In this study more analysis about facets of New JICA administration has been clearly and in deep explored. The debut portion has covered about the Aim of this instance survey, the Background of JICA administration covering its development get downing where the administration was foremost found.

The usage of SWOT analysis as a tool of measuring the public presentation of the administration has been in big covered where besides the recommendations have been pointed out to get by with the administration ‘s internal failing and its external menaces

Besides this study has covered the country of the administration construction, importance of administration construction, advantages and disadvantages of each type of construction and the administration construction used by the New JICA.

Besides this study has explained the construct of direction alteration, the significance of alteration, rule of alteration, how to impact the direction of alteration in the administration. The last portion cover the decision and recommendation of instance survey.

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Chapter ONE

1.0 Introduction


The purpose of this study is to find whether the aims of NEW JICA have been archived peculiarly in Tanzania. The action programs for Tanzania development every bit good the precise apprehension of the development demands of Tanzania through supervising of state office and the close support of JICA Regional Strategy unit for Africa ( RSA ) .

The “ Creation and publicity of sustained and stable growing of economic system and poorness decrease by support of development policy ( MKUKUTA that means The national scheme for growing and decrease of poorness 2005-2010 ) .New JICA aid Tanzania to advance productiveness and fight by back uping the development of agribusiness and substructure, good administration through fiscal direction systems and public administrative development. Besides JICA uses different assistance modes like loan, grants, proficient cooperation such as preparation and despatch of voluntaries to different country of field in order to file away its targeted aims

JICA will hike the impact in the undermentioned attack.

A more planned construction focal point on norm to long term development end

More expected assistance working turn overing programs of campaigner undertakings for single development states

Speeder undertaking preparation through preliminary study

Aid tailored to existent demands synergism of assistance strategies


Japan International Cooperation Agency ( JICA ) is an administration which was established since August 1974 and undergoes some organizational reforms which lead to formation of Independence administrative Institution from the particular public establishment. All these was possible after the transition of the jurisprudence for partial amendment ( November 2006 ) from the Japan International Cooperation Agency jurisprudence. This influences the 1000s of ( Nipponese Overseas Cooperation Volunteers ) JOCV to volunteer in different activities around the universe.


JICA established the JICA Research Institute ( JICA-RI ) to better research map on development by pulling on its abundant field experience and to lend to research findings and taking audience on planetary development support.


Was officially launched on October 1, 2008 with combination/ integrating between the bing Nipponese International cooperation Agency and the abroad economic cooperation subdivision of the Bank for the cooperation ( JBIC )

The figure below illustrate the combination of different administration hence the preparation of NEW JICA

Figure 1


In Tanzani JICA was established since 1980 with basic aim of cooperation in assorted facets that aimed into back uping the self enterprises of Tanzania citizens in file awaying their societal and economic development vision 2020 and 2025 every bit good the Tanzania growing scheme and poorness decrease ( MKUKUTA-The national scheme for growing and decrease of poorness 2005-2010 )

JICA concentrated on “ field orientated direction, human security and effectivity, efficiency and velocity as the mark of the organizational alteration. JICA besides has abroad offices in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Oceania, Middle East, and Europe. These abroad offices has facilitated smooth operation, therefore the authorization for determination devising have been moved to these offices with an purpose to guarantee the flexible response to the widely varied demands of developing states.

Harmonizing to article of 30 old ages of JICA Tanzania office ( 1980-2010 ) there is some undertaking which was implemented as shown below

Figure 2

Figure 3

The Africa office is located in Nairobi Kenya which was established since October 2009 and go the Regional scheme unit for Africa ( RSA ) with purpose to smoothen JICA operation in the part every bit good to guarantee the flexible response to the widely varied demands of developing states. This office has been given the authorization in order to beef up activities in undertaking preparation, monitoring and rating every bit good the assistance scheme in bomber Sahara office.


To set about the commixture of direction modes of backup, that is

Technical cooperation

ODA loan

Grant assistance

Such elements will supply inclusive support such as policy and institutional betterments, betterment of substructure, human resource development and capacity edifice

Encouraging development association through exactly hold oning of demanding demands of developing states that spotlight on the field and advancing their ain ego aid attempt quickly and through a focal point on consequences. JICA has besides promoted the joint venture between public and private sectors so that they can lend to the experience, engineerings, resource of local authorities, non authorities administration and other histrions.

Enhancing research and cognition splintering in through the usage of JICA Research Institute, NEW JICA will utilize the apprehension acquired in the field of work, constructing extended webs of academic from Japan and elsewhere around the universe. besides to take portion in a prima function in steering the most recent development tendencies, better research and cognition sharing capacities


“ Inclusive development ” represents an attack to development that stimulate single to be witting of the development affair they themselves face, take part in turn toing them, and addition from the fruits of such activities. The function of JICA is to offer the successfully endorsing on this procedure.

“ Dynamic development ” refers to the organisation of ego reenforcing virtuous rhythm of mid to long term economic growing and poorness cutback in invariably switching environment of developing states where different issues go on at the same time and acquire embroiled each other. New JICA will offer originative, extremely successful support in the way of file awaying the aim


Addressing the planetary Agenda.

The promotion of globalization brings positive effects, rushing up economic development and supplying single with new chances. Besides it has the negative side such as the issue of clime alteration, infective diseases, terrorist act and the rise of economic crises. New JICA will do full usage of experience and engineerings as it concert with international society to cover with the different globalization interconnected issues that the development states are confronting in comprehensive mode.

Decrease of poorness through just growing

JICA will assist to shrivel the poorness to the society through advancing employment chances, supplying instruction wellness attention to the society while JICA supply support for proviso of societal and economic substructure, capacity edifice, and flawlessness of policy as good the support in footings of human resource betterment.

Bettering administration

JICA play a really of import function to the stable economic development of developing states. However the undeveloped legal and juridical system and administrative variety meats symbolize obstructions to attempts and lessening poorness through economic growing.

Archiving human security

The promotion of globalization imposes many people in dangers like civil problem, catastrophes, poorness and other menaces. Human security helps to construct abilities to protect themselves against an mixture of menaces. New JICA present support long pillows societal and institutional ability to cover with menaces themselves. Bellow figure illustrate the vision, mission and scheme of New JICA

Figure 4



Efficient and crystalline procedure- JICA overseeing and measure operations professionally and transparently and remain changeless committed to regenerating and streamlining administration by keeping high degree of answerability.

Undertaking complex, hard issues flexibly with the field based approach- JICA accurately grasp the development needs on the land and design activities with their focal point on the field, they deal flexibly with complex, hard and knotted development issues

Fostering expertness for supplying professional solution – JICA specialised in international cooperation, they perform international competitory work and utilizing expertness and cognition sharing capablenesss to rapidly and accurately address broad scope of development issues.

Archiving synergisms of the merger- by smoothly uniting diverse and modes, we make usage of our synergisms by rushing up the old procedure, scaling them out in other parts communities.


Poor planning- which caused by unchanged assistance policy every bit good the biasness

Lack of human security against menaces like civil war, terrorist act

Lack of sustainable development due to escalation of struggle in assorted portion of Africa and Asia like Somalia, Darfur, Afghanistan

Lack of integrated support substructure and human capacity development


ODA offer loan aid to developing states beyond a certain income by supplying low involvement long term and concessional fund

JICA provide Grant Aid for counties which have low income degrees without the demand of refund ; grant can be used for retrieving indispensable substructure such as schools, H2O supply, infirmary, roads installations, wellness and medical attention.

Dispatch of expertness and provisional of compulsory equipments and counsel

JICA despatch voluntaries from ( JOCV ) grip undertaking via the JICA finance and betterment of instruction. JICA work together with NGO ‘S, local authorities, universities, and other interest holders

JICA in instance of the occurrence of a big graduated table calamity, JICA dispatches Nipponese calamity alleviation squad in reaction from the authorities affected. illustration deliverance of lost people, support and medical direction


Worsening of foreign support which has been diminishing by 40 % in last few old ages. This give difficult planetary state of affairs including the Japan itself and it has become hard to turn round the tendency in simply fiscal footings. Constantly the aid from ODA ( Office Development Assistance ) continues to travel down.

In coming decennary Africa will be one of the most affected parts by clime alteration. This is due to extended spread of poorness, drouth, imbalanced land allotment

Some counties in Africa are likely to confront terrible H2O scarceness in the following three decennary.

Misuse of fund and corruptness on fund allocated for undertakings.

Chapter TWO


Harmonizing to Mullins ( 2005: 596 ) defined the administration construction as the form of relationships among places in the administration and among members of administration. Structure makes possible the application of the procedure of human direction and creates model of order and bid through which the activities of administration can be planned, organised, directed and controlled. The construction defines undertakings and duties, work functions and relationships, and channel of communicating. With the addition size of administration, there is greater demand for carefully designed and purposeful signifier of administration, besides continual reappraisal of construction to guarantee that it is the most appropriate signifier for the peculiar administration and in maintaining with its growing and development.


Harmonizing to Fontaine ( 2007 ) argued that Organisation construction is important constituent of the overall concern scheme, merely every bit of import as planning, taking and commanding an administration. Administration construction is the frame work for replying the undermentioned inquiries ; how do we organize occupations into section? “ Who does what ” and “ who report to whom ” in the concatenation of bid.

Some administration see their administration chart as confidential, while other administration do non and make bold to post their administration chart on the populace accessible web site.

The most common administration constructions are as follows:

Functional construction

Divisional construction

Matrix construction

Horizontal linked construction

2.3 Functional Structure:

Is the manner administrations support themselves into a scope of section illustration productions, gross revenues, research and development and accounting section.

Advantages of functional administration construction

It digest the determination devising and give direction control in the disposal

promote single profession way through presuming determination devising

Functional construction inspire stableness and efficiency

Disadvantages of functional administration construction

It taking to bury sections struggle and hapless communicating

Staff will hold a penchant to sort themselves with their section or subdivision but non with the administration.

Communication and confederation between the section is difficult


Divisional construction is non formulated on the grouping of people harmonizing to their accomplishment instead in puting them harmonizing to their similar abilities where they are required in the administration.

Advantages of Divisional construction are

Due to accountability, the reaction to client is first-class

Divisional construction can ease to excite managerial accomplishments and executive accomplishments, since staff are concerned to all other maps

Disadvantages of Divisional construction

There is diminution of specialization as good the professional accomplishments

Due to sections executing the same odd occupations within the disposal, there is excess of attempt and resources.


Matrix construction involves the combination of functional and divisional construction, but yet the matrix operation remains in its ain alone manner.

The director of each undertaking does non hold ownership of employees at all. He is accountable to pull off his staff from their functional country in so that to supervise his undertaking from construct to completing point

Advantages of matrix construction

It is really well-organized particularly when resources are limited

Undertaking can get down rapidly since there is no demand to use work force from outside

Cross functional accomplishments to employees due to their fond regard in assorted undertakings

Disadvantages of Matrix construction

Employees turn out to be upset and puzzled with concatenation of bid ( who is the caput of section or undertaking director )

The undertaking director may use for the best undertaking support work force from administration as the consequences can be the root of competitions

matrix construction is the most ambitious and nerve-racking than others


A horizontally linked construction groups people along the value of concatenation of procedure that green goods market, and serve the houses offering.

5.0 The figure below illustrate the horizontal administration construction





Harmonizing to Fontaine ( 2007 ) argued that “ believe of any administration construction and visualize an administration chart in two dimensions. There is perpendicular dimension in which the administration is considered to be either a Tall or Flat construction and there is the Horizontal dimension in which an administration is considered to be either broad or Narrow

The perpendicular dimension organizational construction

The perpendicular dimension fundamentally depict who is in charge of who is in charge of whom and who is responsible for determination devising inside the administration. It is hierarchy of authorization and within it we find the span of control

Broader span of control and fewer degrees of authorization consequences in a level hierarchal construction while the narrow span of control and more degree of authorization consequences in tall hierarchal construction

6.0 & A ; 7 The figures below illustrate the Tall and Flat constructions.

Tall Organisation construction has ( 5 ) five figure of degree while the span of control is ( 2 ) two. The above construction represents Tall STRUCTURE

Flat administration construction has ( 6 ) degree of span Control, while the figure of degree is ( 3 ) three. The figure above represents Flat STRUCTURE


Harmonizing to Mullins ( 2007. 577, 5780 ) explains that the Span of control arises in line authorization and refers to the figure of subsidiaries who report straight to a director or supervisor.

V.A. Graicuna developed a mathematical expression for the span control. The restriction of the figure of subsidiary who can expeditiously be supervised is based on the sum of the direct and transverse relationships.

R= N ( 2n /n + n-1 )

Where “ n ” represent the figure of subsidiary, ” R ” is the figure of interrelatednesss.

Factors that act uponing span of control

Span of control can be affected by the undermentioned factors:

The nature of administration, the complication of the work and the similitude of maps and the range of undertakings

The sum of clip the director has accessible from other activities to utilize up with subsidiaries

The handiness and preparation of low-level staff, the strength of their motive and committedness and the extent of way and counsel needed.

The utility of coordination and the nature of communicating and control systems.

The physical topographic point or geographical spread of subsidiaries

The length of scalar concatenation – this implies that if the span of control is excessively broad will make the undermentioned jobs ; it will go non easy to administrate the subsidiary successfully and do farther emphasis to the director, they may be short of clip to transport out all activities decently, limited chances for encouragement and may take to slowness to take on alteration or the debut of new alteration or procedure.

Besides if the span of control is excessively narrow may show the problem of coordination and uniformity in determination devising that obstruct effectual communicating across the administration. Narrow span of control additions disposal costs and may take to excess degree of authorization

Need for a balanced construction

The combination of span of control and concatenation of bid determines the overall pyramid form of the administration whether the hierarchal construction is level or tall


Figure 8 below represent administration chart of jica

The New JICA operates its activities in a good selected construction which suits its alone scheme of operation and direction activities. The administration is considered to hold 14 span of control ( regional scheme unit for Africa ) ( RSA ) therefore the construction is Tall with

Matrix administration construction.

This is due to decentralisation attack which is applied, where some of determination devising are carried out by regional office ( RSA ) alternatively of caput office in Japan.

The channel of communicating is extremely structured and is unfastened to let flow of information

Advantage of matrix construction

It is well-organized particularly when resources are limited

The undertaking can be rapidly established because there are sufficient staffs

Cross functional accomplishments to employees are encouraged

They deal with legion undertakings

Working with and larning from other professional with assortment of accomplishments

Disadvantages of matrix construction

It leads to confusion and letdown to employees due to near used that is concatenation of bid and order.

It can take to conflict due to observation of deadline


Since the advantages of matrix administration construction exceeded the disadvantages, it is wise to maintain on usage this administration construction because it is more efficient than others.

It is an environment in which the person excel

Matrix combine functional construction and divisional construction, but at the terminal it operate like neither

Chapter THREE


Harmonizing to Cook, C et Al ( 1997, p 112 ) defined organisation civilization as the cardinal premise people portion about an organisation ‘s values, beliefs, norms, symbols, linguistic communication, rites and myths. All of the expressive elements that gives intending to organisation rank and are accepted as usher to behaviour.

Organizational Behaviour ( OB ) is the acquisition and application of cognition in relation to how people, persons, and groups perform in organisations. It interprets people organisation personal businesss in footings of the full individual, full group, full organisation, and full societal system. Its purpose is to construct better relationships by accomplishing single aims, organisational aims, and public aims.

The followers are the JICA organisation civilization:

Harmonizing to capacity development enchiridion for JICA staff ( 2004 ) urged that JICA staff, particularly those in the regional sections at the central office and at the field offices, have the of import function to play in guaranting that JICA ‘S programs/projects support spouse states capacity development procedure. Staff must hold a wide cognition and apprehension of the state context including the latest position of development and the way such as economic liberalization and administration reforms.

JICA staff needs to hold the vision of JICA in cooperation in the capacity development procedure such as, when and how JICA can lend to the procedure. With such wide cognition and apprehension, the staff will be able to guarantee the relevancy and effectivity of JICA plans and undertakings through all its phases.

JICA staff is responsible for measuring appropriate undertaking aims and attacks ( which attack is appropriate for each receiver, how big the graduated table should be, and when the cooperation should get down. )

JICA staff is responsible for measuring appropriate undertaking aims and attacks ( which attack is appropriate for each receiver, how big the graduated table should be, and when the cooperation should get down. )

Addressing the cosmopolitan docket of clime alteration, H2O, nutrient, energy, infective diseases and funding

JICA fight to cut down poorness of an single all over the universe through inclusive and just growing.

Networking – JICA has a web of 17 domestic offices and 96 abroad agency and has undertaken missions in about 150 states

Attempts to back up the independency of persons with physical disablements by reenforcing message and gestural linguistic communication in partnership with physically disabled alumnas

Motivate employees and communicating between superior and low-level staff.

Chapter FOUR


4.1 What is Change Management?

Change direction is a set of procedures engaged to do certain that of import alterations are implemented in a controlled and organized mode.

One of the aims of alteration direction is the agreement of people and civilization with considered displacements in the administration, to get the better of resistance to alter in order to hike battle and the attainment of the administration ‘s end for successful alteration.

Achieving sustainable alteration begins with evident considerate of the present state of affairs of the administration, followed by the executing of suited and targeted schemes. The Centre of alteration direction is on the consequence the alteration will make – the new activities that must be understood. Change processes on a regular basis relate to a undertaking and/or structural alteration.

A wide alteration direction attack should demo the manner to the needed aims and bring forth a sense of ownership, ease

4.2 Leading and pull offing alteration

The execution of any major alteration procedure frequently succeeds or fails because of the leading of that alteration process. Leadership engages people to do, set and run into the demands of the predictable hereafter. Management plays a critical portion in creative activity and do alterations go on, it motivate the ‘doing ‘ . Leadership encourages the alteration ; it is what energises the Black Marias and heads of staff and develop and construct ability to move in response to future alteration

Leadership and direction are two distinguishable and complimentary systems of action. Each has its ain map and characteristic ( Kotter, 1999:51 ) .The tabular array below outlines some of the features indispensable to driving important alteration enterprises at JICA



Implement the vision

Plan, budget and organize the squad

Maintain order and system

Pull off the impact of alteration

Measure day-to-day

Control and job solve

Contribute to squads

Seek step-by-step betterment

Make the vision

Align people and animate them

Create and construct procedures

Create alteration proactively

Keep the values seeable


Motivate and inspire

Continue to dispute the position quo

4.3 Why is organizational alteration hard to carry through?

Harmonizing to Mckinsey ( 2006 ) and Thomson ( 1998 ) argues that Peoples are afraid of the unknown, many think things are all right the manner they are and do n’t understand the demand of alteration. Recognizing the demand to alter and moving on it can be hard determination for leaders and director to do.

Resistance is a natural defense mechanism mechanism for those losing something. The closer we are to something or person the greater the heartache or loss. The opposition can be due to loss of security, money, pride or satisfaction, friends, freedom, duty, good working conditions, position deficiency of regard, obnoxious mode, negative attitude, personal unfavorable judgment, non holding had input, bad timing, challenge to authorization or 2nd manus information.

Change must absorb the people and must non be imposed upon the people. If the administration imposes new material on people there will be troubles due to engagement, engagement and unfastened, early and full communicating are the of import factors.

Peoples and squad demand to be empowered to happen their ain solutions and responses with facilitation and support from directors and tolerance and compassion from the leaders and executive.

4.4 Change direction rules

At all times involve and agree support from people within system ( system = environment, processes, civilization, relationships, behaviors, etc. , whether personal or organizational ) .

Understand where you/the administration is at the minute.

Understand where you want to be, when, why, and what the steps will be for holding got at that place.

Plan development towards above No.iii in appropriate accomplishable mensurable phases.

Communicate, involve, enable and facilitate engagement from people, as early and openly and every bit to the full as is possible.

4.5 John P Kotter ‘s ‘eight stairss to successful alteration ‘

John P Kotter ( b 1947 ) is a professor and taking mind and writer on organisational alteration direction at Harvard University. Kotter ‘s extremely regarded books ‘Leading Change ‘ ( 1995 ) and ‘The Heart of Change ‘ ( 2002 ) explain a supportive theoretical account for understanding and pull offing alteration. Each phase acknowledges a cardinal rule identified by Kotter associating to people ‘s response and attack to alter, in which people see, experience and so alteration.

Kotter ‘s eight measure alteration theoretical account can be summarised as:

Increase urgency – inspire people to travel, do aims existent and relevant.

Construct the guiding squad – acquire the right people in topographic point with the right emotional committedness, and the right mix of accomplishments and degrees.

Get the vision right – acquire the squad to set up a simple vision and scheme focal point on emotional and originative facets necessary to drive service and efficiency.

Communicate for buy-in – Involve as many people as possible, pass on the necessities, merely, and to appeal and react to people ‘s demands. De-clutter communications – do engineering work for you instead than against.

Empowers action – Remove obstructions, enable constructive feedback and tonss of support from leaders – wages and recognise advancement and accomplishments.

Create short-run wins – Set purposes that are easy to accomplish – in bite-size balls. Manageable Numberss of enterprises. Finish current phases before get downing new 1s.

Do n’t allow up – Foster and promote finding and continuity – ongoing alteration – encourage on-going advancement describing – high spot achieved and future mileposts.

Make alteration stick – Reinforce the value of successful alteration via enlisting, publicity, and new alteration leaders. Weave alteration into civilization


JICA reforms was stared since October 2003, when was public announced as the independent administrative establishment. The reforms was intended specifically in organizational and operations for the intent of implementing assistance activities more successful and resourceful

The integrating of the bing JICA and the abroad economic cooperation subdivision of the Japan Bank for international cooperation ( JBIC ) consequence into preparation of New JICA. The new JICA is headed by Mrs Sadako Ogata who was officially the caput of UN Refugees Agency ( UNHCR ) between 1991-2000

Formulation of new JICA increases the figure of its operation through constitution of 17 domestic offices and 96 abroad offices while the figure of undertakings increased up to 150 undertakings worldwide.

The alterations has lead to the constitution of New JICA Research Institute that enhances research activities on development by pulling on its abundant field cognition and to lend to research consequence and taking duologue on international development support.

The reforms of the JICA focal point on integrating of 3 strategies of Japan development aid

Technical aid

Concessionary loan extended by ( JBI ) for abroad economic cooperation operation

Grant Aid with no duty for refund

New JICA impact the alterations in the undermentioned mode

To concentrate on medium and long term development through encouragement of public and private partnerships, pooling of resources every bit good the experience and engineerings.

Predictable assistance ; operational ” turn overing programs of current undertaking for a peculiar developing state. JICA play function of beef uping partnership with international administrations and other giver to widen the model for development aid.

Speedier undertaking preparation: seamless designation through preparatory study JICA offer support in ways that finest match the phase of development in every receiver state, taking a long term position and present seamless support to guarantee sustainable growing into the hereafter.

Aid tailored to existent need synergism of three ( 3 ) assistance strategies

Chapter FIVE




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