Harmonizing to Sabah Tourism Board statistic, tourer reachings in Sabah within the last five old ages have seen a important and encouraging growing. The twelvemonth 2005 saw a sum of 1.8 million reachings and a sum of 2.5 million in the twelvemonth 2010. The addition in the figure of reaching shows the potency of Sabah as one of the chief tourer province in Malaysia.

As one of the chief tourer province in Malaysia, Sabah offers vary type of attractive forces and activity that is renowned among tourer. The touristry industry in Sabah are besides turning in which have provide development to the affected country.

One major factor in the addition of the tourer reaching would be the development of Low cost air hose that offers cheaper rates compare to ten old ages ago. Kota Kinabalu besides is the 2nd busiest Airport in Malaysia after the Kuala Lumpur International Airport and this is an indicant that the arrival figure would increase and would profit the province touristry industry.

At the same clip, the Low carnival has besides attracted low budget traveller or backpackers to Sabah. Harmonizing to Hamzah & A ; Hampton ( 2010 ) there is an grounds of the turning function of air conveyance comparison to the backpacker former trust on land conveyance in Borneo. Hamzah & A ; Hampton ( 2010 ) besides found grounds of outgrowth of a ‘Borneo trail ‘ ( the cringle between Kota Kinabalu and Kuching – by air – supplying entree to the first ecotourism attractive forces ) .

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However touristry in Sabah in peculiar and Malaysia in general over the old ages may hold focused to advance the upper touristry market. As noted by Ricther ( 1993 ) budget travellers are non by and large welcome in South East Asia. Malaysia contends they are welcome but the installations promoted do non corroborate that Golf classs, non camp evidences, Hyatts non budget motels, manmade amusements non national Parkss are in the outlooks of most contrivers and policy-makers.

Although Backpacker does non look to lend more in term of touristry reception comparison to mass touristry but this section contributed to the local economic system and encourages locals to affect in the economic system.

Lee and Musa ( 2009 ) highlighted that the backpacker section that has been mostly ignored or even discouraged by touristry contrivers, non merely in Malaysia but besides in a figure of South-east Asiatic states, is the backpacker section. In some less developed states, the authorities contrivers were keener to advance up market touristry.

There have non been old surveies being done and comparatively small in known sing backpacker in Kota Kinabalu although Backpacker in Sabah is non a new phenomenon. Lee and Musa ( 2009 ) besides points out that Although Malaysia is a cardinal way station in the backpackers ‘ South-east Asia circuit, there is a famine of locally published work on the features of this group of tourers.


There is a demand a survey to bring out backpacker that is comparatively unknown is Kota Kinabalu. The addition of backpacker can be seen by the turning figure of backpacker installations ( Lodge, Restaurant and Internet Cafe ) to run into their demands and organizing what is known as backpacker enclave. The so called ‘enclave ‘ which is based in Lorong Dewan is seen to be spread outing and turning as there a figure or Lodges and low rates hotel organizing nearby country of Lorong Dewan. However it is small know about this phenomenon which is seasonably and deserving research attending as at that place have non been a information on backpacker in Sabah.

Hence, the undermentioned inquiry transpired in relation to the current state of affairs at this site. ‘What is the relation between backpacker and enclave ; and How is their behaviour during their stay at the enclave? ”


To find their motive of backpacker in Kota Kinabalu

To detect the activities the backpacker participate and behaviour during their clip at the enclave

To understand backpackers ingestion and disbursement forms

To place the typology of tourers in Kota Kinabalu enclave

To understand the relation between backpacker and enclave during their travel


What are the motive factor act uponing backpackers to go to Kota Kinabalu, Sabah?

What are the activities the backpacker participate ( activities that they participated ) and their behaviour at the enclave?

What are the disbursement forms of backpacker on a typical twenty-four hours at the enclave?

How the backpackers at the enclave define themselves as backpacker, traveller or tourer?

How the growing of enclaves and travel substructures does hold cut down the chance of existent travel?


This survey will be divided into ten chief country. The following are there are that will be covered in this survey ;

1.5.1 Literature Review

The literature reappraisal for this survey will be concentrating on the component such as backpacker typology, backpacker enclave, tourer motive, behaviour and experience.

1.5.2 Assessment of Tourist Profile and Typology

In order to understand the type of tourer within the survey country, profiling will be done to place their typologies and traits in term of ;


Length of Visits/ Stay


Travel group

Topographic point of beginning

Motivation Visiting Sabah

Education Degree


1.5.2 Assessment of the Study Area

Tourist resources and other resorts will be evaluated at the survey country will be evaluated. This is of import to qualify the enclave in term of its size and recourses available for tourers to the activities undertaken at the survey country.

1.5.3 Tourist Behavior

In order to analyze and understand the characteristic and relationship between backpacker and enclave, tourist behaviour during their stay will be monitored.

1.6 Research Approach

This survey are divided into four chief stage. Below are brief descriptions of each stage as shown in figure 3 ;

Phase 1- Preliminary Phase

The first stage is where the preparation of the survey is being done. This includes the preparation and development of the job statement, aim of the survey, research inquiry and the literature reappraisal. The literature reappraisal will be concentrating on Backpacker, enclave, motive and behaviour which will go the base of this survey. The chief beginning of information will be obtained from books, diaries, and publications.

Phase 2- Data Collection

The 2nd phase is where informations for the survey will be collected. There are two chief beginnings which is the primary beginning and the secondary beginning. The primary beginning of this survey is the self-administered questionnaire. The secondary information of this survey such as statistics will be obtained from Sabah Backpacker Associations and Sabah Tourism Board, Kot Kinabalu City Council and other old research, and diaries.

Phase 3- Data Analysis

The informations obtained from stage 2 will be analyzed in stage 3. The statistical method to analyse informations is by utilizing SPSS ( Statistical Package for Social Sciences ) . This will supply a statistical figure for farther analysis, development and treatment in the survey.

Phase 4- Discussion and Conclusion

The concluding phase will be the treatment of the findings and the decision of the survey.

1.7 Research Method and Research Instrument

1.7.1 Quantitative Research Method

This survey will be utilizing the quantitative research method as noted by Veal ( 1997 ) noted that that quantitative research attack will pull decisions to or prove hypothesis. This is of import as there is a demand to understand the relation and tendency between variables in this survey. As noted by Briggs ( 2001 ) that quantitative survey is much better for this survey as Qualitative study would take longer to finish and would necessitate extremely skilled aid to carry on the interviews.

Ryan ( 1995 ) stated that quantitative research would supply both valid and dependable consequences. As old research by Pearce et Al ( 2009 ) , Lee and Musa ( 2009 ) and Wilson and Richards ( 2008 ) used a quantitative method in their surveies of the backpacker section and the consequences are dependent and valid and hence quantitative method will be used in this survey.

1.7.2 Questionnaires

The questionnaire used in this survey is an version from Pearce EL Al ( 2009 ) – Development of the Backpacker Market and the Potential for Australian Tourism. This is a self-administered questionnaire in which is a mix of both unfastened and near complete inquiry. The questionnaires are divided into six subdivisions ( A-F ) ;

I. Section A: inquiry sing respondent trip feature such as their anterior trip, length of their trip, passing on their travel, travel entirely or in groups, transit and adjustments.

II. Section Bacillus: Open ended subdivision of the questionnaire where respondent are require to circle the town that they have visited so far in their trip and compose down the town the intended to see, their memorable experience during their trip and ECT.

III. Section C: this is subdivision sing the hereafter travel tendency of backpacker. A list of activity ( e.g. Volunteering ) are listed in which the respondent have to take in the graduated table of really interested to non interested at all, an illustration of the activity respondent would wish to seek ( e.g. community service ) and where they would wish to make it ( e.g. Kota Kinabalu ) .

IV. Section Calciferol: This subdivision is sing the information beginning and engineering used by the respondent. This subdivision contains inquiry such as the beginning of information used by answering station and during their trip, web sited which respondent ever visited to be after their trip, respondent online usage while going, the frequence of respondent utilizing engineerings ( e.g. laptop, camera, mobile phone ) during their travel.

V. Section E: This 5th subdivision is sing respondent or demographic profile such as gender, race, age, state beginning, profession and educational degree.

VI. Section F: This subdivision is sing the hereafter travel purpose of the respondent such as answering hereafter travel program, factor act uponing their hereafter travel program and ECT.

1.7.3 Non Participant Observation

This is a method in which enable the survey to capture informations that is non available in the questionnaire study. This method was used by Howard ( 2007 ) to analyze backpacker behaviour and the layout of the enclave itself. Howard ( 2007 ) mapped the enclave, observing physical layout and the extent of spread of tourist-oriented concerns and estimated the enclave ‘s size by numbering guesthouses/hostels/hotels and other tourist-oriented concerns, such as travel bureaus and Internet cafes. The writer besides observed tourers and other enclave users, observing their chief activities and interactions, but questioning no tourers.



1.7.1 Backpackers

Pearce ‘s ( 1990 ) societal definition of backpacker is the widely accepted in the literature. Harmonizing to Pearce ( 1990 ) proposed five chief standards or features in which for a tourer to be considered as backpacker where all of the component must be present ;

Preference for budget adjustment ;

an accent on run intoing other travellers ;

an independently organized and flexible travel agenda ;

longer instead than really brief vacations ;

An accent on informal and participatory vacation activities.

1.7.2 Enclaves

The thought of backpacker enclave is a place off from place where backpackers took a clip out from their travel and be at a familiar topographic point from their topographic point of beginnings. Noy ( 2004 ) suggests, neither ‘here ‘ nor ‘there ‘ . Backpackers can non be ‘here ‘ because the ‘real ‘ experience is outside the enclave, but they are besides non ‘there ‘ , because they are surrounded by the acquaintance of the enclave.


This survey will supply a profile of backpackers in Kota Kinabalu as there is no survey being done for this market section ;

This survey could supply a base for appropriate selling mix to run into the demands of this niche backpacker section.

Backpacker section needs a serious attending as the rapid development of touristry industry – particularly in footings of information engineering and transits.

The survey of backpackers enclaves would give a base for comparing between other set up backpacker enclave in South East Asia for future planning and development.

Backpacker motive and behaviour and backpacker enclaves are non a new phenomenon in Malaysia. However, there has been a deficiency of surveies in which in demand of serious attending for survey and geographic expedition.

1.8 Layout of Chapters

Brief lineation of the staying chapter will be as follow ;

Chapter 1: Literature Reappraisal

Chapter 1 will be briefly discoursing the chief issue of the survey in which relevant and worthy of research attending. The this chapter will be follow with the creative activity of research job, research inquiries, research aims, range of survey, important of the survey and the definition of footings in which will depict the general thought of the survey.

Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal

This chapter will be discoursing the issue in this survey with the support of literature on backpacker, enclaves, motive and behaviour.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

This chapter will depict the method and attack that is used in this survey. This cover the method used for informations aggregation method, analysing informations and how the method will reply the job of this survey.

Chapter 4: Findingss and Analysis

Chapter 4 will is where all the findings of this survey will be analyzed.

Chapter 5: Decision

Chapter 5 will be sum uping the result of the research analysis and do decision of the survey.


Figure Research Approach

2.0 Introduction

This chapter be concentrating to the understanding the relationship between backpacker motive and behaviour with enclave. This chapter besides conceptualizes and organizes the different descriptions and definitions of which is focal point in this survey. This chapter will get down with the definition of constructs of the variable of backpacker, motive and behaviour and enclave. Secondly is the treatment of backpacker motive, behaviour and enclave.

2.1 Backpacker

2.1.2 Backpacker Definition

Backpacking has gone through assorted developments to what we define as backpacking today. The survey of backpacking began in 1972 by Erik Cohen. The varied term to depict this type of tourer typologies has taken many bend and it is of all time so altering together with the touristry industry to what we know as backpacker today. Cohen ( 1972 ) indentifies this type of tourer as ‘drifter ‘ . Then over the old ages bookmans have came up with varied footings – nomads ( Cohen, 1973 ) , roamers ( Vogt,1976 ) , treading young person ( Adler 1985 ) and long-run budget traveler ( Riley,1988 ) .

The term ‘backpacker ‘ has over the last decennary become synonymous with a travelstyle that emphasizes freedom and mobility. Backpacking can be said as the early type of going in which leads to mass touristry ( Ateljevic & A ; Doorne, 2004 ) . Most of the popular sites or finish of mass touristry today is the path introduced by the earlier backpackers.

Harmonizing to Richards and Wilson ( 2004 ) backpacker is regarded as one of the cultural symbols of this progressively nomadic universe. Backpackers can be found in every corner of the Earth, from distant small towns in the Hindu Kush to the centres of London or Paris. They carry with them non merely the symbolic physical luggage that gives them their name, but their cultural luggage every bit good.

Pearce ‘s ( 1990 ) societal definition of backpacker is the widely accepted in the literature. Harmonizing to Pearce ( 1990 ) proposed five chief standards or features in which for a tourer to be considered as backpacker where all of the component must be present ;

Preference for budget adjustment ;

an accent on run intoing other travellers ;

an independently organized and flexible travel agenda ;

longer instead than really brief vacations ;

An accent on informal and participatory vacation activities.

2.1.3 Backpacker ‘Badges of Honour ‘

Harmonizing to Bradt ( 1995 ) there are five characteristic of the backpacker ‘badges of honor ‘ which derived from experient independent traveller ;

Survive on less than US $ 15 a twenty-four hours

Uses local conveyance

Carry their ain properties in their ain back pack

Bargain for goods and services whilst guarding against heists and ;

Get off from crowd and detect new topographic points

2.1.4 Backpacker Vs Mass Tourism

Based from Pearce ( 1990 ) definition of backpacker, scholars over the old ages made a line in which separates backpacker and mass tourer can be pointed out. Leslie & A ; Wilson ( 2005 ) made a distinction of backpackers from mass tourers based from the work of Westerhausen, ( 2002 ) , Loker-Murphy & A ; Pearce ( 1995 ) , Goodwin ( 1999 ) , and Smith ( 1989 ) that pointed out and the difference feature of backpacker from mass tourer ;

Table 1: Backpacker versus Mass tourer



Mass Tourist


a‰¤20 – 36a‰? Old ages Old

Any Age Group, Wide Range


Low Tariff Hostels, Camping, Backpackers inns, Homes of friend and household.

High Duty Hotels ect. , Self Catering Apartments, All inclusive Resort

Conveyance used to acquire to Destination



Trip Duration

Longer than brief vacation, Length varies greatly, from 1 month to a twelvemonth.

1-2 Weeks

Conveyance used when in Finish

Public conveyance e.g. local train and coach services.

private Car, private managers

Degree of organisation

Independently organized, flexible travel program. Most elements are non pre-booked, merely outward flight.

Day trips organized by circuit operator. Sightseeing.

Outgo Limited, travels on a budget. Relatively big sum of money

Limited, travels on a budget.

Relatively big sum of money to pass.

2.1.5 Development of Backpacker

Backpacking can be said as the early type of going in which leads to mass touristry ( Ateljevic & A ; Doorne, 2004 ) . The signifier of backpacking can be track back during the 17th and 18th centaury in the signifier of the Grand Tour. Since so, this signifier of travel has evolved in term of motive, and signifier of travel activities. Cohen ( 1972 ) foremost place this type of traveller as ‘drifter ‘ which lead to assorted footings such as nomads ( Cohen, 1973 ) , roamers ( Vogt,1976 ) , treading young person ( Adler 1985 ) and long-run budget traveller ( Riley,1988 ) .

The changing of the nomenclature of backpackers over the old ages has indicated that the of all time turning and development of backpacking over the old ages. But this altering nomenclature besides suggests that over clip backpacker demand has shifted from being a preponderantly homogeneous market to one evidencing fluctuations and heterogeneousness therefore some possible grade of cleavage ( Leslie & A ; Wilson,2005 ) .

The term ‘backpacker ‘ has over the last decennary become synonymous with a travel manner that emphasizes freedom and mobility ( Ateljevic & A ; Doorne ) . The function of globalisation is one of the of import factors in the growing of backpacking. This besides has created a new coevals of backpacker which have a different features compared to older backpackers.

2.1.6 The Global Nomad

Globalization over the old ages has seen the alteration of life style besides in the manner we travel. This was besides noted by Westerhausen ( 2002 ) where there is a turning Numberss of people are responding to the disaffection of the modern society are following life style of backpacker. MacCannell ( 1992 ) indicates that the hunt for significance in the modern societies encourages pilgrim’s journey to the site of distinction created modernness and hunt for the ‘primitive ‘ and pre-modern civilizations it has displace.

Globalization non merely increases the velocity at which civilizations are marginalized, but besides increases the velocity with which the tourer can go to see them. This can be seen in the addition figure of budget adjustments, travel companies and Low cost bearer developing state such as South Africa and South East Asiatic developing states state as there is a demand to be fulfilled.


Figure The Backpacker Phenomenon: An Evolutionary Framework ( Loker-Murphy & A ; Pearce, 1995 )

2.2 Enclave

Backpacking have created a travel form or so called trail which the will travel through along their trips. The travel of backpackers has created backpacker enclaves all over the universe. Hampton and Hamzah ( 2010 ) identifies that South East Asia has the oldest backpackers trail. The most good established enclaves in the South East Asia backpacker trail would be the Khaosan Road, Thailand. As noted by Wilson and Richards ( 2008 ) Enclaves can be seen as a topographic point to supply a footing for comparing the behaviour of backpackers with other visitants.

Harmonizing to See Lew ( 2004 ) , the term enclave has been applied to a broad scope of touristry phenomena. This means that in other signifier of touristry or finish would make its really ain signifier of enclave. In the instance of backpacker enclaves, nevertheless, this thought of homogeneousness is challenged by the sheer assortment and diverseness of such infinites ( Wilson and Richards,2008 ) .

Backpacker signifier of travel has seen growing in recent old ages. More single tend to prefer this signifier of going because of the adventuresome nature of backpacking. On the other manus, backpacking offer more in term of experience and a more independent travel comparison to mass touristry in which Wilson and Richards ( 2004 ) have signaled as a major development meriting farther research.

The apprehension of modern-day backpackers travellers convey within backpackers enclaves. However, as noted by Howard ( 2007 ) , the survey of backpacking enclaves is an interesting and of import touristry and geographical phenomenon, but comparatively small is known about it. Therefore, understanding the relation of backpackers enclave will bring out more about the enclaves itself and the behaviour, motive and experience of backpackers.

The growing of backpacker touristry has besides seen the parallel growing with backpacker enclaves. Richards & A ; Wilson ( 2004 ) have signaled as a major development meriting farther research. Richards & A ; Wilson ( 2008 ) besides stated that In malice of the quickly changing nature of the backpacker scene and the displacements taking topographic point in the construction ( s ) and function ( s ) of backpacker enclaves, research has tended to dawdle behind these alterations.

2.2.1 Specifying Enclave

Hottola ( 2005 ) define backpacker enclaves as ‘safe Eden ‘ where it ‘s a topographic point where travellers can withdraw to in order to increase their degree of control and counter the civilization confusion that reigns outdoors. Enclaves are consider as safe topographic point for backpacker from in their journey and travel. Wilson and Richards ( 2008 ) stated that enclave brings backpacker into contact with the local in a controlled manner, where the venue of control seems to be with the backpacker.

The thought of backpacker enclave is a place off from place where backpackers took a clip out from their travel and be at a familiar topographic point from their topographic point of beginnings. Noy ( 2004 ) suggests, neither ‘here ‘ nor ‘there ‘ . Backpackers can non be ‘here ‘ because the ‘real ‘ experience is outside the enclave, but they are besides non ‘there ‘ , because they are surrounded by the acquaintance of the enclave.

However, enclave can non be consider as a entire safe topographic point as enclave experience may be different from other enclave. As noted by Wilson and Richards ( 2008 ) , Alternatively of seeing the enclave as a homogenous infinite, we would prefer to see backpacker enclaves as the merchandise of dynamic forces that are invariably altering. Wilson and Richards above suggest that backpacker enclave is non so much a tourer infinite ( an extension of place for the tourer ) nor a local infinite ( a reversal of tourer experience ) , but instead a infinite suspended in the field created by a series of seemingly opposing forces.

Different backpacker would hold differed ground and intent of how they see and view enclaves – but chiefly enclave are used as ‘meta-world ‘ to cut down their civilization daze during their travel ( Hottola, 2005 ; Howard, 2007 ) . Hottola ‘meta-world ‘ can be in five classs where travellers segregate themselves ;

Private infinites reserved for travellers

Semi-private infinite of restricted entree

Public infinites of restricted entree

Space of impermanent Western domination

Wilderness country


Figure Metaspatialities of backpacking in India ( Hottola, 2005 )

2.2.2 Enclave feature

Although backpacker enclave may be different in term of map and layout but there is major similarities among these enclaves. Howard ( 2007 ) did a survey of five backpacker enclave feature in South East Asia- Boeng Kak, Moon Muang, Jalan Jaksa, Jalan Sosrowijan and King ‘s Cross. Harmonizing to Howard ( based on the five enclave ) , most tourers installations are closely jammed and the enclave provides all necessities tourer services which may be scattered over wider country, sharing infinite with many non-tourist concern and occupants.

Best illustration of an established enclave is the Khaosan Road. Khaosan Road consists of the above standards which can be said as a good established enclave. Harmonizing to Haword ( 2007 ) , Khaosan Road is an of all time spread outing tourer country where over the old ages saw tourer oriented concerns have expended out of Khaosan Road.

Harmonizing to Hottola ( 2005 ) metaworld are restricted infinites that are used as topographic point of recovery in which Hottola besides described as ‘safe Eden ‘ . Howard ( 2007 ) found similarities among the five backpacker enclave in his survey which relates to Hottola thought of metaworld that can be seen as backpacker enclave chief features ;

Enclaves are centrally located, being in or near metropolis centres and/or near major tourer attractive forces.

Concentrated Centre of guesthouses and tourist-oriented concerns and Periphery of outlying guesthouses.

Provide indispensable tourer services ; travel bureaus, guesthouses, bars and internet entree.

Typical length of stay at an enclave varies but rather normally is two to three yearss.

Major activity is socialising with other traveller.

Khaosan Road.png

Figure The Khaosan Road country. Dots show countries in which at least one-third of the concerns are tourer



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