HIV Symptoms. Certain symptoms can originate in people up to a month after being infected with HIV. These can dwell of muscular and joint hurting, febrility, a sore pharynx, a roseola, oral cavity ulcers, and swollen secretory organs and can prevail for up to a month ( Bupa, 2011 ) . Additional symptoms will by and large non be seen after the primary symptoms have worn off for a long period of clip ( NHS, 2011 ) .

Symptoms related to AIDS can consist of bleary vision, changeless fatigue, shortness of breath, a dry cough, a long continuance febrility and conceited secretory organs, dark workout suits, uninterrupted diarrhea, unexplained weight loss and white musca volitanss on the lingua or in the oral cavity ; pneumonia, TB and certain malignant neoplastic diseases can besides emerge ( NHS, 2011 ) .

HIV Test

Testing for HIV by and large involves a HIV antibody trial called an ‘enzyme immunochemical assay ‘ trial, in which blood or unwritten fluid samples are tested in a research lab for HIV antibodies. In a HIV septic patient, the organic structure produces antibodies against the infection which remain in the organic structure and demo up in the antibody trial. A 2nd trial, known as the ‘Western smudge ‘ trial is carried out to verify a positive consequence originating from the antibody trial ( Poindexter, 2010 ) .

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As HIV antibodies can take clip to demo in the blood after a individual has been infected, there is a possibility of obtaining a false negative consequence and so HIV testing is normally performed after the first three months of infection ( Terrence Higgins Trust ) .

Polymerase Chain Reaction can be used to cipher the measure of HIV DNA in newborn babes whose female parents are HIV-positive ; an antibody trial will give a positive consequence, whether or non the kid is infected with HIV, due to the fact that HIV antibodies are obtained from the female parent and remain for up to 18 months. As a consequence, the Polymerase Chain Reaction procedure is used as an option. ( AVERT ) .

HIV Treatment

Antiretroviral drugs are used to decelerate down the development of the HIV infection and do life anticipation in HIV-positive people to increase by doing a decrease of the viral burden in the blood ( BNF ) . Therefore recovery of the immune system is possible ( Bupa ) . A regular viral burden and CD4 cell count of the blood is used as a agency of set uping whether antiretroviral therapy should be used and if it is working and besides the hazard of obtaining a disease as a consequence of a weakened immune system. ( Libman et al, 2007 ) . The antiretroviral drugs are combined and taken as a mixture known as ‘highly active antiretroviral therapy ‘ in order to cut down opposition of HIV to one peculiar antiretroviral drug ( BNF ) .

The antiretroviral drugs fall into the undermentioned classs: ‘nucleoside contrary RNA polymerase inhibitors ‘ , ‘protease inhibitors ‘ , ‘non-nucleoside contrary RNA polymerase inhibitors ‘ , ‘nucleotide rearward RNA polymerase inhibitors ‘ , ‘HIV entry and merger inhibitors ‘ , and ‘integrase inhibitors ‘ ( AHFS Drug Information ) .

HIV Effectss

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that release antibodies and chemicals against viruses or bacteriums that are able to do disease. HIV works by impairing these cells ( Ramaiah, 2008 HIV Health solutions ) Consequently the immune system deteriorates, increasing the opportunities of developing serious infections and this can take to AIDS ( clinical pharmacological medicine and drug therapy ) . AIDS can dwell of the individual developing a malignant neoplastic disease such as ‘Kaposi ‘s sarcoma ‘ a serious infection or ‘AIDS-related dementedness ‘ ( AIDS scientific discipline and society ) .


Zidovudine is a nucleoside contrary RNA polymerase inhibitor that is used with other antiretroviral drugs as intervention for HIV ( Instant Pharmacology ) ; it can besides be taken by pregnant adult females as a agency of impeding HIV from go throughing to the kid. ( AHFS ) . As an parallel of thymidine, Zidovudine stops HIV replicating ( immunopharmacology ) . Phosphorylation of Zidovudine occurs in the cells by the enzyme kinase to zidovudine triphosphate, which can move as a competitory substrate for rearward RNA polymerase. As a consequence, zidovidine triphosphate is included in the nucleic acerb transcript of HIV RNA being formed alternatively of deoxythymidine triphosphate which would normally be portion of the concatenation ( instant pharmacological medicine ) ; ‘5 ‘ , 3’-phosphodiester ‘ bonds can non be formed with the presence of Retrovir triphosphate in the concatenation and, as a effect, the DNA formation can non go on. Therefore, the concatenation is terminated and HIV can non multiply ( Foye ‘s rules of medicative chemical science ) .

*NHS Choices. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed 22/02/2011 ] .

*Bupa. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed 22/02/2011 ] .

*Poindexter, C.C. ( 2010 ) Handbook of HIV and Social Work: Principles, Practice, and Populations. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & A ; Sons Inc.

Collier, L. , Oxford, J. ( 2006 ) Human Virology. 3rd erectile dysfunction. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.

*Terrence Higgins Trust. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // . [ Accessed 22/02/2011 ] .

*Avert. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed 22/02/2011 ] .

*Libman, H. , Makadon, H.J. ( 2007 ) HIV. 3rd erectile dysfunction. United States of America: American College of Physicians.

Joint Formulary Committee ( 2010 ) British National Formulary. 59th erectile dysfunction. London: BMJ Group RPS Publishing.

*AHFS Drug Information. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed 22/02/2011 ] .

Ramaiah, S. ( 2008 ) HIV/AIDS: Health Solutions. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

*Fan, H.Y. , Conner, R.F. , Villarreal, L.P. ( 2011 ) Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Science and Society. 6th erectile dysfunction. Sudbury Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

*Grahame-Smith D.G. , Aronson, J.K. ( 2002 ) Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 3rd erectile dysfunction. New York: Oxford University Press.

*Saeb-Parsy, K. , Assomull, R.G. , Khan, F.Z. , Saeb-Parsy, K. , Kelly, E. ( 1999 ) Instant Pharmacology. West Sussex: John Wiley & A ; Sons Ltd.

*Khan, M.M. ( 2008 ) Immunopharmacology. New York: Springer Science & A ; Business Media.

*Foye, W.O. , Lemke, T.L. , Williams, D. A. ( 2008 ) Foye ‘s Principles Of Medicinal Chemistry. 6th erectile dysfunction. United States of America: Lippincott Williams & A ; Wilkins.


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