The media’s efforts of peace and harmony can also be seen to benefit from globalization and new media technology. The potential to ,lower the threshold of entry to the global debate for traditionally unheard or marginalia voices, particularly by ,others’ and to transcend gee-political barriers created by national media system, therefore boosting the efforts of pertinent to the efforts of peace Journalism and peace building.
Introduction: The mass media have extended their reach in what is termed era of globalization, marked by the end of the cold war and collapse of the Soviet Empire. This era of globalization possesses unique features differentiating it from the former era of internationalism or imperialism which, had shaped the oral, Saddens and Person (1 998, p. 64) define globalization as 1 ,the sine qua none of modernity, the intensification of worldwide social relations which, be events occurring many miles away and vice versa’ others deflations offer different perspective, whether economic.
Trade, Cultural, political, social or communication for this paper the role of globalization in linking the relations and nations of the world is crucial and this has been facilitated by communication. Globalization in this sense is ,the process of world shrinkage, of the distances getting shorter, things moving closer. It pertains to he increasing ease with which, somebody on one side of the world can interact, to mutual benefit, with somebody on the other side of the world”(Larson, 2001 , p. ) This definition emphasizes the role of media in the process of cultural or socio- political change. As this paper is based on research that relates to the media In general and the press In particular, it explores globalization from this perspective. The assumption Is that globalization promotes harmony and understanding- as envisage In Macaulay’s concept of the ,global village’. However, the global era is also characterized by the amount of conflict The media have played their role in promoting conflict as well as enhancing peace, or protecting human rights.
For example the CNN played a role in the withdrawal of American troops from Somalia in the asses by showing graphic pictures of the 2 bodies of American solders nineteenth being dragged along the street. This was continuation of the Vietnam syndrome in which the media was seen as ‘losing the war’ for the USA. Similarly in Rwanda hate Radio played significant role in increasing the killing and genocide but it is also to be noted that the radio miles isoclines station was set up as part of peace and demonstrations project supported y international organizations( Allen and Stressful, 2006, p. 4).
The media can be for and against conflict sometimes, in Sudan my home country the media played a great role in the asses in embroiling public and contributing them to war and conflict by media specially the TV which produced a weekly programmer called (Fee sat Alfred) in redemption arena or to scarification, this programmer make the fighting in the south a holly and made it Jihad that made all people support it and involved. Whereas the first step after the peace agreement the government stopped the programmer and the media produced new aerogramme which can support peace building and decrease the conflict’s reasons.
Also the example from the case of Durbar can clearly show how media is powerful and how it can breeds many reactions nationally or internationally, in 2004 after one year of the conflict breakdown, the New York Time’s columnist published an article about Durbar with some photos and that was the beginning of the save Durbar form which played a great role in internationalization the conflict. This paper will examine the power of the media in contributing to peace, and reducing military action, whether local, regional 3 or international.
Can we benefit from the abilities and power of the media to enhance peace and prevent human beings from falling victim to the myths of the need for war and conflict? Before doing this, it is important to discuss the media’s role in war and conflict situations. Conflicts and its types: There are different kinds of conflicts, these diversity come from the verity of its causes and locations, so there is the internal conflict which, is between two parties in same country or more, as there is regional conflict that between two neighboring first and second world wars.
And as it is an old phenomena which, featured all rides, but it become the post-cold war remarks, as it dominates the contemporary political concerns. ,Conflict is one of the defining features of the modern world. Since the end of the Cold War there have been countless conflicts that have involved the deaths of millions of people and the suffering and displacement of millions more. It is impossible to accurately quantify human suffering due to conflict. ‘(Updated, 2006, p. 5) 4 5 . This paper will attempt to define and clarify conflict, while highlighting the media’s involvement, and role in reducing conflict. Conflict is an intrinsic and inevitable aspect of social change. It is an expression of the heterogeneity of interests, values and beliefs that arise as new formations generated by social change come up against inherited constraints. But the way we deal with conflict is a matter of habit and choice. It is possible to change habitual responses and exercise intelligent choices’ (Roommates, 2011). Conflict is the term that can be used to describe the clashes and disagreements occurring inside a country, or war between two or more countries.
The term, violence, may also be used, as conflict may breed many crimes and violence against civilians, as well as the military. Conflict may take many forms, all of which attract media concern due to its importance, as Barrett argued. Some conflicts do not acquire the status of ,war’ in media eyes, though they may be as violent, devastating, and above all, strategic, as formal military conflict. ‘ (Allan and Seltzer, 2004) Moreover, there are many types of factors, which cause conflicts, as will be discussed, so are the kinds of conflict?
Political conflict: Political conflict refers to war, revolution, or other struggles that may force the authorities to use force, as the term of armed conflict. Instead of searching for some roper social resolutions, 6 and can be a result of some social settings, which increase the tensions among people, especially counterparts or politicians from competing parties. Conflict may escalate between individuals, who may be supported by their tribes, and associations, which have power, or loud voices that may influence the stakeholders (Brahms, 2005).
Ethnic/Tribal war: The ethnic conflict is the conflict that is between to ethnic groups, as it cold the tribal disappearance and decrease in its political and economic power the ethnic conflict increase and become one of the significant signal of libations era, causing crisis and violence against civilians, as it causes regional or international interventions which, is for the protection of the civilians. ,An Ethnic War is a war carried on between two groups belonging to different ethnicities, or groups of people who identify with one another on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups.
This boundary may take any of a number of forms racial, tribal, cultural, linguistic, or religious, and may be more or less porous” dames, 2008 The post-Cold War period witnessed many ethnic wars, which, t is argued, were waged to achieve economic and political control. Many other small wars continued, with rising number and intensity, where many minorities fought under the subversive excuse of racial, religious and cultural 7 discrimination.
These wars were often the result of ethnic nationalism, and may also result in war crimes, like genocide, which attract the media and its audience dames, 2008). For example Durbar conflict which stared as economic conflict as it will come later in this paper, in globalization era it turned to an ethnic conflict based on the Black book with unknown author which rise the feelings of normalization and inequality among Durbar people and hate toward the Northern people under the title of Arab.
So media had no role in reducing these feelings till it burnt the region Religious conflict: The variety and widespread religious beliefs may sometimes cause conflicts, and could form a source of potential tension. This does not mean that religion is conflictive, but may spark conflict, if people are different in race and ethnicity, where a weak group can use it as a tool with the purpose of gaining power in the political or economic fields. Also, disagreement may arise in a context of elisions diversity, if people refuse to accept or choose to ignore others’ faith. Ritually every heterogeneous society, this means religious difference in source of conflict, a triggering event that can cause the conflict to escalate and at this stage, tactics often come detached from goals and radical interpretations are increasingly favored’. Dames, 2008) cited in (Brahms, 2005) This type of conflict can be classified as one of the difficult ones to resolve, because it may give extremists the upper hand. Moreover, the two groups will have supporters from ca religionists, and then it may escalate beyond control (Brahms, 2005)
Social Conflict: with differing amounts of material and non-material resource with the more powerful groups using their power in order to exploit groups with less power’ (Brahms, 2005) Money, it has been argued, is the main cause of social conflict, as it represents a mechanism in Social Conflict theory. Like the other types, social conflict is one that can become political and breed many resolutions, and may sometimes bring the external intervention. So conflicts represent a top human concern and tension, which put them the top of the media’s agenda.