This survey aims at detecting the market of the touristry in Spain, and more peculiarly in the independent community of Barcelona: Catalonia.

The accomplishments and the theoretical accounts learnt during the category concern of SMEs in an International Context are traveling to function as support for this analysis. The theoretical account of Porter is traveling to be peculiarly used and is traveling to go the critical lead of this file.

Why certain states shine in the international competition while the others fail? It is the inquiry that Michael Porter settles in the front page of his book, ” The competitory advantage of states ” . After holding deepened the Porter Diamond theory, we shall accommodate it to the tourer sector in Catalonia.

Background: Catalonia, the Spanish motor

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The adage harmonizing to which A«the Catalans transform rocks into staff of lifes ” contains, as really frequently in the Proverbs, a intuition of truth. Lack of natural stuffs of the Catalan district at first sight, but an diligence of its dwellers: this is how to explicate the alteration of the Catalan economic system in one of the most dynamic of Spain.

Since the entryway of Spain to the European Union in 1986 and the Summer Olympics Game organized in Barcelona in 1992, Catalonia knew a matchless development. Rival in all points with the political capital, Madrid ; Barcelona is the economic but besides tourist capital of Spain today.

Today, Catalonia claims its independency of a lingual, ideological point of position but sing every bit good as it contributes actively to the development of the state while really few money of Spain leads to its ain existent development. Could Catalonia survive without Spain? This inquiry is indispensable within the model of our survey. Representing 18.8 % of the national GDP in 2009, Catalonia is the first economic part of Spain and nowadayss legion economic, geographical and societal assets: maritime and airdrome webs, propinquity with France, Mediterranean infinite at manus, foreign investings, industrial technologiesaˆ¦

Situated in the Northwest of the Iberian continent, this part covers 6.3 % ( 31.895 km2 ) of the Spanish district, with 16 % ( 7.5 million dwellers ) of the population of the state.

The maritime aspect offers a strong attractive potency to the industries in footings of import and export: the volume of its exports is equal to 25 % of the planetary volume of the national exports. Dynamic and attractive, here are two points which led on February 11th, 2010, the Committee of the Regions of the EU to present the label of “ Enterprising European Region ” in Catalonia.

The cardinal factors of success of this part ensue chiefly from effectual constructions of administration. In economic topic, the determinations are compact and include a figure really limited of public histrions, worried about consensus between the local spouses under the leading of the authorities. Refering the industrial cloth of Catalonia, rich and varied, includes three cardinal sectors: the auto, chemical and fabric industry. Thankss to these, Catalonia is the first industrial country of Spain. However, Barcelona besides became a tourer metropolis with great potency.

As respects the civilization and the activities, Catalonia enjoys the usage of legion cardinal resources: art ( Gaudi, Picasso, Miro , Dali , and Tapies in other ) , athletics ( Barcelona Football Club ) , linguistic communication ( Catalan, Spanish, and English ) , gastronomy ( Ferran Adria Acosta ) aˆ¦ The A«Cosmopolitan BarcelonaA» was ever opened to the foreign influences which landed there and it is really surely its biggest strength. Attracting of import foreign investings, Catalonia and its Mediterranean Coast are the chief supporters of the attraction of Spain. Harmonizing to the World Tourism Organization, Spain was the 2nd universe tourer finish in 2008 ( in footings of reachings ) . The tourer offer is particularly situated on the seashore and in Barcelona, made more attractive and more accessible since the large plants of the Olympics Games of 1992.

Sea and mountain, nature and civilization, Sun and snow, large metropoliss and touristry countryman, gastronomy and choice hotel concern, all this concentrated in a margin endowed with webs of services and with communications which we cross easy in two hours of auto: here you are in Catalonia! Accompany us in the find of this Spanish tourer gem.

The Porter Diamond theory

With the purpose of explicating clearly the theory of Porter, a program seems to be an effectual mean to analyse the chief facets. In this diagram, it is possible to detect the interactions between the diverse factors of the industry.

Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry

Imput cost Total Cost /

advantage distinction advantage

Low investing High investing

Imitation Invention

Import competition Local competition

Opportunity

4

1

Demand Conditionss

Unsophisticated local Parity in place

demand demand

Supply trade goods Segmented local

for foreign markets markets

Factor conditions

Few local inputs Full array of local inputs

Input cost Input quality

General intent Specialized inputs

inputs

Related and back uping industries

Isolated houses and industries Bunchs

Imported stuffs, constituents, Locally based

machinery, services providers

Alliances with foreign houses Collaboration

with local houses

3

2

Government

Figure Ten: The Porter Diamond

In his work, A«The Competitive Advantage of NationsA» ( 1990 ) , Michael Porter brought to illume the impact of states on the industries. Within the same state, certain industries are more competitory and more productive than others. The activities of these houses will more be brought to be favourable to travel at the international.

Harmonizing to his analysis, three principals elements have to be analyzed. First of wholly, the fight of a state depends on the public presentation of the houses of targeted sector. Then, the competitory context of the state improves attempts of invention of the histrions of the market and contributes actively to the creative activity of the competitory factors between companies. Finally, the features of the national markets allow to be more reagent and to be able to expect these on the international: demand, needs aˆ¦

Michael Porter asserts that the success of the industry depends on the ain kineticss of its state host. With the purpose of estimating the public presentation of a sector, Porter ‘s theoretical account includes four determiners which are shortly described below:

Firm schemes, construction and competition: What is the nature of the national competition, and the sociological clinchers prefering sustainable investings at the beginning of the competitory development?

Conditionss of the demand: Estimate the degree of demand of the patronage, the factors act uponing the invention and the qualitative public presentations at the beginning of a future universe tendency, or unusual demands drawing a strong specialisation.

Related and back uping industries: In interrelatedness with houses, the providers accelerate the exchanges, efficiency, stocks of cognition, and easiness of invention.

Measures and the costs of factors: Appraisal of the factors of production ( natural resources, human resources, handiness of capital, infrastructuresaˆ¦ )

Thankss to the theory of Porter, assorted connexions and dealingss were able to be discovered and developed.

Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry / Demand Conditions

1

– Demanding and sophisticated local clients

– Specialized sections which can be served in a planetary manner

– Anticipation of the necessities of the clients

Demand Conditions / Related and back uping industries

2

– Presence of local providers and companies in relational sectors

– Continuous exchange of information, thoughts and inventions

– Bunchs alternatively of stray Industries

Related and back uping industries / Factor conditions

3

– Presence of resources of high quality and specialized ( rare and hard to copy )

– Resource homo

– Capital

– Physical, administrative substructure, of information, scientific and technological

– Resource Natural

The comparative rareness of one of these resources is non needfully a disability as seen that can excite a bigger invention in the companies

Factor conditions / Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry

4

– A local context which favors the competition based on the investing and the endurable betterments

– Strong competition between local challengers

Figure Ten: Porter Diamond connexions

The presence of equal conditions in the ambiance of the concern favors the visual aspect of competitory sectors which, thanks to a high grade of invention and specialisation of its members, create a extremely productive circle of familiarities.

Catalan touristry harmonizing to the Porter Diamond

Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry

– Competition of inventions

– Quality competition

– Regional, inter-regional, and inter-firms cooperation

– Market tendency

Opportunity

Factor conditions

– Resort to the venture capital

– Troubles to obtain credits

– Qualification of the staff more raised

– Entrepreneur Schumpeterian

– Technologies refering Information and Communication

Demand Conditionss

– More amusement and leisure activities

– Customers multi-options

– Repose and purdah, or unprompted ingestion

– Individual experience and genuineness

Related and back uping industries

Agribusiness

Food transmutation

Entertainment

Design

Ad

Selling

Architecture

Culture

Retail sellingaˆ¦

Government

– Promote the liberalisation of the industry

– Encourage the inventions

– Supports the touristry

Figure Ten: The Porter Diamond in the touristry sector

The chief aim of this survey is to find precisely the assorted conditions and external factors that can act upon a hotel wishing to set up it in Catalonia. Thankss to the aid of the theoretical account of Porter, the clinchers analysis is traveling to be focused on the touristry sector in the chosen part.

– Competition of inventions

– Quality competition

– Regional, inter-regional, and inter-firms cooperation

– Market tendency

Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry

In Catalonia, and more precisely near the metropolis of Barcelona, the hotel competition is unsmooth since some old ages. During the school vacations, the sector is even saturated. With the reaching of several thousand extra visitants every twelvemonth, the hotel sector of the metropolis took some enterprises. Today, it is possible to separate five large classs of lodging. Some of them are formal, others non.

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Constitutions

4.402

4.647

4.792

4.941

5.096

Hotel

2.591

2.624

2.671

2.735

2.799

Camping

354

354

344

347

349

Countryside touristry

1.457

1.669

1.777

1.859

1.948

Topographic points

505.889

512.968

511.015

516.313

531.469

Hotel

253.438

259.120

261.548

270.832

281.952

Camping

241.082

240.983

235.838

231.025

234.319

Countryside touristry

11.369

12.865

13.629

14.456

15.198

Beginning: Spanish caput office of the Tourism

Table Ten: Touristic adjustments in Catalonia

Which competition?

As we can detect on the old image, the figure of tourer constitutions is in changeless addition since 2005. With an addition of more than 15 % , the adjustment sector is an attractive and dynamic market. However, what are the aboriginal advantages of the competition? It is truly superb and unbeatable?

In a first portion, hotels occupy a ascendant topographic point on the lodging market of the touristry. As we can detect it harmonizing to figures below, a strong tendency towards luxury hotels can be determined. Hotels 4 and 5 stars are increasing their market portions and Numberss. Between 2003 and 2009, 5-stars hotels knew an addition of 116 % and 90 % for 4-stars hotels. As respects hotels 1 and 2 stars, these were non able to cognize such a same success of addition: merely + 12 % for 2-stars hotels and even a diminution ( -1 % ) for 1-star hotels.

Furthermore, the luxury universe competition is present in Catalonia. First of wholly, the Hilton resort has two hotels in Barcelona. Then, the Ritz Carlton is besides present with his Hotel Humanistic disciplines ruling the beach of Barcelona. Since a twosome of old ages, a new undertaking of hotel went out of Earth: the W hotel. Undertaking with strong influence coming from United Arab Emirates, this hotel is the latest of the luxury in Catalonia. The hotelkeeper web is chiefly managed by international groups.

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2009

Constitutions

2.621

2.577

2.591

2.624

2.671

2.799

Gold Star

1.294

1.342

1.376

1.434

1.496

5 stars

18

18

20

25

31

39

4 stars

204

226

253

284

304

389

3 stars

486

505

516

537

551

604

2 stars

297

308

308

307

324

334

1 star

289

285

279

281

286

284

Silver Star

1.327

1.235

1.215

1.190

1.175

3 – 2 stars

626

629

632

647

644

659

1 star

701

606

583

543

531

490

Beginning: Spanish caput office of the Tourism

Table Ten: Hotel constitutions in Catalonia by class

On another portion, and since many old ages, rental bureaus are present in the touristry market. A house with swimming pool, a level with a sea position, or merely a room: they can offer, to the patronage, precisely what it wants. Nowadays, the adjustment market is indispensable in Catalonia and more in Barcelona. In cyberspace, or in the streets, is really simple to happen an bureau. Lot of clip, they are offering some moderns and beautiful flats situated in the bosom of the metropolis. However, this pick of lodging can be truly expensive.

During the summer vacations, the figure of tourers is turning all of a sudden. Hotels and flats are by and large booked and full. The last chances to the tourers are: the inn or the encampment. These two options know an one-year stable rate of reserve. Campsites, really frequently on the brink of the sea, are confronted against a new phenomenon. They are sold to go hotel composites where the profitableness and the continuance of exploitability by twelvemonth are higher-ups. In mention with the inns, this sort of lodging is chiefly preferred by a immature patronage. In Barcelona, a batch a festivals are organized and the Catalan capital became the first “ party-destination ” since the last old ages. However, refering the Numberss of the inns, this is non issued forasmuch as a batch of them are non referenced to the Catalan authorities. Camping and inn are frequently managed by regional enterpriser.

Finally, harmonizing to the figures of the Spanish caput office of the Tourism, many journeys in the way of Catalonia have for object a visit to the ain household. So, the adjustment can be straight offered by this 1. This manner of adjustment is more and more used. The grounds ensue from the high current monetary values of hotels but besides from the strong business rate of hotels. Plan a reserve some clip in progress is indispensable.

As a last point in this portion, the following tabular array gives the chance to detect the vicinity of the different sorts of hotels. So, the chief localisations of hotels are: Barcelona with 19 % of them, and in the first topographic point the Costa Brava with more than 25 % . We can detect that more than 71 % of the 5-stars hotels are situated in these topographic points.

2009

Gold Stars

Silver Stars

5*

4*

3*

2*

1*

3* – 2*

1*

Entire

Constitutions

39

389

604

334

284

659

490

2.799

Barcelona

20

123

100

37

32

111

113

536

Catalonia Central

0

28

42

17

16

54

34

191

Costa Brava

8

89

176

90

85

129

146

723

Costa Daurada

2

60

81

34

34

73

22

306

Costa de Garraf

2

30

33

30

18

31

26

170

Costa de Barcelona-Maresme

0

17

62

17

9

36

22

163

Pirineus-Prepirineus

2

17

62

64

54

136

83

418

Terres de l’Ebre

1

8

15

15

9

35

7

90

Terres de Lleida

1

6

13

11

16

26

24

97

Val d’Aran

3

11

20

19

11

28

13

105

Beginning: Spanish caput office of the Tourism

Table Ten: Hotel constitution ‘s vicinity ( 2009 )

Demand Conditionss

– More amusement and leisure activities

– Customers multi-options

– Repose and purdah, or unprompted ingestion

– Individual experience and genuineness

Refering the demand, we can tilt on the old consequences and the analyses. Hotels and tourer lodging do non make the demand, but answer the demands of the clients. These last 1s realize market surveies with the purpose of happening the perfect topographic point and the outlooks of its hereafter patronage.

Between 15 % and 30 %

Between 5 % and 15 %

Less than 5 %

Figure Ten: Tourists harmonizing to independent community as finish ( % on the sum )

( Touristic survey institute of Spain )

Some elements are aboriginal in the demand conditions. First of wholly, the patronage of the adjustment market in Catalonia has a tendency to raise its degree of demand and outlooks. For illustration, most of them are traveling to take a 2 or 3-stars hotel alternatively of a 1-star hotel in the yesteryear. Furthermore, the type patronage is altering. Taking in consideration the following tabular array, the clients spend more and more money during their corsets. This component is positive for addition the tourer activity of the part.

* in Euros

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Germany

68,22

68,45

75,34

79,38

81,17

Belgique

71,90

69,01

71,04

80,15

82,38

France

53,94

59,41

63,63

79,70

77,49

Italy

95,07

93,68

103,54

101,55

100,10

Nederlands

63,43

67,43

72,81

83,66

89,56

United kingdom

100,38

93,36

103,16

98,90

89,75

Switzerland

91,48

87,40

96,23

97,39

91,56

Northern Countries

104,57

120,53

134,77

136,21

138,38

Rest of Europe

76,45

96,54

89,00

98,78

96,86

USA

195,52

206,58

215,42

185,39

160,22

Rest of America

105,62

172,99

130,79

126,41

135,91

Others states

133,96

101,02

141,12

185,62

166,88

Entire

79,15

80,61

90,37

97,58

98,34

Beginning: Spanish caput office of the Tourism

Table Ten: Expenses declared by individual and by twenty-four hours in Catalonia during a corsets

Refering the demand, the following of import component is the size of the patronage. Harmonizing to the following tabular array, the figure of riders by Catalan airports represents a good index to measure the prospect denseness. In Catalonia, the three airdromes are Barcelona, Gerona and Reus. The last 1s are chiefly used by low-priced companies like Ryanair. Since some months, the Irish air hose company is besides present in the airdrome of Barcelona, chief airdrome in the part. Between 2003 and 2007, rider ‘s figure additions of 62 % . This augmentation notices the attraction of the part and the enforced substructures to welcome this population. This point is of import to take into: the handiness of a hotel since an airdrome is an advantage.

Barcelona

Gerona-Costa Brava

Reus

Catalonia

Scheduled flights

2003

21.497.066

1.006.158

118.784

22.622.008

2004

23.273.010

2.514.756

392.487

26.180.253

2005

25.883.305

3.174.445

623.119

29.680.869

2006

28.671.008

3.231.002

666.848

32.568.858

2007

31.684.094

4.535.076

612.453

36.831.623

Beginning: Spanish Head office of civil air power

Table Ten: Passengers motions by airdrome

Catalonia and Barcelona are tourists parts. However, Catalonia presents other advantages: economic advantages for illustration. Nowadays, Barcelona is the economic capital of Spain with an unbelievable development. The grounds of the journey are non merely to make shopping, travel to the beach or travel to the discos. We can detect some professional grounds. These clients, even in lessening have to be protected. This sort of patronage is the chief consumer of the hotels top of the scope to make some seminaries or merely to remain some darks.

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Vacations / Leisure

10.929,1

12.047,9

12.603,2

11.925,3

10.665,7

Visits household or friends

779,6

757,8

635,5

520,7

587,8

Professional grounds

1.909,4

1.790,5

1.677,5

1.493,4

1.194,7

Others

1.044,0

1.213,2

976,1

1.087,5

1.148,8

Entire

14.662,0

15.809,5

15.892,4

15.026,9

13.597,0

Unit of measurement: Thousands of voyagers

Beginning: Spanish caput office of the Tourism

Table Ten: Reasons of the ocean trip

Finally, it is of import to cognize the different demand outlooks:

Always more comfort and luxury

More leisure activities and lifes

Good localisation ( 1 )

Personalized services

More for cheaper

( 1 ) In Barcelona, the best occupant location for the touristic patronage is situated in the centre, between the port, the Plaza Catalunya and the Park of the Cuitadella.

Figure Ten: Main location of touristic adjustment in Barcelona

Agribusiness

Food transmutation

Entertainment

Design

Ad

Selling

Architecture

Culture

Retail sellingaˆ¦

Related and back uping industries

Michael Porter determined that certain industries are more competitory and more productive than others in a same state and the sector which is more high spot will be able to travel at the international. This fact is right and is justifiable.

If one of the sectors of your economic system has a really profitable activity, this one brings a positive consequence in your part, but besides ensues from another productive fact. More precisely, so that a sector works right and without nuts, this 1 must be helped and carried by the whole economic system. Its spouse industries have to back up it by conveying it some competitory advantages for illustration.

Factor conditions

– Resort to the venture capital

– Troubles to obtain credits

– Qualification of the staff more raised

– Entrepreneur Schumpeterian

– Technologies refering Information and Communication

When you are analysing a market, factor conditions have to give a positive point. With the Catalan dynamism, foreign investings in Catalonia are legion. For illustration, the portion of investing in the fabrication industry represents 38 % of the investing in Spain. In hotel concern, the per centum reaches about 24 % . These investings are really of import in a part. They determine the degree of the house ‘s invention.

However, due to the current economic crisis, obtaining credits still a difficult challenge.

Catalonia

%

Spain

% Catalonia/Spain

Manufacturing industry

1.217,0

46,7

3.190,2

38,1

Hotel concern

69,1

2,7

290,4

23,8

Construction

133,2

5,1

1.900,4

7,0

Real estate activities

207,6

8,0

826,7

25,1

Information and Communications

76,8

3,0

365,2

21,0

[ aˆ¦ ]

Unit of measurements: Million Euros.

Beginning: Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Business

Sum

2.603,30

Table Ten: Foreign investing in Catalonia ( 2007 )

In mention to physicals resources and competencies of the houses, Catalonia offers some advantages.

Staff qualified ( with a batch a concern schools and hotel direction )

Highly skilled work force

Linguistic abilities of work force

Communication and selling system good developed

Rich sum of natural stuffs

Barcelona

Gerona-Costa Brava

Reus

Catalonia

Airplanes

343.473

35.130

8.441

387.044

Domestic

164.633

2.949

522

168104

International

178.840

32.181

7.919

218.940

Passengers

32.705.447

4.827.447

1.294.032

38.826.926

Domestic

15.084.042

235.579

7.493

15.327.114

International

17.621.405

4.591.868

1.286.539

23.499.812

Merchandise ( Metric Ton )

96.433

484

11

96.928

Beginning: Spanish Head office of civil air power

Table Ten: Airplanes, Passengers and Merchandise motions by airdrome ( 2007 )

Refering the diverse substructures, Catalonia has a batch to offer: in footings of leisure but besides of conveyance, catering, cultureaˆ¦

Elementss

Measure

Ski resorts

10

Golf

64

Travel bureaus

2.517

Tourist information offices

250

Nautical installings

28.797

Aquatic Parkss

8

Beachs

291

Restaurants

17.301 ( 2007 )

Beginning: Spanish caput office of the Tourism

Table Ten: Tourist installings in Catalonia ( 2009 )

Decision and recommendations

Throughout this survey, advantages and points to be improved were quoted on the tourer potency of Catalonia. With the purpose of set uping recommendations of this market, we are traveling to specify the cardinal elements of the sector:

A wild competition already implanted with diverse replacement merchandises

An of import demand and in changeless addition

A patronage which turns more and more upward scope

A regional economic market and an industrial web optimal ( alone weak point: economic crisis current )

A qualified staff ( lingual cognition )

My sentiment on this topic is really simple and nonsubjective. Harmonizing to me, Catalonia has a existent tourer potency and has to offer a batch: its Mediterranean Coast of class but besides its dynamism. Thankss to this last one, Catalonia, with the aid of the activity of Barcelona has the agencies of future one of the finishs the most visited in the World. To vie with France and with Paris? Why non! For that intent, the invention has to do greater. The sector of the tourer adjustment is complex and blocked. However, it is non saturated. With a privileged topographic point, looking as a significant competitory advantage, a quality of blameless service and possibly an original construct of the corsets, a new hotel could be really profitable.

Research and referencing

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