Nowadays, there is a turning concern for the protection of the environment and the acceptance of concern policies that will enable to the Earth ‘s resources to be sustained. It is besides indispensable the care of a profitable and sustainable touristry sector at any peculiar finish. In this facet, concern for sustainability is cardinal to the direction of both markets and the finish. Sellers are utilizing selling tools non merely for making a successful finish but even for oriented them to the sustainable tourer finish. This paper attempts to state how a finish as Korca part can stay competitory and construct a sustainable character, a factor which represents one of the most of import viing advantages by utilizing a theoretical account for sustainable touristry. So is made a survey for this part and are build two inquirers one for tourers and one for community.
Key-Words: Sustainability, sustainable tourer finish, viing advantages, community.
Along with the growing of the touristry industry at that place has been an increasing argument about the negative effects of unplanned touristry development and the haphazard attack to mass touristry, peculiarly in developing states ( Getz,1987 ) . Factors such as cultural belittling, loss of traditional pride and cultural individuality every bit good as environmental debasement are reported ( Hughes, 1994 ) . Despite widespread concerns over the socio-cultural and environmental effects of touristry development, touristry bookmans assert that the ‘marketing attack ‘ to tourism planning remains dead with a traditional focal point on growing and economic additions ( Ryan, 1991 ) . This conceptualisation is focused on a short-run position, whereby publicity activity is a cardinal tool used preponderantly to increase trial, net incomes and market portion. In kernel, touristry selling is seen as being correspondent with advertisement and selling a finish. The cardinal unfavorable judgment about modern-day touristry selling pattern is that it has non yet addressed to the full and adequately socio-cultural and environmental sensitiveness peculiarly at the community degree ( King et al. , 2000 ) . It is at this degree that both positive and negative impacts are most acute. The
unfavorable judgment coincides with the observation that although the ‘marketing construct ‘ and techniques have been mentioned in many touristry surveies, the techniques employed by the touristry industry are less advanced than in other industries ( Calantone and Mazanec, 1991 ) . From a pure selling position, the cardinal inquiry -‘who are the consumers of touristry? ‘
– remains contested.
“ Sustainable Communities Model ” ( SCM )
Tourism sellers are being challenged to incorporate community demands and wants into their old sole, but unequal, consumer ( tourer ) focal point. Clearly, to implement a more responsible touristry selling paradigm, the ‘new ‘ touristry selling theoretical account needs to be more explicit in supplying clear guidelines on how to include local community demands and wider societal development issues into its procedures. Achieving public engagement nevertheless has non been a straightforward undertaking. To exert effectual engagement or engagement, local people and contrivers need motive, instruction and preparation In this context, community based selling like other signifiers of planning should be viewed as a procedure that assists people and organisations within the community develop the accomplishments necessary to pull off or market their ain topographic point. Sellers and contrivers need to recognize that community, who has been omitted from marketing plans, should be identified as primary touristry clients. Based on this perceptual experience, an version of the cardinal construct of selling, which has its cardinal concern with being ‘customer oriented ‘ , should order the overall touristry selling plan with a greater attending being paid to the community. One of the theoretical accounts that can convey sustainability is Sustainable Communities Model. This theoretical account is developed to:
Quantify the existent environmental impacts & A ; linkages of assorted development determinations
Analyze environmental & A ; economic costs, nest eggs, synergisms & A ; tradeoffs
Optimize the sustainability
Bing applied to private sector community development & A ; renovation
Korca part and touristry merchandises of Korca part
The Korca Region is located in the Southeast of Albania and boundary lines Greece and Macedonia to the South and the East. It is a cragged part with two major lakes, Lake Ohrid, one of the oldest lakes in Europe, which is shared with Macedonia and Lake Prespa which is shared with Greece and Macedonia ( 100 km2 in Albania ) . The highest extremums are Gramozi in the East of the part at 2,523 m and Morava at 2,047 m. The height provides the part with an first-class clime which is really favourable for touristry – cool in summer and the snow in winter is an attractive force for visitants. Population today is estimated at 361,000 dwellers, 60 % of which are actively engaged in work ; nevertheless, there is some uncertainty about the truth of this figure as there is much population motion and many dwellers work in Greece. The economic system of the part is based on agribusiness including agriculture, forestry and piscaries which account for 30 % of overall production in the part. In recent old ages the building and conveyance sectors have expanded, as have some service sectors such as the communicating sector and touristry. However, the fabric sector which under the old government was booming is now worsening. Today, SMEs in the Korca City and Pogradec countries are trying to resuscitate this industry. The focal point of regional development programs has been on building in recent old ages. Growth is expected in the conveyance sector, the communicating sector, the touristry sector and trade in nutrient materials. Remittance from immigrants populating aboard is an of import beginning of income and investing for the part.
Whilst the Korca Region has a really long history, typical traditions and an exceeding environment, touristry in most of the part is emerging as an economic sector ( with to a certain extent the exclusion of Pogradec on Ohrid Lake where leisure holidaies have been established over a longer period ) . Figures for tourer reachings have non been collected or compiled but harmonizing to local stakeholders, there has been a important addition of visitants in recent old ages. The part has an first-class mix of soft and difficult cultural assets every bit good as outstanding natural assets. These are described in greater item in the undermentioned subdivision as are the markets that are presently sing the Korca Region. The following few paragraphs provide an feeling of the profusion of the Korca Region but do non try to show the entirety of the touristry merchandises that exist. The part has a broad scope of merchandises based on its history, civilization and traditions, its small towns and its lakes and mountains.
-The Villages of the Korca Region
These constitute a major touristry plus and are located throughout the part. Several small towns are located near Korca City including Voskopoja, Boboshitica, Dardha and Vithkuq.
Voskopoja is the best known and characteristics on most Tourss that pass through the South East of Albania. Founded in the sixteenth century, Voskopoja by the eighteenth century was a major urban colony lodging the Academy, a Centre dedicated to the development of civilization and instruction.
Boboshitica is a historic small town located on the field near to Korca City. Several old houses and churches still exist in the small town which is now particularly celebrated for its mulberry trees.
Dardha is a mountain small town, 20 kilometer from Korca at 1344 m in height. The local dwellers of Dardha are reputed for their cordial reception, generousness and their traditional folkloric dance, music and costumes.
Vithkuq small town is located in a really picturesque hilly environment 26 kilometer from Korca. It is rich in zoology and vegetation. The small town is split into three countries and boasts a figure of historical memorials.
The small towns on and around Prespa Lake offer visitors a different touristry experience in the Korca Region. The commune of Prespa comprises nine small towns in entire, seven of which are on the lake shore and two in the mountains, offering a scope of landscapes and activities to tourers.
-Current Tourist Markets Visiting the Korca Region
Small research has been carried out on touristry market sections sing the Korca Region.
-The Domestic Market ( including Albanians life in Kosovo, Macedonia and Greece )
This is by far the largest bing market to the Korca Region which is attracted for a figure of motivations. Leisure touristry is focused around the Ohrid Lake and Pogradec is the finish for these tourers, peculiarly in the summer. Increasingly the domestic market from the chief centres of Albania like Tirana and Elbasan are detecting small towns of Prespa Lake and the other traditional small towns of the part to bask the reputed local culinary art offered in tap houses, the good clime and fresh air and nature activities such as basking the snow and skiing in winter. Festivals and carnivals, peculiarly those organized in Korca City in the last twosome of old ages but besides in other centres such as Pogradec, are deriving a repute throughout the state and pulling domestic tourers from all over.
-Ethnic Albanians life in Other States
These include the Albanian communities in the United States, Canada, Germany, the UK, Italy, France, Australia and the Middle East. It is estimated that there are 1.8 million people of Albanian extraction populating abroad.
-American and Canadian Albanians
The size of this market is hard to gauge as there is small information.
-People of Albanian descent in other Countries of the World
Through the moving ridges of out-migration before and after the Communist epoch, Albanians have settled in states around the universe. These communities have in common a sense of affinity and there are associations and organisations in most states where there are Albanian communities
-Foreign Tour Group Market
Harmonizing to cardinal sources interviewed for this survey, there are about 50,000 foreign tourers that come to Albania on organized Tourss utilizing circuit operators, of these merely 5 % to 10 % include the Korca Region in their travels. Therefore, the figure of foreign tourers on organized Tourss that yearly visit the Korca Region is 3,000 to 5,000.
-Independent Traveler Market
These come to the Korca Region for a assortment of grounds, from sing friends and relations, for concern or work or merely for leisure.
-Cross Border Market
As the Korca Region boundary lines both Macedonia and Greece, necessarily there is a important sum of cross boundary line motion for concern, shopping and leisure.
-Business Tourism Market
Travelers on concern are catered for in the three chief metropoliss of the part. There are a several locations which provide services for concern meetings and seminars in the chief metropoliss.
-The major market of Korca part is it ‘s community. Cipher has taken any survey for this community to see how powerful are they as a tourer consumers and what are their inclinations to pass money for touristry in their ain state. Besides how much are they informed about environment sustainability and sustainable touristry. The major of touristic topographic points in this part are in small towns and the communities there are non good educated and informed about the importance of sustainable environment. The people that live in these small towns are oriented in agribusiness they even think that development of touristry in their topographic points will be in position. The consequences of the questionnaires made in three small towns Vithkuq, Voskopoja, Liqenas focused in their communities and in tourers are as below:
In this subdivision the information gathered shows us a presentation by some of the local communities. This survey countries have a important community and interesting characteristics, so of Liqenas country consists of a community which is considered as a minority ( Macedonian ) and shows some particular qualities of the Albanian population, country Voskopoja so composed on a per centum top of the Vlachs that a population with its colourss communicating and life style, while Vithkuqi country Vlachs constitute a really little per centum of the population. Given these characteristics first inquiry which relates to the length of clip residential population Tells us that a good portion of the population has more than 10 old ages populating in the country and a few came from other countries of the remote as a consequence of internal migration and increasing troubles to populate in these countries after the ’90s, particularly after the economic troubles of recent old ages. From the study indicated that 43 % of the population lived from 11-20 old ages, 29 % lived for more than 20 old ages, 14 % live more than 12 months, and 7 % severally unrecorded 1-5 old ages and 6-10 old ages. However we should observe that a high per centum of the population in these countries has migrated to neighbouring states and possibly this powerful migration affects the consequences presented supra. In footings of work performed 36 % of occupants work in agribusiness, 28 % had private concern, 22 % worked in the private sector, 14 % in the populace sector and 0 % of the unemployed. To see links occupants and tourers tourist sector surveillance gives us this information about 43 % had frequent contact with tourers ( 12-24 times per month ) , 35 % meet of all time ( 6-11 times ) , 15 % had low contacts ( 1-5 times ) , 7 % had no contact and 0 % really frequently ( more than 24 times ) .
Sing to the betterments which were made aˆ‹aˆ‹in their vicinity, 100 % of people think they need to do betterments in all being attractive forces. Giving people chance to name three necessary ascents has the undermentioned consequences: – 80 % believe that: – betterments to be made in cult objects will keep important architectural edifices, will be organized the substructure to travel to these attractive forces. While 20 % of people think that: must be built the substructure and must been organized many events. It is interesting to see how necessary it is to take part from the position of residents-73 % think they agree, 23 % agree, 4 % remain impersonal and no 1 has the replies I ‘m non at all agree, I am non agree, I do n’t cognize. It seems that people are interested to acquire involved and see the necessary engagement in decision-making procedures. About the inquiry: -How able are people to be involved in local development procedures? -64 % says that are extremely skilled ( saying agree ) , 22 % think they are able ( bespeaking understanding ) , 7 % were impersonal and 7 % do non believe they are able to take part and no 1 has responded I ‘m non at all agree or make non cognize.
If it is needed to see how people perceive engagement as a manner to convey more benefits than jobs. About 29 % remain impersonal, 22 % agree, 21 % agree, 14 % are non agreed and 7 % , severally, are notA rather agree non know.A Seen that non all are able to comprehend the consequences of engagement and may non hold the necessary cognition, but most believe that engagement benefits.A Therefore it is really of import if you need to construct a sustainable touristry trusting on the community to inform occupants about the benefits of engagement and ways of involvement.A If the economic benefit is exciting the engagement we have the undermentioned consequences: -43 % agree, 29 % disagree and 7 % , severally, are non at all agreeing, are non agree, do non cognize and neutral.A Do you see any demand people acquiring information and the execution of developing – 36 % agree, 29 % agree, 14 % severally are impersonal and are non agreed, 7 % non at all agree, and no 1 said do non knowA .A Some research workers believe that the engagement of the community ( particularly in developing countries where preparation is lowered ) is required in the concluding phase of the planning process.A But surveies carried out late emphasized the importance of community engagement in the early phases of planning.A The sentiment of the occupants in the survey country is 36 % agree, 21 % agree, 29 % were impersonal, 7 % non at all agree and are non agreed, and no 1 has the reply I do non know.A Often a broad engagement of groups that have particular involvements in the touristry sector can take to the outgrowth of struggles and in the survey country have the undermentioned consequences: 58 % agree, 17 % agree, 9 % non at all agree andA 8 % , severally, are non agreed and are impersonal and no 1 has responded I do n’t cognize.
In the questionnaire directed to tourers we have these consequences: -Interests of tourers about attractive forces in the country from the position of occupants is: -43 % of the tourers prefer to see cultural sites, 47 % prefer natural scenic sites, 6 % prefer to see museums, 4 % prefer other attractive forces. As shown most powerful attractive forces of these countries are cult objects and natural beauties. Sing individually importance of these attractive forces have received the undermentioned decisions:
For objects of worship 64 % say they are really of import, 14 % think they are mean of import, 7 % , severally, less and no, 8 % think they are highly really of import. Visits to the museum about 33 % think that they are less of import, 23 % non at all of import, 24 % reasonably of import, 14 % really of import, 6 % highly important.-Visits to nature, approximately 7 % think that they are less of import, 0 % non at all of import, 14 % reasonably of import, 64 % really of import, 14 % really of import. For the visits to other sites there are these consequences:
-about 57 % think that they are less of import, 7 % non at all of import, 22 % reasonably of import, really of import 7 % , 7 % highly of import.
Sustainable development is now recognized as an indispensable attack to accomplishing development ends without consuming natural and cultural resources or degrading the environment. Benefits of touristry development to local communities include: new occupations and concerns ; extra income ; new markets for local merchandises ; improved substructure, community installations and services ; new accomplishments and engineerings ; greater environmental and cultural consciousness ; and protection and betterment of land usage forms. States must recognize that touristry affects local communities and is non needfully desirable or executable for everyplace or each community, chiefly because ecology and the economic system are going of all time more interlacing, locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. Countries must do certain that touristry development that takes topographic point is sustainable in the long-terms. If looked at globally, sustainable theoretical accounts of touristry development necessitate a planetary moral principle which encourages the engagement of single tourers, groups and communities, without whom sustainable touristry growing will be following to impossible. Three chief rules of sustainable development must be used as guidelines while be aftering touristry development:
( a ) Development must be ecologically sustainable and compatible with the care of
indispensable ecological procedures, biological diverseness and biological resources.
( B ) Development must be socially and culturally sustainable and must increase people ‘s
control over their lives, be compatible with the cultural values of people affected by it,
and maintain and strengthen community individuality.
( degree Celsius ) Development must be economically sustainable and efficient and resources must be
manage so that they can back up future coevalss.
Making an overview of Korca part are presented and the chief tourer markets and tourer potencies from the consequences of the survey determined the most of import merchandises for tourers and cardinal markets in the part. So is doing a finding of favourable factors and deciding Korca part which strongly influence the development of touristry and positioning this finish. The success of the development of a competitory and sustainable touristry finish is to develop activities that included community and cut down local power in the decision-making procedures. It is of import to aware the host community about the importance of their engagement in the building of schemes, programs, touristry development plans. Besides the increasing of preparations to local representatives to state about the signifiers, methods and techniques to be used to guarantee wide community engagement in local development procedures.