Adventure Tourism has known a rapid popularity during these last yesteryear decennaries. This rise and sudden popularity was partly thanks to a patterned advance in the commercialisation of out-of-door diversion ( Buckley, 2000, 2004a ; Travel Industry Association, 2005 ) in ( Buckley, 2007 ) . Adventure travel existed since a long clip ; it began with early colonist and has amplified progressively since this period. The first escapade travellers were early adventurers in pursuit of find, in the Hunt for new resources, lands and looking for unknown topographic points. ‘Columbus, Cook, Da Gama, Magellan and Raleigh ‘ are among the well known early adventurers in pursuit of escapade ( Swarbrooke et al, 2003: 41 ) . Mercenaries were besides characterized as early adventurers holding every bit chief involvement money, hazard seeking while some others like Pilgrims were looking for religious cognition ( Swarbrooke et al, 2003 ) .

Adventure touristry is presently having a batch of attending and is the fastest and stylish turning sector of the touristry industry. It is perceived as being a niche section and take in land, air and sea-based activities. Adventure travel is going well-liked and persons are now endeavoring to happen equilibrium between work and leisure. Adventure travel has late created a centre of attending for the older people most exactly the babe boomers ( Patterson and Pan, 2007 ) . This new cohort born between 1946 and 1964 are acquiring engaged in new escapade activities. This inclination is chiefly due to a alteration in life style, being financially secured than old cohorts and holding more clip now that their kids have left place. Baby boomers are pushed and pulled by different motivations to prosecute in Adventure touristry. One can hold the want for new experiences, flight from the day-to-day modus operandi, babe boomers in today ‘s universe no longer want to sit in a coach traveling for sightseeing they want to see in the activity. Baby boomers can be soft adventurers in chase of easy-doing activities incorporating low degree of hazard like bird observation, Equus caballus equitation or difficult adventurers in pursuit of bangs, challenge and epinephrine.

Therefore, to better work the topic, research has been undertaken to research and analyse what truly actuate this coevals to prosecute in escapade touristry, place the different motivational factors, the types of activities they are more likely to take part in and their profile features. Lot of research has been done on Adventure Tourism ( Vester, 1987 ; Hill, 1995 ; Sung, 1997, 2000, 2004 ; Ewert and Jamieson, 2003 ; Beedie and Hudson, 2003 ; Gyimothy and Mykletun, 2004 ; Kane and Tucker, 2004 ; Weir, 2004 ; Flucker, 2005 ; Williams and Soutar, 2005 ; Cater, 2006 ; Page et Al, 2006 ; Buckley, 2000, 2006, 2007 ; Patterson and Pan, 2007 ; Schott, 2007 ; Dimmock, 2009 ; Reynolds, 2012 ) . Furthermore there are some books of peculiar relevancy to gamble touristry. These include Miles and Priest ( 1999 ) on escapade scheduling in out-of-door diversion ; Swarbrooke et Al, 2003 on Adventure Tourism: The new frontier ; Buckley ( 2006 ) on the construction of adventure touristry merchandises and Patterson ( 2006 ) on Turning older, touristry and leisure behaviour of older grownups.

1.1. Problem Statement

Several surveies have been written on escapade touristry, nevertheless no other surveies apart from Patterson and Pan ( 2007 ) has been found on the motive of babe boomers in adventure touristry. Most of the bing surveies focus on escapade touristry from a general point of position ( Vester, 1987 ; Buckley, 2006 ; Whiriskey and McCarthy, 2006 ) or look at different position such as Mountaineering and Adventure Tourism ( Beedie and Hudson, 2003 ; Pomfret, 2006 ) . Though, there is comparatively small research neither on the motive of people to prosecute in escapade nor on babe boomers. Ewert and Hollenhorst ( 1989 ) focused on escapade travel and its wilderness. Sung, Morrison and O’Leary ( 2004 ) investigate on the cleavage of escapade market by activities while Dimmock ( 2009 ) explored on the comfort in escapade and Reynolds ( 2012 ) studied on the motive and life style of surfing as an escapade travel.

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Therefore escapade touristry has been studied but through diverse positions and none apart from Patterson and Pan ( 2006 ) has focused on the motive of Baby Boomers in Adventure. Subsequently to counterbalance this spread, this research will travel deeper to measure those motives that indulge babe boomers to take part in adventure touristry.

1.2. Aim and Aims

Purpose

The chief purpose of this survey is to measure what actuate babe boomers to prosecute in adventure touristry.

Aims

Assess the socio-demographic features of babe boomers.

To measure the trip agreement factors of babe boomers

To distinguish between difficult and soft escapade and identify in which type of escapade activities baby boomers are more occupied in.

Analyze the push and pull factors that influence babe boomers in their pick.

Outline of Study

This survey consists of five subdivisions: the debut, the literature reappraisal, methodological analysis, consequences and treatment and decision and possible recommendations.

Chapter 1: The survey starts with a brief description on the field of research. This includes an debut on the enlargement of the touristry industry, the outgrowth of adventure touristry in today ‘s universe. It besides includes the job statement, purposes and aims of the research.

Chapter 2: The literature reappraisal is divided into two parts which is chapter 2 and chapter 3. Chapter 2 is the first portion of the literature reappraisal. This entails the theoretical background ; get downing with brief definition of different footings viz. adventure Tourism, babe boomers, the types of escapade touristry.

Chapter 3: The 2nd portion of the literature reappraisal lays great accent on the motivational theories ; this chapter goes deeper onto the different motivations that influence persons in their pick for escapade.

Chapter 4: This comprises of the methodological analysis, this explains how research was conducted, the questionnaire design, method used to roll up the informations, trying techniques, the information analysis and restrictions of the survey.

Chapter5: This includes the consequences and treatments of the consequences

Chapter 6: The last chapter reviews all of what have been discussed in the research and ends with some possible recommendations

Chapter 2

2.0. Introduction

This chapter consists of the literature reappraisal ; the literature reappraisal sets the theoretical model of this survey. Before coming to the definition of escapade touristry, the term escapade is first explained, implying its nucleus features. This is followed by an account on the term escapade touristry and babe boomers, types of escapade touristry every bit good as a the different types of activities involved in adventure touristry.

2.1. Adventure

Adventure is all about action ( Kane and Tucker, 2004 ) . The term Adventure does non hold a individual definition. Adventure could intend different things to different people. What is Adventure for one can be everyday for another ( Weir, 2004 ) . It varies from a holiday experience to a day-to-day work life of an person. In order to better understand the term escapade, it is important to go through on to its nucleus features ; this is demonstrated in the figure below.

Figure 1: The nucleus features of Adventure

Beginning: Swarbrooke et Al. ( 2003 )

These features efficaciously go over the chief points of escapade. Swarbrooke et Al. ( 2003 ) affirm that these features are reciprocally dependent since one component can develop the stimulation of another. For case, freshness may take to new geographic expedition and find, flight from day-to-day life, a expression for challenge, danger and hazard and develop contrasting emotions.

2.3. Adventure in the context of Tourism

Tourists in today ‘s universe are non the same as it was in old old ages. In this twenty-four hours and age, tourers are urgently in prosecuting momentous and alone experiences. They want active instead than inactive engagement, seek new esthesis and alteration from their ordinary life ( Moeran, 1983:17 ) . Adventure touristry is the new emergent and niche sector of the touristry industry. This sector count up 15 % of all leisure travel and this rate is traveling to enlarge in the approaching hereafter ( Hawkins, 1994 ; Loverseed, 1997 ; Fluker and Turner, 2000 ) .

Researchers has defined adventure touristry through diverse reading ( Buckley, 2000 ; Bentley and Page, 2001 ; Hudson, 2002 ; Swarbrooke et Al. 2003 ; Page et Al. 2005 ) . Amodeo ( 2004: 84 ) define escapade touristry as ‘travel to topographic points that require a certain grade of attempt and committedness to acquire and are about the experience and the journey instead than merely a list of topographic points visited or the degree of luxury ‘ . On the contrary, Muller and Cleaver ( 2000, p.156 ) define escapade touristry as ‘physically poising, adrenalin-driven, slightly hazardous, with minutes of excitement punctuated by many chances to measure and reevaluate what has been done or accomplished ‘ . As compared to Amodeo ( 2004 ) , Muller and Cleaver ( 2000 ) definition of the term is largely inter-related to the two concepts of perceived hazard and perceived public presentation, where high physical ability and hazard esthesis is mended for it to be utmost and dynamic. Nevertheless, Weir ( 2004 ) argue that Adventure do non needfully contain high degree of danger, since there exist escapade with no component of hazard or jeopardy. In the touristry industry, this is usually termed as soft escapade. On the reverse of the definition provided by the research workers, Swarbrooke et Al ( 2003 ) province that Adventure touristry ‘is non specify harmonizing to specific activities that are undertaken, but more by the province of head and attack of the participant ‘ . This means that it is the personal reading and perceptual experience of persons towards Adventure that will more clearly specify the term.

Six major dimensions of escapade touristry have been developed by Sung, Morrison and O’Leary ( 1997 ) and these are viz. activity, experience, environment, motive, hazard and public presentation. These constituents can be seen as major necessities for people to travel for escapade travel. The activity and environment will dwell of the physical location of the escapade travel, and this can be the natural environment. The experience will be the result to derive at the terminal, this can be self-achievement. Furthermore, the motive is all about the involvement of the person and enterprises to prosecute in escapade while hazard and public presentation is a expression for challenge and competency to make the activity. Adventure touristry takes in a scope of activities and this includes air, sea and land-based activities ( Hall, 1992 ; Fennel, 1999 ; Page et Al. 2003 ; Pomfret, 2004 ; Gajda, 2008 ) .This is illustrated in table 1.

Table 1: Conventional and modern-day escapade touristry activities

Land based

Water based

Air based

Mixed ( land/water/air )

Rappeling

A

Body get oning

Ballooning

Adventure rushing

Backpacking

Canoing

A

Bungee jumping

Charity challenges

Bicycle

A

Canyoning

A

Cliff jumping

Conservation expeditions

Caving

A

Cruise expeditions

Gliding

Cultural experiences

Climbing

A

Kayaking

A

Hang-gliding

Gap your travel

Dog sledding

Sailing

A

Micro-lighting

Hedonic experiences

Hiking

A

Scuba diving

Paragliding

Religious enlightenment

Hunting

A

Snorkeling

A

Chuting

Wildlife watching

Horseback equitation

Surfboarding

A

Sky diving

A

A

Jungle researching

Water skiing

A

A

Motorbiking

White H2O rafting

A

A

Mountain biking

Wind surfing

A

A

Mountaineering

A

A

A

A

Orienteering

A

A

A

A

Quad biking

A

A

A

A

Scrambling

A

A

A

A

Skiing

A

A

A

A

A

Snow get oning

A

A

A

A

Snow mobiling

A

A

A

A

Snow shoeing

A

A

A

A

Via Ferrata*

A

A

A

A

Wilderness experiences*

A

A

A

A

A

A

iˆ?Backpacking, mounting, boosting, mountain climbing, skiing, via ferrata and wilderness experiences are all mountaineering-related activities

Beginnings: Hallway 1992, Page et Al. 2003, Pomfret 2004

2.4. Types of Adventure Tourism

Adventure touristry is composed of diverse types of activities which can suit to the demand of different escapade traveller ( CBI, 2011 ) . Types of Adventure touristry can be categorized in two subdivision which is difficult and soft Adventure. The classification of the Adventure touristry aspects diverge between research workers ( Hill, 1995 ; Cloke and Perkins, 1998 ; Sung, Morrison and O’Leary, 2000 ; Ewert and Jamieson, 2003 ; Ryan and Trauer, 2004 ) in ( Schott, 2007 ) . For illustration, Sung, Morrison and O’Leary ( 2000 ) categorized the types of activities into six groupings including soft nature, hazard equipped, inquiry Markss, difficult challenge, rugged nature and winter snow ( Beedie and Hudson, 2003 ) . Several studieswere categorized in footings of activities and chiefly between difficult and soft escapade and the research worker ‘s survey will follow this tendency ( Hill, 1995 ; Millington and Locke, 2001 ; Ewert and Jamieson, 2003:69 ; Miller, 2003:2 ; Adventure Travel Society, 2003 ; Patterson and Pan, 2007 ) . Table 2 present some illustrations of soft and difficult escapade touristry.

Table 2: Examples of soft and difficult escapade touristry

Soft escapade

Difficult escapade

Wilderness landrover campaign

Climbing and mountaineering

Supervised and escorted trekking

Long distance back state trekking

Cycling vacations

Downhill mountain biking

Sailing vacations

Paragliding

Learning to surf and to windsurf

Heli-skiing vacations

Camping

A

Canoing and kayaking

Beginning: Sung et Al. 2000

2.4.1. Soft Adventure

Soft escapade can be defined as escapade activities that require low degree of hazard, low physical attempt and duty. These are activities normally undertaken by novice adventurers or people who want inactive activities degree, accompanied with experient ushers ( Hill, 1995 ) in ( Schott, 2007 ) .

On the other manus, Goodnow ( 2005 ) described Soft escapade journeys as travel to new and alien locations with low force activities. Some major illustrations of soft escapade activities are horse-riding, biking, hike, canoeing, snorkeling, and animate being observation, walking in natural countries, campaign ( Beedie and Hudson, 2003 ; Swarbrooke et Al, 2003 ; Williams and Soutar, 2005 ; Patterson and Pan, 2006 ; CBI, 2011 )

By and large, novice escapades engaged in soft activities due to the fact that they lack some experience, it can be misperceiving hazard and their competency and possibly take soft activities because of a esthesis of fright and hesitant and therefore desire to be on safe in a secured environment ( Priest, 1999, p.160, cited in Miles and Priest ; Pomfret, 2004 ) .

2.4.2 Difficult Adventure

Hill ( 1995 ) labeled difficult escapade as activities necessitating high degree of hazard, utmost committedness and superior and sometimes specialised accomplishments. Hill besides point out that difficult escapades necessitate good accomplishments in hazardous and unsafe state of affairss.

Hazard and competency are two major facets involve in difficult escapade activities. Those engage in difficult escapade are by and large in pursuit of challenge, adrenaline haste and hazard ( Peterson, 1989 ; Rubin, 1989 ; Mallett, 1992 ) in ( Williams and Soutar, 2005 ) . Peoples have a desire to seek new esthesiss ( Zuckerman, 1979 ) , and are motivated by “ challenge and command ” ( Ewert, 1985 ) . These people are normally known to be brave, skilled and holding good physical strength ( Pomfret, 2004 )

Some illustrations of difficult activities are mountain mounting, bungee jumping, canyoning, caving, ballooning, paragliding, surfing and so forth.

2.5. Baby Baby boomers

Baby boomers can be defined as ‘a cohort of young-old people who were born between 1946 and 1964 ‘ . They are now aged between 48 and 66 old ages old in 2012, ( Gillon, 2004 ) in ( Patterson, 2006, p.15 ) . The history of babe boomers dated from the period of the Second World War. Baby Boomer develops its name due to a growing in birth rate during the old ages 1946 and 1964[ 1 ]. During this century, soldiers came back place from war and wanted to get down a new life, construct up a household, which show this sudden rise in birth rate ( Ohio History Central, 2005 ) . Statisticss recorded 79 million births during this period1

Another equivalent word for babe boomers can be ‘Lucky Generation ‘ ( Mackay, 1997, p.60 ) in ( Hamilton, M and Hamilton, C. , 2006 ) . The term ‘Lucky ‘ was used to depict them because they have grown up in the first coevals basking a moderately comfortable and calm society. Additionally, Hamilton ( 2006 ) point out that during retirement babe boomers will decidedly hold more money to pass after long old ages of hardworking and nest eggs from pension programs. Baby boomers enjoy a better wellness than in the yesteryear ; they are taking particular attention to their diet, though life thirster and happier and more significantly being physically active by prosecuting in assorted types of leisure activities ( Cochran, 2005 ; Sperazza and Banerjee, 2011 ) .

Baby boomers are seeking new alteration and freshness ; they no longer want to trust on repeat leisure plan like bingo party, voluntary actions or mere leisure involvements. These activities are acquiring outdated and this is non traveling to be in the involvement of the babe boomers in retirement. As a consequence, Experts will decidedly hold to look at new leisure merchandises, or plans that will attractenthusiastic, energetic participants instead than inactive participant ( Cochran, Rothschadl and Rudick, 2009 ) .

2.6. Adventure Tourism and Baby Boomers

Adventure Tourism has become really popular during these last yesteryear decennaries. Adventure Tourism is considered as an alternate signifier of touristry. In today ‘s universe, people no longer want to bask basic activities ; they want to excel the mass activities, being deeply in the bang and exhilaration of the escapades.

The aging procedure has besides altered intensely during these past old ages. Harmonizing to Xola Adventure ( 2006 ) , old people aged between 41-to-60 old ages old represent the greatest participating age class in escapade travel at a rate of 42.2 per centum. This has emerged and is traveling to develop more in the hereafter. When speaking and believing about aging procedure our first feeling was ‘an grim slide into unwellness, powerlessness and stationariness ‘ ( Kraus, 2001 ) . Nowadays, this image of the babe boomers is no more present. Patterson ( 2006 ) besides portions his sentiment on this alteration. She argues that this is a clip of new experiences and feelings. Baby boomers need to experience they are free to make what they want or what they have ever dreamed of and which were non fulfilled old ages before ( MacNeil and Teague, 1987 ; Leitner, 1996 ; McGuire et al. , 2004 ) .

Adventure is non reserve for younger people, nowadays tonss of people aged between 42 and 64 are being engaged in adventuresome activities. Gone are those yearss where older people used to pass their leisure clip in ‘sedentary and socially based activities ‘ like watching films, listening to the wireless ( Lawton, 1993 ) in ( Patterson, 2006: 7 ) . Research has demonstrate that we are traveling through an epoch where things are altering, wonts of older people from old coevals differs from that of the present coevals. Baby boomers see their retirement as being the clip to review, see freshness and new esthesis. They get a feeling of freedom and harmoniousness, do what they want, things that was impossible for them to carry through possibly due to overload of work, looking and caring for their kids ( MacNeil and Teague, 1987 ; Leitner 1996 ; McGuire et al. , 2004 ) .

Bing more financially unafraid, in good wellness and physical status, and besides knowing encourage babe boomers to prosecute in out-of-door diversion activities. This enables them to experience at one with nature, physically fit and more significantly a manner to experience they are still immature.

Lipscombe ( 1995 ) in his research happen out that tonss of older grownups are at present bespeaking activities that engage physical defy, non intentionally danger but travel that have at least journeys, rational challenge, and affecting the geographic expedition of new topographic points and civilizations ( Gibson and Singleton, 2012 ) . It is to be noted that babe boomers are non seeking for simple and easy-done activity ; they are looking for a certain grade of challenge and hazard. They want to hold merriment, seek bang, these can be a rule motivation because they were excessively focus on their calling old ages before, endeavoring difficult to provide for the demands of the household. All this was such a large duty that they now want to loosen up and bask, make something for themselves while kids had grown up and acquire off in the modus operandi they had imprisoned themselves for old ages.

Chris Doyle, frailty president of ATTA point out from an interview with Airoldi ( 2008 ) that the’50-plus traveller ‘ is a major market for escapade sector ; particularly because they are among those who travel more often since they have the fiscal ability to make so.

Muller and O’Cass ( 2001 ) explore the different motivation of older work forces and adult females in prosecuting in escapade activities. He note down that ‘young at bosom ‘ older work forces were more interested to take portion in activities such as white-water rafting, glacier hike, stone mounting, undermining and hot air-ballooning. On the contrary to the ‘young at bosom ‘ older work forces, the ‘young at bosom ‘ older adult females has a penchant for mountain hike, rainwater treks, bird-watching and walking for interior journeys while being on travel vacation. It is so observed that work forces prefer difficult escapade activity as compared to adult females who enjoyed by and large soft 1s. A ‘Marketing to adult females ‘ study ( 2000 ) sustain such statement by reasoning that adult females aged between 55 and 75 are more likely to prosecute in soft activities like campaign, hikings and trips to dramatic locations. They farther indicate out to prefer being in a secure environment with professional escapade suppliers, and with company of others holding similar ages.

Adventure can be classified in certain words, ‘Play ‘ , ‘Freedom ‘ and ‘Reality ‘ ( Kane and Tucker, 2004 ) . The writers fundamentally described escapade as a game played by participants in touristry ; being free to prosecute in any peculiar activities and sing the world of it. Furthermore Kane and Tucker interpret the term ‘play ‘ , as being a game for the grownups, live overing their childhood and though basking this freedom to play like a kid once more. Hence, this fresh cohort of retired persons is ‘hungry to acquire off the beaten way ‘ ( Symonds, 1998 ) .

2.7. Drumhead

From this chapter, the research worker has been able to derive a theoretical cognition of the basic theories on escapade touristry and babe boomers. The different types of escapade touristry was examined, which is difficult and soft escapade. The babe boomers coevals was besides defined, where proper information was gathered in respects to their life styles and their interaction in leisure and escapade touristry

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