry. One of the major menaces to medical touristry is medical malpractice. The article besides gives us a list of possible diseases one may contract due to malpractice or negligence or medical mistakes. As a consequence, it affects the sustainability of medical touristry.


The articles in this bibliography portions information about the birth of medical touristry, the benefits and the hazards of medical touristry and weigh its sustainability through societal and economic factors.

The bibliography starts with the beginning of medical touristry. It discusses the factors that led to the roar in the industry. It besides discusses how states like India and Thailand are able to pull many foreign patients because of their environment and low-priced intervention. The article besides portions information about which state is celebrated for what sort of intervention.

In the 2nd article, the writers have besides stated the fact that medical touristry earns economic system for a state and the gross earned is used for the improvement of citizens of the place state and besides better the medical installations and processs. They have besides discussed as to how the quality of service attracts more foreign patients. The article besides highlights the function played by the authorities and private sector to keep the sustainability of medical touristry.

The 4th article describes a traditional signifier of medical touristry i.e. Ayurvedic touristry. It provides a relationship between medical touristry and Indian civilization. This touristry by and large takes topographic point in Kerala. Ayurveda plays a cardinal function in pulling many foreign patients to India.

The following article describes an unusual field of medical touristry which is Generative Tourism. It is adopted by those people who find this touristry against the moral values of the state and who can non happen the similar intervention in their place state.

The 6th article lays accent on Dental Tourism which sets an illustration of globalisation. The article addresses the sustainable issues of dental touristry in the society. It besides highlights the hazards associated with intervention but are considered negligible when the cost is taken in to the history.

The following article throws visible radiation on organ organ transplant or transplant touristry. Transplant touristry is comprised of contribution of an organ within the state or across the boundary line. The article explains the assorted processs involved during organ transplant and besides highlights a list of diseases which one may contract if there is any failure during the graft. It deals with some of the safety and ethical issues of transplant touristry.

The article following the above, trades with the immoral rules of graft touristry which besides known as Organ Trafficking. Some physicians perform unneeded trials on a patient in order to do more money. Some states have enforced rigorous Torahs to minimise organ graft, therefore patients travel to those states where the jurisprudence is indulgent. Organ trafficking has established its place in the market in the name of medical touristry.

The bibliography besides emphasizes engineering which helps in the growing of medical touristry. Telemedicine plays an of import function in increasing the sustainability of this industry. Telemedicine helps the span a relation between the doctor and the sawbones pre and or station surgery. The article besides discusses assorted schemes to derive more patient trueness and satisfaction by modifying the SERVQUAL graduated table.

In the terminal, the article informs the readers about the assorted menaces and hazards that are linked to medical touristry. The article besides discusses the power of media in advancing medical touristry. One major menace to medical touristry is medical malpractice. The impact of this menace affects the sustainability of medical touristry. The other menace is media. Media has the power of doing or interrupting the repute of any industry. Thus, many medical establishments would halt or minimise the medical malpractice in-order to maintain up its repute.


The bibliography includes the articles which describe the development of medical touristry, depicting some of the cardinal Fieldss, the function of engineering, and the pros and cons of medical touristry. The set of articles does non give all the elaborate information about medical touristry but provides an overview of this industry.

After traveling through all the articles, I have noticed that medical touristry is one of the biggest industries in the market with Asiatic states like Thailand and India taking the market. Although there are few hazards associated with the medical touristry, it is still regarded as one of the sustainable type of touristry.

The issue that causes uncertainness demands to be addressed as it has a direct impact on the sustainability of this industry.

It has been observed that organ trafficking is increasing linearly with the growing of medical touristry. To restrict the growing of organ trafficking, states should implement rigorous Torahs to minimise this unethical issue.

Medical malpractice should be reduced and patient should be given proper counsel and intervention. The authorities must take some action to halt the malpractices.

Correct usage of engineering i.e. Telemedicine can gain high gross for this industry. Highly qualified sawboness, physicians, doctors and nurses must be appointed to work out the questions of the patient online. This tool will assist in the keeping sustainability of medical touristry.


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