In this lesson we shall larn about assorted techniques of composing for telecasting. This lesson trades with an apprehension as to how to research the narrative, develop the narration, write the screenplay, and eventually present it in the needed format. The lesson besides deals with assorted resources required for telecasting authorship.


  1. Aim

After traveling through this lesson, you should be able to:

  • depict the techniques of composing for Television
  • depict the format of composing a intelligence book and fictional Television programme.
  • depict the resources required for Television authorship.


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3.1 Introduction

The linguistic communication of Television must be simple and direct. The intelligence author may hold to redact and rewrite many narratives so as to take any type of confusion. The indispensable constituent of Television is that its ocular constituent is really of import. Equally of import is the careful blend of both audio and video constituents, so as to go forth harmonious impact on the viewing audiences.

Before Scripting for Television programmes, it is indispensable to research the topic, visit assorted locations and sites and have a feel of general environment and the ambiance. Narratives written for Television are written in colloquial manner, clearly and merely so that viewing audiences can easy understand the narrative.


3.2 Television News Script Writing

The first regulation of broadcast intelligence is that the narrative must be clear at one time.Unlike the reader the viewing audiences have no 2nd opportunity to travel over the stuff. The sentences used are short so the sentences which are written in newspapers. Broadcast authors use the present tense in their lead. Broadcast intelligence is supposed to give the viewing audiences a sense of immediateness or events being covered as they happen

A intelligence bundle is a originative attack to go through on intelligence to a board audience. It is a ocular type of intelligence that has a narrative, characters, amusement quality, and actualities. Reporters invest certain steps of their clip asking about narratives, questioning characters, and finally composing the books for these bundles.

Composing a book ought to be the last measure in doing a whole intelligence bundle. News bundle demand to hold a starting, center, and an terminal, and characters. Be believing about the way you need it travel as you shoot pictures and behavior interviews. When you have adequate sound and picture for your narrative, you are prepared to get down:

3.3 Basic Format of a Television Script

Disconnected Page:A Television book is divided into two perpendicular countries and is known as the split page. Every specialised way and separating pieces of cogent evidence of the picture and artworks autumn in the left part of the split page, and the book to be read by the ground tackle or study appears in the right subdivision, aboard sound bite out- cues and times

  • Separate the book into two sections. On the left side, write picture. On the right side, sound. Since you are composing for a ocular medium, it is critical to particular out what the audience will see and what they will listen.
  • Choose sound bytes that are emotional, give an interesting appraisal, or help your narrative. As you pick these sound bytes, tag the clip on the tape by the sound byte you work out so the editor can detect it easy.
  • Write voice-overs that you, the editorialist, will state to force the narrative along. The voice-overs should non stand out, but alternatively solid characteristic with the narrative.

•Weave sound bytes and voice-overs together to do a strong sound country to your narrative.

•Find musca volitanss to set natural sound, which is strongly joined with picture.

  • Write down picture you have that supplement the sound. You will hold a significant choice from hiting B-Roll in the field. Mark times beside the picture so the supervisor can detect it effortlessly.
  • Read over your book and verify it sounds common, takes after the regulations of a narrative, and is anything but hard to peruse so the editor will hold an easier clip changing it subsequently.

Once the book is finished you are prepared to travel into the sound booth and enter your voice-overs

3.4 Writing for Television News

One needs to maintain in head the undermentioned point while scripting Television intelligence:

Practice is the key:The lone manner to larn telecasting scripting is to compose, compose and compose. The more you pattern, the easier it gets.

What is your Focus:This is a inquiry you must inquire before you start composing. If you do non hold an reply, do non compose! Once you are focused, work alongside it. You will hold a crisp border to your authorship.

Simplicity is charming:The simpler you are, the more effectual will be your book. There is enormous power in Simplicity.

Write to Visuals:Look at your visuals before you write your concluding book. The visuals will let your book to flux.

Do non blow words:Avoid composing what you can see. For illustration, “This is a farm where labourers are working.” Viewing audiences can see that. Use that chance to give out other information.

Accuracy is imperative:Never have a individual fact that can be contested. Your credibleness depends on it. Your name and truth should travel together in the viewer’s head.

Short Sentences are Best:In telecasting, short sentences are best. The voice over creative person will love you. It’s easier to compose. It will be easy understood.

Write in the Present Tense:Use the present tense. It gives a feeling of immediateness. News is all approximately NOW

The manner you write will find whether the spectator will watch:Invest clip in composing the first voice over. It will find whether your narrative will be watched or non.

Read Aloud:The best manner to prove your book is to read it out out loud. Better still, acquire person to read your book. Then, you easy acquire to Hear the elusive errors of words, sentences.

Personalize your book:The spectator feels you are speaking to him or her as you use words like you and we. Ask inquiries. It gets the spectator thought of the replies.

Time You’re Script:Chalk the timings of each image sequence and makes certain the commentary tantrums. You may hold to redact or compose another line. Time every book to see that intelligence bulletins and agendas for coders do non travel amiss.

3.5 Guidelines forTelevision News Script Writing

Bullet:Every Page of the intelligence book must be identified. These designations are called bullets, and they are placed in the upper most left-hand corner of the page. The bullet includes a one- or two-word description of the narrative, such as fire, newspaper work stoppage, or losing male child. The bullet besides includes the day of the month, the clip of the newscast, and the writer’s initials.




9 am


Bullets are of import because they allow the author, manufacturers, ground tackles, manager, and a assortment of other people involved in seting a newscast together to rapidly turn up a peculiar narrative in book. This capableness can be critical when, for illustration, the place of the narrative in the book must be changed or the narrative must be dropped merely as the newscast begins or when it is already on the air.

Avoid Abbreviations:Avoid Abbreviations: All words in telecast intelligence transcript, with a twosome of freedoms, must be spelled out. Abbreviations are non allowed in visible radiation of the fact that they would coerce ground tackle to construe their significance, welcoming confusion and errors.


Lt. GeneralLieutenant General

Ass’t. Sec. Of StateAssistant Secretary of province

Union Pres. Felix JonesUnion President Felix Jones

M. M. SinghMan Mohan Singh

It is allowable to use sawed-off signifiers when the names of, associations are preferred known by their initials over by their full names ( e.g. CBI, RAWCID, MBICEM, FBI, CIA..etc ) ; so once more, to do it simpler for ground tackles to peruse, bookmans place dashs between the letters.

F-B-I, C-I-A, C-B-I, R-B-I.

Avoiding Split Words and Sentences:If there is deficient room on a line of transcript to complete a word, the whole word must be continued to the undermentioned line. Wordss should non be hyphenated on the evidences that dividing words toward the terminal of a line could confound the ground tackle. Some portion of a sentence ought to likewise non be continued get downing with one page so onto the following.

If a sentence ca n’t be finished on a page, it ought to get down on the highest point of the nextpage. Type the word MORE at the base of the page so the ground tackle realizes that the narrative returns on the following page. A few newsrooms want to use a pointer toward the terminal of the page to demo that more transcript is coming.

Punctuation:News transcript authorship is holding a different grammar of punctuations besides the English grammar use.

  • Use commas to bespeak a intermission, non merely for grammatical grounds. Some newsrooms use elan ( – ) alternatively of a comma to bespeak a intermission, but elans should be used carefully, normally to bespeak longer intermissions.
  • Unless you are composing for yourself, you should non utilize an eclipsis ( ….. ) to bespeak a intermission or as a signal that you have eliminated portion of a citation because those points could confound ground tackles. Never use a semicolon.
  • Capitalize certain words, like non and other words you think the ground tackles should stress. Keep such accent to minimum, nevertheless, because the ground tackle is normally the best justice of which words to emphasize.

Name and Titles:Titles are ever used before a person’s name in broadcast transcript, ne’er after it. For illustration Secretary of Defense Subramniyam Ayyer should be used instead than, as newspaper write, Subramniyam Ayyer, Secretary of Defense. Using the rubric fist alerts the hearer to the name that will follow and reflects colloquial style.It is acceptable to interrupt up the name and the rubric.


  • The Secretary of the Navy said today that joint exercising would get down in the Indian Ocean following hebdomad. Vishnukan Shastri told newsmans that Sri Lanka and Bangladesh would fall in portion of the Indian Ocean fleet in the joint umbilicus exercising.

In-between Initials:Do non utilize in-between initials unless thy are portion of the name of a individual is know by or they are needed in a narrative to place people with similar names. For illustration, some politicians and famous persons ever use their in-between initials.

John F. Kennedy

The same goes for in-between name. They should ne’er be used unless the person does so. It would sound unusual to hear the name of late Dr. Martin Luther King mentioned without the Luther.

Foreign Name callings:When a foreign name is used, it must be used harmonizing to usage. In some foreign states, such as China, the family name is the first and most of import name, non the last. For illustration: – The late Chinese leader Mao Tse-tung is referred to as Chairman Mao.

Marital Status:It is non necessary to stipulate whether person is married, divorced, or individual unless the information is straight related to the narrative manner. There would be no ground to state whether person who was arrested for driving piece intoxicated is individual or married. But when campaigner is running for elections, many people want to cognize whether he or she is individual or married. It may act upon how some people vote.

Race:As with matrimonial position, race should be noted merely if it is relevant to the narrative. For illustration reference race or ethnicity if a male child or miss elected for a station in a council, which is ne’er, had individual of that community or it was non suppose to headed the commission or council by that peculiar community.


* Mayawati was the first Dalit CM of UtterPradesh.

Numbers:The cardinal regulation to retrieve about the usage of Numberss in broadcast transcript is that they should be rounded off and spelled out when any opportunity for confusion exists.

For illustration, a budget figure of Rs. 60,342,960,000 should be rounded off to “more so 60 billion rupees.” Such a figure is spelled out because it would be virtually impossible for a newscaster to cover with all those Numberss in the center of the transcript.

The convention is to spell out single-digit Numberss, and eleven, and to utilize figures for 10 and 12 through 999. For larger figures, use words or word-figure combinations.


  • There was merely 11 yearss left until Dipawali.
  • There were 45 pupils in the category.
  • There were three people at the tabular array.
  • There were 600 captives of war.
  • There were 75-thousand people in the bowl and another 15-thousand were turned off.

Age:Age should be used in a intelligence narrative merely if it important for some ground. Most of the clip it is irrelevant. Some clip it is besides acceptable to give ages in offense narratives.


  • If two teenage male childs were involved in a tip-and-run accident, their ages should be reported.
  • If an 80-years-old adult male tired to keep up a prohibition, his age is most interesting portion of the narrative because it’s unusual to hear of a senior citizen perpetrating a offense.
  • If a 78-year-old woman’s auto crossed a splitter and collided head-on with another auto, give her age because it could hold been a factor in the accident. Other grounds for giving ages include exceeding achievements or improbable happenings.


  • A 16-year-old alumnuss at the top of her mass communicating category
  • A 60-year-old Hollywood histrion marries a 22-year-old adult female.
  • A 44-year-old adult female gives birth to fours.
  • A adult male becomes father at an age of 80.

Clocking the Narrative:It is indispensable to clip the transcript.

On norm, newscasters read at a velocity of about 15 or 16 standard line of transcript per minute.

“Give me about 20 seconds.”

3.6 Copy Correction

Standard newspaper copyediting symbols are non allowable in broadcast transcript.


For Broadcast:


The being changed must be wholly crossed out, and the words being substituted must be written clearly merely above the crossed-out words. If the needed corrections are excessively luxuriant and the book become hard to read, should retyped.

Correcting Transcript:Ill corrected transcript increases the possibility that an ground tackle will do a error. As might be expected, ground tackles are peculiarly sensitive about unsure over a word or sentence.



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