The ash content of a rough drug is by and large taken to be the residue staying after incineration. It normally represents the inorganic salts of course happening in the drug and adhering to it, but it may besides include inorganic affair added for the intent of debasement. There is a considerable difference varies within narrow bounds in the instance of the same single drug. Hence an ash finding furnishes a footing for judging the individuality and cleanliness of a drug and gives information relation to its debasement with inorganic affair. Ash criterions have been established for a figure of official drugs. Normally these criterions get a maximal bound on the entire ash or on the acid indissoluble ash permitted.

The entire ash is the residue staying after incineration. The acid indissoluble ash is the portion of the entire ash which is indissoluble in diluted hydrochloric acid.

The ash or residue yielded by an organic chemical compound is as a regulation, a step of the sum of inorganic affairs present as dross. In most instances, the inorganic affair is present in little sums which are hard to take in the purification procedure and which are non obnoxious if lone hints are present. Ash values are helpful in finding the quality and pureness of the petroleum drugs in pulverization signifier.

Procedures given in Indian pharmacopoeia were used to find the different ash values such as entire ash and acid indissoluble ash.

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Entire ash

Weighed accurately about 3 gram of air dried powdery drug was taken in a tarred silicon oxide crucible and incinerated by bit by bit increasing the temperature to do it dull ruddy until free from C cooled and weighted and so calculated the per centum of entire ash with mention to the air dried drug.

Acid indissoluble ash

The ash obtained as directed under entire ash above was boiled with 25 milliliters of 2N HCl for 5 proceedingss. The indissoluble affair was collected on ash less filter paper, washed with hot H2O ignited and weighed, so calculated the per centum of acid indissoluble ash with mention to the air dried drug.

Water soluble ash

The entire ash obtained was boiled with 25 milliliters of H2O for 5 proceedingss. The indissoluble affair was collected on an ash less filter paper, washed with hot H2O and ignited for 15 proceedingss at a temperature non transcending 450EsC. The weight of indissoluble affair was subtracted from the weight of entire ash. The difference in weight represents the H2O soluble ash. The per centum of H2O soluble ash calculated with mention to the air dried drug.

b. EXTRACTIVE VALUES

Extractive values of petroleum drugs are utile for their rating, particularly when the components of a drug can non be readily estimated by any other agencies. Further, these values indicate the nature of the components present in a rough drug.

Determination of intoxicant soluble extractive value

5 gram of the air-dried harsh pulverization of Anogeissus latifolia wall ( Roxb.ex.DC ) was macerated with 100 milliliters of 90 % ethyl alcohol in a closed flask for 24 hours, agitating often during the first 6 hours and leting standing for 18hours. Thereafter, it was filtered quickly taking safeguards against the loss of the dissolver. Out of that filtrate, 25 milliliter of the filtrate was evaporated to dryness in a tarred flat bottomed shallow dish, dried at 105EsC and weighed. The per centum of ethyl alcohol soluble extractive value was calculated with mention to the air- dried drug. The consequences are recorded in the tabular array.

Determination of H2O soluble extractive value

Weigh accurately 5 gram of coarsely powdered drug and macerate it with 100 milliliters of trichloromethane H2O in a closed flask for 24 hours, agitating often during the first 6 hours and let to standing for 18 hours. Thereafter, it was filtered quickly taking safeguards against loss of the dissolver. Then 25 milliliter of the filtrate was evaporated to dryness in a tarred flat bottomed shallow dish, dried at 105EsC and weighed. The per centum of H2O soluble extractive was calculated with mention to the air dried drug. The consequences are given in the tabular array.

c. LOSS ON DRYING

Loss on drying is the loss in weight in per centum w/w determined by agencies of the process given below. It determines the sum of volatile affair of any sort ( including H2O ) that can be driven off under the status specified ( Desiccators or hot air oven ) . If the sample is in the signifier of big crystals, so cut down the size by speedy suppression to a pulverization.

Procedure

About 1.5 gram of powdery drug was weighed accurately in a tarred porcelain dish which was antecedently dried at 105EsC in hot air oven to constant weight and so weighed. From the difference in weight, the per centum loss of drying with mention to the air dried substance was calculated.

d. FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS [ Kokate.C.K, 2002 ; Khandelwal KR 1996 ] .

In the near-ultra part of the spectrum ( 3000-4000AEs ) some of the phytoconstituents show more or less superb colour when exposed to radiation. This phenomenon of breathing seeable wavelengths as a consequence of being excited by radiation of a different wavelength is known as fluorescence. Sometimes the sum of ultra-violet visible radiation usually present with seeable visible radiation is sufficient to bring forth the fluorescence, but frequently a more powerful beginning of ultra-violet is necessary, e.g. mercury vapour lamp. It is frequently possible to do usage of this phenomenon for the qualitative scrutiny of herbal drugs. A fluorescence feature of the powdery foliages of Anogeissus latifolia wall ( Roxb.ex.DC ) was observed in daytime and UV visible radiation. Besides the fluorescent survey was performed on handling the drug pulverization with different chemical reagents. The ascertained consequences are given in tabular array.

e. FOAMING INDEX: [ Divakar M.C. , 1996 ]

Foaming index is chiefly performed to find the saponin content in an aqueous decoction of works stuff.

Determination of frothing index:

Weighed accurately about 1g of coarsely powdered drug and transformed to 500ml conelike flask incorporating 100ml of boiling H2O. Maintained at moderate boiling at 80-90Esc for about 30min. Cooled and added sufficient H2O through the filter to do up the volume to 100ml ( V1 ) . Cleaned 10 stoppered trial tubing of unvarying dimension were taken and transferred the consecutive parts of 1,2,3ml up to 10ml and adjusted the volume of the liquid in each trial tubing with H2O to 10ml.Stoppered the tubings and agitate them in a lengthwise gesture for 15 sec uniformly and allowed to stand for 15min and mensurate the tallness of froth. If the tallness of the froth in every tubing is less than 1cm, the foaming index is less than 100 ( non important ) . Here the froth was more than 1cm tallness after dilution of works stuff. If the tallness of the froth in every tubing is more than 1cm, the foaming index is more than 1000. In this instance, 10ml of first decoction of works stuff is measured and transferred to 100ml volumetric flask ( V2 ) and volume is made to 100ml and followed the same process.

5.1. 2. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS

Extraction of works stuff: –

Petroleum ether extraction: –

About 400gm of dry coarse foliage pulverization of the Anogeissus latifolia wall ( Roxb.ex.DC ) was extracted with crude oil ether 2500ml ( 40-600c ) for 18 hour by uninterrupted hot infiltration method. It was allowed to chill to 40oC and so filtered utilizing whatman No.1 filter paper. The filtrate was so concentrated in a rotary evaporator and the infusion stored at 4A°C until required. The extract output ( % w/w ) from the works stuff was recorded.

Methanolic extraction: –

About 400g of air dried coarse powdered stuff was taken in 1000ml soxhlet setup and soaked with crude oil quintessence for 2 yearss. At the terminal of 2nd twenty-four hours the pulverization was taken out and it was dried. After drying it was once more jammed and extracted by utilizing methyl alcohol ( Changshu yangyuan chemicals, China ) as dissolver, till coloring material disappeared. The temperature was maintained at 55°C-65°C. After that infusion was concentrated by distillment and dissolver was recovered. The concluding solution was evaporated to dryness. The coloring material, consistence and output ( % w/w ) of methanolic infusion were noted.

S.No.

Name of infusion

Coloring material

Consistency

Output % W/W

1

2

Methanolic infusion

Petroleum ether infusion

Blackish brown

Blackish viridity

Non Sticky mass

gluey oily mass

16.75

1.60Table: 1. Nature and coloring material of infusion of Anogeissu latifolia wall ( Roxb.ex.DC ) .

5.1. 3 Chemical Trial:

A ) Trial for saccharides

1. Molisch Trial: It consists of handling the compounds of a-naphthol and concentrated sulfuric acid along the sides of the trial tubing.

Purple coloring material or ruddy violet coloring material was produced at the junction between two liquids. ( Kokate, C.K et Al, 2000 )

2. Fehling ‘s Trial: Equal measure of Fehling ‘s solution A and B is added. Heat gently, brick ruddy precipitate is obtained.

3. Benedict ‘s trial: To the 5ml of Benedict ‘s reagent, add 8 beads of solution under scrutiny. Mix good, boiling the mixture smartly for two proceedingss and so cool. Red precipitate is obtained.

4. Barfoed ‘s trial: To the 5ml of the Barfoed ‘s solution add 0.5ml of solution under scrutiny, heat to boiling, formation of ruddy precipitate of Cu oxide is obtained.

B ) Test for Alkaloids

1. Dragendroff ‘s Trial: To the infusion, add 1ml of Dragendroff ‘s reagent Orange ruddy precipitate is produced.

2. Wagner ‘s trial: To the extract attention deficit disorder Wagner reagent. Red brown precipitate is produced.

3. Mayer ‘s Trial: To the infusion add 1ml or 2ml of Mayer ‘s reagent. Dull white precipitate is produced.

4. Hager ‘s Trial: To the infusion add 3ml of Hager ‘s reagent xanthous Precipitate is produced.

C ) Test for Steroids and Sterols

1. Liebermann Burchard trial: Dissolve the trial sample in 2ml of trichloromethane in a dry trial tubing. Now add 10 beads of acetic anhydride and 2 beads of concentrated sulfuric acid. The solution becomes ruddy, so blue and eventually blue viridity in coloring material.

2. Salkowski trial: Dissolve the sample of trial solution in trichloromethane and add equal volume of conc. sulfuric acid. Blue ruddy cherry ruddy and violet colour is noted in trichloromethane bed, whereas acid assumes marked green fluorescence.

D ) Test for Glycosides

1. Legal ‘s trial: Sample is dissolved in pyridine ; Na nitropruside solution is added to it and made alkaline. Pink ruddy coloring material is produced.

2. Baljet trial: To the drug sample, Na picrate solution is added. Yellow to orange coloring material is produced.

3. Borntrager trial: Add a few milliliter of dilute sulfuric acid to the trial solution. Boil, filter and pull out the filtrate with quintessence or trichloromethane. Then organic bed is separated to which ammonium hydroxide is added, tap, ruddy or violet coloring material is produced in organic bed.

4. Killer Killani trial: Sample is dissolved in acetic acid incorporating hint of ferrous chloride and transferred to the surface of concentrated sulfuric acid. At the junction of liquid ruddy brown colour is produced which bit by bit becomes bluish.

Tocopherol ) Trial for Saponins

Foam trial: About 1ml of alcoholic sample is diluted individually with distilled H2O to 20ml, and shaken in calibrated cylinder for 15 minutes.1 cm bed of froth indicates the presence of saponins.

F ) Test for Flavonoids

Shinoda trial: To the sample, Mg turnings and so concentrated hydrochloric acid is added. Red coloring material is produced.

G ) Test for Tri-terpenoids

In the trial tubing, 2 or 3 granules of Sn was added, and dissolved in a 2ml of thionyl chloride solution and trial solution is added. Tap coloring material is produced which indicates the presence of triterpenoids.

H ) Tests for Tannins and Phenolic Compounds:

To 2-3 milliliter of infusion, add few beads of following reagents:

a ) . 5 % FeCl3 solution: deep blue-black colour.

B ) . Lead acetate solution: white precipitate.

degree Celsius ) . Gelatin solution: white precipitate

vitamin D ) . Bromine H2O: decolouration of bromine H2O.

vitamin E ) . Acetic acerb solution: ruddy colour solution

degree Fahrenheit ) . Dilute iodine solution: transient ruddy colour.

g ) . Dilute HNO3: reddish to yellow colour.

I ) Trial for Fixed Oils and Fatty acids

a ) . Spot trial:

Small measure of the infusion is placed between two filter documents. Oil discoloration produced with any infusion shows the presence of fixed oils and fats in the infusions.

B ) . Saponification trial:

Few beads of 0.5N alcoholic K hydrated oxide are added to the infusion with few beads of phenolphthalein solution. Subsequently the mixture is heated on H2O bath for 1-2 hours soap formation indicates the presence of fixed oils and fats in the infusions.

J ) Test for Gums and Mucilage:

a ) . Ruthenium ruddy trial:

Small measures of infusion are diluted with H2O and added with Ru ruddy solution. A pink coloring material production shows the presence of gums and mucilage.

K ) Test for Proteins and Amino acids

Biuret trial: Add 1 milliliter of 40 % Na hydrated oxide and 2 beads of 1 % Cu sulfate to the infusion, a violet coloring material indicates the presence of proteins.

Ninhydrin trial: Add 2 beads of newly prepared 0.2 % Ninhydrin reagent to the infusion and heat. A bluish coloring material develops bespeaking the presence of proteins, peptides or aminic acids.

Xanthoprotein trial: To the infusion, add 20 % of Na hydrated oxide or ammonium hydroxide. Orange coloring material indicates presence of aromatic amino acid.

5.1. 4.TOXICOLOGICAL Evaluation

Determination LD50 value of Anogeissus latifolia ( Roxb.ex.DC ) .wall.Gull & A ; perr

Acute Oral Toxicity Study

The process was followed by utilizing OECD guidelines 423 ( Acute toxic category method )

Animals:

Adult albino rats ( Wister strain ) of either sex with weighing 150 – 180gm were used. The animate beings were maintained on the suited nutritionary and environmental status throughout the experiment. The animate beings were housed in polypropene coops with paddy house bedding under standard research lab status for an acclimatisation periods of 7 yearss prior to executing the experiment. The animate beings had entree to laboratory Zhou and H2O. The experimental protocols were approved by institutional Animal Ethical Committee & A ; a written permission from in house ethical commission has been taken to transport out ( Reference no. JKKMMRF/2010/009 ) and complete this survey.

Procedure:

Twelve animate beings ( Wister Albino rats, 150-200gm ) were selected for surveies. The acute toxic category method is a measure wise process with 3 animate beings of individual sex per measure. Depending on the mortality and / or moribund position of the animate beings, on mean 2-4 stairss may be necessary to let judgement on the acute toxicity of the trial animate beings while leting for acceptable informations based scientific decision.

The method uses defined doses ( 5, 50, 300, 2000 milligram / kg organic structure weight ) and the consequences allow a substance to be ranked and classified harmonizing to the Globally Harmonized system ( GHS ) for the categorization of chemical which cause acute toxicity.

Most of the petroleum extracts possess LD50 value more than 2000 mg. /kg of the organic structure weight of animate being used.

Dose volume was administered 0.1 ml / 100 gram organic structure weight to the animate being

by orally after giving the dosage the toxic marks were observed within 3-4 hours.

Body weight of animate beings before and after disposal, oncoming of toxicity and marks of toxicity like alterations in tegument and pelt, eyes, and mucose membrane and besides respiratory, circulatory, autonomic and cardinal nervous systems and somatomotor activity and behaviour form, marks of shudders, paroxysm, salivation, diarrhea, lassitude, slumber and coma was besides to be noted, if any, was observed.

Observation

No toxicity or decease was observed for these given dosage degrees, in selected and treated animate beings. So the LD 50 of the Anogeissus latifolia wall ( Roxb.ex.DC ) , as per OECD guidelines-423 is greater than 2000mg/kg ( LD50 & gt ; 2000mg/kg ) .

Hence, the biological dosage was fixed at 200, 400 and 600mg/kg of organic structure weight for the infusion.

PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION

5.2.1 Evaluation of Anti-ulcer Activity: –

Animals used:

Adult albino rats ( Wister strain ) of either sex with weighing 150 – 180gm were used. The animate beings were maintained on the suited nutritionary and environmental status throughout the experiment. The animate beings were housed in polypropene coops with paddy house bedding under standard research lab status for an acclimatisation periods of 7 yearss prior to executing the experiment. The animate beings had entree to laboratory Zhou and H2O. The experimental protocols were approved by institutional Animal Ethical Committee & A ; a written permission from in house ethical commission has been taken to transport out ( Reference no. JKKMMRF/2010/009 ) and complete this survey.

5.2.2 Experimental process

Ethanol induced ulcer: –

Male albino-Wistar rats were divided in to five groups of six animate beings per group and animate beings were fasted for 24 hour prior to the experiment in pierced steel coops to avoid coprophagia. Six groups were made as below

Group I – animate beings served as normal controls.

Group II – received 1 % CMC ( 1.0ml/kg p.o ) as vehicle control.

Group III – received 200mg/kg, p.o methanolic infusion of Anogeissus latifolia.

Group IV – received 400mg/kg, p.o methanolic infusion of Anogeissus latifolia.

Group V – received 100mg/kg, Sucralfate as criterion

One hr after the drug intervention the animate beings were treated with absolute ethyl alcohol [ 5ml/kg ] to bring on ulcers. The animate beings were sacrificed after 1hrs and tummy was opened and per centum suppression of ulcer was determined. ( Mozafar khazaei et al. , 2006, Paul V. et Al 2002, Paul V. et al. , 2000 )

Aspirin induced ulcer: –

Male albino-Wistar rats were divided in to five groups of six animate beings per group and animate beings were fasted for 24 hour prior to the experiment in pierced steel coops to avoid coprophagia. Six groups were made as below

Group I – animate beings served as normal controls.

Group II – received 1 % CMC ( 1.0ml/kg p.o ) as vehicle control.

Group III – received 200mg/kg, p.o methanolic infusion of Anogeissus latifolia.

Group IV – received 400mg/kg, p.o methanolic infusion of Anogeissus latifolia.

Group V – received 100mg/kg, Sucralfate as criterion

One hr after the drug intervention the animate beings were treated with aspirin [ 200 mg/kg ] to bring on ulcers. The animate beings were sacrificed after 1hrs and tummy was opened and per centum suppression of ulcer was determined. ( Mozafar khazaei et al. , 2006, Paul V. et Al 2002, Paul V. et al. , 2000 )

5.2.3 Biochemical Parameters: –

The tummy was carefully excised maintaining gorge closed and opened along greater curvature and luminal contents were removed. The stomachic contents were collected in a trial tubing and centrifuged. The stomachic contents were analyzed for stomachic juice volume, pH, free and entire sourness.

5.2.4 Measurement of stomachic juice volume and pH: –

Gastric juice was collected from ethyl alcohol induced ulcer rats. The stomachic juice therefore collected was centrifuged at 3000 revolutions per minute for 10 min. The volume of supernatant was measured and expressed as ml/100g organic structure weight. The pH of the supernatant was measured utilizing digital pH metre. ( Canmon DC. et al. , 1969, Kannappan et al. , 2008, Patil K.S. et al. , 2008, Paul V. et al. , 2000 )

5.2.5 Determination of free and entire sourness: –

An aliquot of 1.0 milliliter of stomachic juice was pipette out in to a 50 milliliter conelike flask and 2/3 beads of Topfers reagent was added to it and titrated with 0.01N NaOH until all hints of the ruddy coloring material disappeared and the coloring material of the solution turned xanthous orange. The volume of 0.01N NaOH was noted which corresponds to free sourness. Then 2/3 beads of phenolphthalein was added and titration was continued until a lasting pink coloring material was developed. The volume of entire base consumed was noted which corresponds to entire sourness. The free sourness and entire sourness was determined utilizing the expression and values are expressed as mEq/l 100g. ( Kannappanetal. 2008, Rajkapoor et al. , 2002 ) .

Acidity = Volume of NaOH X Normality of NaOH X 100 ( mEq/L per 100g )

0.01

5.2.6 Ulcer index ( UI ) : –

The mucous membrane was flushed with saline and tummy was pinned on frog board. The lesion in glandular part was examined under a 10x magnifying glass and length was measured utilizing a splitter and graduated table and stomachic ulcer was scored. Ulcer index of each animate being was calculated by adding the values and their average values were determined. ( Malairajan et al. , 2007 )

0 – Convention coloured tummy

0.5 – Red color

1 – Topographic point ulceration

1.5 – Haemorrhagic run

2 – ulcers

3 – Perforations

5.2.7 Percentage suppression:

Percentage suppression was calculated utilizing the undermentioned expression. ( Malairajan et al. , 2007 )

UI ulcer control – UI ulcer treated

% suppression = X 100

UI ulcer control

5.2. 8. Statistical Analysis:

All the values are expressed as average A± S.E.M for groups of six animate beings each. Analyzed by one manner ANOVA and compared by utilizing Tukey- Kramer multiple comparing trials. The values are statistically important at three degrees, ***p & lt ; 0.001. **p & lt ; 0.01, *p & lt ; 0.05 But ns if p & gt ; 0.05.

5.3. Evaluation OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY

Animals used:

Adult albino rats ( Wister strain ) of either sex with weighing 150 – 180gm were used. The animate beings were maintained on the suited nutritionary and environmental status throughout the experiment. The animate beings had entree to laboratory Zhou and H2O. The experimental protocols were approved by institutional Animal Ethical Committee & A ; a written permission from in house ethical commission has been taken to transport out ( Reference no. JKKMMRF/2010/009 ) and complete this survey.

Experimental process

The method of ( Lipchitz et.al. , 1943 ) was employed for the rating of diuretic activity. The Male Albino-Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six rats in each as mentioned below.

Group I – received Normal saline ( 25mg/kg, p.o ) as control.

Group II – received ( 400mg/kg, p.o ) methanolic infusion of Anogeissus latifolia.

Group III- received ( 600mg/kg, p.o ) methanolic infusion of Anogeissus latifolia.

Group IV – received Furosemide ( 20mg/kg, p.o ) as criterion.

The animate beings were fasted and deprived of nutrient and H2O for 18hour anterior to the experiment. On the twenty-four hours of experiment, the group I animals functioning as control, received normal saline ( 25ml/kg, p.o ) , the group II animate beings received methanolic infusion of Anogeissus latifolia wall ( Roxb.ex.DC ) leaves ( 400mg/kg, p.o ) and group III animate beings besides received methanolic infusion ( 600mg/kg, p.o ) , the group IV animate beings received Furosemide ( 20mg/kg, p.o ) , severally, in normal saline. Immediately after the disposal the animate beings were kept in metabolic coops ( three per coop ) specially designed to divide urine and faecal affair and kept at room temperature of 25 A± 0.5° C throughout the experiment. The entire volume of piss was collected at the terminal of 5hrs after dosing. During this period no H2O and nutrient was made available to the animate beings. The parametric quantities taken for single rat were body weight before and after trial period, entire concentration of Na+ , K+ and ClA­- in the piss. The Na+ and K+ were measured by fire photometry and ClA­- concentration was estimated by titration with Ag nitrate ( N/50 ) utilizing three bead of 5 % K chromate solution as index.the consequences are reported as average A±SD, the trial of significance ( P & lt ; 0.05 ) compared to command group.

5.3.1. Statistical analysis:

All the values are expressed as average A± S.E.M for groups of six animate beings each. Analyzed by one manner ANOVA and compared by utilizing Tukey- Kramer multiple comparing trials. The values are statistically important at three degrees, ***p & lt ; 0.001. **p & lt ; 0.01 *p & lt ; 0.05 But ns if p & gt ; 0.05.

5.4 EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY

Animals used:

Adult albino rats ( Wister strain ) of either sex with weighing 150 – 180gm were used. The animate beings were maintained on the suited nutritionary and environmental status throughout the experiment. The animate beings were housed in polypropene coops with paddy house bedding under standard research lab status for an acclimatisation periods of 7 yearss prior to executing the experiment. The animate beings had entree to laboratory Zhou and H2O. The experimental protocols were approved by institutional Animal Ethical Committee & A ; a written permission from in house ethical commission has been taken to transport out ( Reference no. JKKMMRF/2010/009 ) and complete this survey.

Procedures:

Eddy ‘s hot home base method:

The Male Albino-Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six rats in each as mentioned below.

Group I – received 1 % CMC ( 3ml/kg, p.o ) as control.

Group II – received ( 400mg/kg, p.o ) methanolic infusion of Anogeissus latifolia.

Group III- received ( 600mg/kg, p.o ) methanolic infusion of Anogeissus latifolia.

Group IV – received Talwin ( 5mg/kg, p.o ) as criterion

Analgesic activity was performed by utilizing Eddy ‘s hot home base ( Inco, India ) maintained at a temperature of 55A±1°c. The radical reaction clip of all animate beings towards thermic heat was recorded. The animate beings which showed forepaw defeat or jumping response within 6-8 seconds were selected for the survey. Male Albino rats were divided into 5 groups holding 6 animate beings each and they were divided into 5 groups holding 6 animate beings each and they were fasted nightlong during the experiment free entree to H2O. Group foremost received 1 % CMC ( 3ml/kg, p.o ) .Group 2nd, 3rd and 4th received methanolic infusion of Anogeissus latifolia ( Roxb.ex DC. ) wall. Gull & A ; perr foliages of dose 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg, orally as a suspension in 1 % CMC solution severally Group five received Pentazocine ( 5mg/kg, p.o ) as mention drug.

60 mins after the disposal of trial and mention compounds, the animate beings in all the six groups were separately exposed to the home base maintained at 55°c and observations were recorded for 3 hours. The clip taken in seconds for bow paw defeat or jumping was taken as reaction clip. A cut off period of 15 seconds is observed to avoid harm to the paws. The per centum protection was calculated utilizing the expression,

Percentage protection = ( T/C-1 ) A-100 where, T is the reaction clip of treated group and C the reaction clip of control group.

x

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