An integrated resort is the term for a casino-based resort in Singapore. Singapore has two IRs now: Marina Bay Sands located at Marina Bay, and Resorts World Sentosa ( RWS ) located in the Sentosa island. Both casino IRs had started operation since early 2010 and they are the first of its sort. The chief motive to construct them is to hike Singapore ‘s touristry industry which has been confronting intense competition from other finish in the part.

Gambling has ever been illegal in the island province Singapore until 2005 except the government-run Singapore Pools for lotteries and Singapore Turf Club for Equus caballus racing. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong announced the cabinet ‘s determination to develop two IRs with casino in it in a parliament session on 18 April 2005. Before the proclamation, the authorities of Singapore had invited industry participant to subject construct proposals for these two IRs and concluding awards were made to Las Vegas Sands for MBS and Genting International for RWS in 2006. Both of the IR were being built after so and were officially opened in 2010.

Since so, the economic benefits are enormous. The two IRs created more than 20,000 occupation chances ( Lee Hsien Loong, 18 April 2005 ) . In 2010, one-year tourer reachings reached a all clip high of 11.6 million. ( Channel News Asia, 2010 ) . The mean visitants to MBS casino has been more than 25,000 day-to-day, with about a 3rd are locals ( Channel News Asia, 3 Feb 2011 ) .

In 2010, the touristry reception for Singapore hit $ 18.8 billion, the highest in ten old ages, an astonishing 49 % addition from 2009. ( ChannelNewsAsia, 10 Feb 2011 ) . Tourism grosss for merely 2nd one-fourth 2011 entirely were estimated to be of 18 % growing at $ 5 billion. ( Straits Times, 25 Oct 2011 ) . The touristry receipts chiefly comprised of tourer disbursement on adjustment, booming, shopping and admittance fees. The growing is particularly from visitants from Indonesia, India and China, every bit good as an addition in international visitants due to retrieving economic environment after 2009 planetary fiscal crisis and the gap of the two IRs. Overall, the two IRs contributed about $ 5 billion to Singapore ‘s GDP in 2010. ( Straits Times, 18 Feb 2011 ) . The hotel industry has benefited the most, with estimated 10-12 % growing over old twelvemonth in gross and tenancy rate is expected to make 80-85 % in 2011.

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When the determination to construct two IRs was made by the authorities back in 2005, there were already some treatments about the IRs will increase chancing activities in Singapore, may take to more job gamblers ( Statement by PM Lee Hsien Loong, 18 April 2005 ) . Along with the IR development, authorities has put in steps to minimise the possible societal impact, such as a $ 100 entry levy for local Singaporeans and Singapore Permanent Residents to deter them to travel into the casino. It besides introduced exclusion orders in 2009, to allow people with job chancing prohibition themselves from come ining the casinos. In add-on, the casinos would non be allowed to widen recognition to the local population. A National Council on Problem Gambling ( NCPG ) was founded with the intent to assist people get by with their gaming issues ( MSF 2008 ) .

As of June 2011, NCPG has excluded 47,178 locals and aliens from come ining casinos ( NCPG, 2011 ) . This clearly shows that some people are cognizant of the possible job with chancing dependence, and are willing to subscribe up for self-exclusion or except their household members. The figure of aliens applied for self-exclusion has increased from 50 to more than 12,000 from Nov 2010 to Jun 2011, of which any are male foreign workers, whose employers have helped them use for self-exclusion. ( ChannelNewsAsia, 27 July 2011 ) .

Those who are objected to the casino development frequently mentioned that this could take to higher offense rate in the metropolis. However, over the past decennary, before and after the casino ‘s gap, Singapore ‘s offense rate has remained reasonably changeless. Compared to other states or metropoliss with casinos, the casino related offense rate here is considered low, at merely 0.3 % of all offenses instances. One thing to observe is that NCPG has put in particular attempts to forestall, proctor and educate any adolescent job gaming or related offenses ( NCPG, 2007 ) .

However, the development of casino and comfortable touristry industry have brought some other unexpected societal issues into the local community. As Singapore does non hold adequate labors for the building and service industry and many local people do non desire to work in such sector, convey in foreign labors become a cost effectual and necessary solution. The increasing inflow of aliens, particularly those who came to Singapore to work, brings force per unit areas on the lodging and public transit. In fact, the two most cited issues during the election period in early 2011 were lifting lodging monetary values and public transit congestions, suggesting that they were caused by sudden and immense inflow of aliens over past few old ages. The authorities has later introduced several chilling steps on the lodging market including more rigorous regulations and higher cast responsibilities for foreign purchasers.

On the other side, Singapore is regarded as a topographic point with advanced substructure for its occupants in Asia. With high incursion of following coevals fiber ocular high velocity broadband for family and 4G nomadic webs across the island, it is so a topographic point with high velocity and low-cost cyberspace connectivity for all the people populating here.


Macau is a particular administrative part ( SAR ) of China since 20 December 1999, before that, it was ruled by Portugal for more than 400 old ages since 1550s. Different from Singapore, Macau has a historical ground to develop casino and gambling industry. Gambling in Macau has been legal since the 1850s colonial yearss when the Lusitanian authorities legalized the activity in the settlement in an effort to bring forth gross for the authorities. Since so, Macau has become known as the “ Monte Carlo of the Orient ” .

Gambling touristry is Macau ‘s biggest beginning of economic gross, bring forthing about 40 % of the GDP and approximately 50 % of the authorities revenue enhancement gross for the past decennaries. After 1999, visitants are made up mostly of mainland Chinese come ining straight or from Hong Kong. With the entry of big foreign casinos from Las Vegas and Australia since 2003, Macau overtook the Las Vegas Strip in bet oning grosss in 2007 and in all subsequent old ages ( DICJ, 2007 ) .

Before western manner casino games were introduced into Macau in the twentieth century, merely Chinese games were played, the most popular one is Fan-Tan. Generally, three are 3 different types: casino games, Equus caballus racing and greyhound racing. Sports wagering and lotteries are besides available but in a smaller graduated table. Macau does non licence online bet oning operations at nowadays.

Grand Lisboa is a 58-floor, 261 meter tall hotel located in the bosom of the Macau Peninsula, owned by Sociedade de Turismo e Diversoes de Macau ( SJM ) . Grand Lisboa has a subject of Gold Age, luxury interior designs, and landmark Nelumbo nucifera architecture designs which is the same as the Macau SAR flag. SJM is one of the six companies authorized to run casino games of luck and other games of opportunity in casinos, under the footings of a grant granted by the Macau SAR authorities in March 2002. It is owned by Hong Kong listed SJM retentions limited, which in bend is owned by the legendary gaming king Stanley Ho. Its casino and eating houses were opened in Feb 2007 and hotel was opened in De 2008. The casino has more than 800 mass gambling tabular arraies and 1000 slot machines. The hotel has 430 hotel suites and 10 sole VIP suites. The hotel has 8 eating houses, 3 of them are Michelin eating houses. The merchandises used in the hotel spa topographic point are all from Gallic Clarins trade name. It has a expansive dance hall which can suit more than 1300 people and 4 meeting suites ( Grand Lisboa,2012 ) .

There are two policies that have great impact on Macau ‘s casino touristry industry in the past decennary. First one is the government-issued monopoly chancing licence for Stanley Ho ‘s Sociedade de Turismo e Diversoes de Macau has expired in December 2001 and the authorities has opened up the industry and issued 6 casino runing grants to both local and foreign industry participants, such as Las Vegas Sands, Wynn Resorts and Galaxy amusement group. This policy has significantly changed the landscape of Macau casino industry as several new casinos and resorts are built by foreign participants over the old ages. By June 2011, there are 34 casinos, 5453 gambling tabular arraies and 13,787 slot machines in Macau. Macau already has an established gambling industry due to historical grounds, it has significantly enhanced the place as the gambling centre in the E with such big scale enlargement with international participants. The 2nd policy was a consequence from Mainland and Macao Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement ( CEPA ) between the Chinese cardinal authorities and Macau SAR authorities in October 2003, which allowed occupants in major Chinese metropoliss to travel to Macau & A ; HK for touring separately with simplified procedure. It is reported that the figure of mainland Chinese tourers has risen from 1.5 million in 2003 to more than 10 million in 2009 ( DICJ,2012 ) .

The combined consequence of both policies to Macau ‘s economic system is ground-breaking. In 2006, per capita GDP in Macau reached $ 29,800 USD and it over took HK for the first clip in history. Gaming gross for the first 9 months in 2006 was over 4.9 billion USD and it over took Las Vegas for the first clip which has gross of somewhat less 4.9 billion for the same period, latest figure shows that bet oning gross reached all-time high of $ 38bn USD in 2012. Bet oning and touristry comprised more than 80 % of Macau ‘s economic system, with more than 20 million tourers arrived in 2009 and over 70 % mean hotel tenancy rate, the economic system has truly took off since 2003, the GDP growing rate was more than 11 % for many old ages. In footings of tourer beginnings, mainland China has been the figure topographic point since 2005 ( 54.5 % ) , followed by HK ( 31.6 % ) and Taiwan ( 6.5 % ) , the staying are chiefly from other South East Asiatic states ( DSEC,2009 ) .

The booming of chancing industry has besides brought enormous chances for other related industries, such as hotel, eating house, building, transit and fiscal services. Unemployment rate in Macau has decreased steadily from 6.8 % in 2000 to 3.1 % in 2008. In fact, there has been labour deficit in Macau since 2003 after the roar, by terminal of 2006, the entire figure of foreign labour has reached 400 1000s, and about 4 individuals are aliens in every 10 people working in Macau.

Besides casinos, Macau is a topographic point with beautiful environment and rich cultural heritage. The Historic Center of Macau was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 2005 ; it is an urban country within the old metropolis of Macau whirling eight squares and 22 historic edifices ; it is the merchandise of cultural exchange between East and West over 400 old ages and is presently the oldest, most complete and amalgamate array of European architectural bequest in Asia. The celebrated A-Ma temple, Barra Square and Cathedral Square are all in this heritage site. It is non easy to happen such a little topographic point with such a rich cultural and historical yesteryear as Macau. It besides has over 20 museums, with the bulk located in the Macau island, such as Maritime, Wine and Tea museums. The fortresses across the island are another heritage that reminds people about the yesteryear, some of them dating back to the early seventeenth century when Dutch forces threatened Portugal ‘s clasp on Macau. From the touristry point of position, this rich cultural characteristic has attracted batch of insouciant gambler who come to see Macau for loosen uping vacations or household members going together with those who came to Macau and gamble ( Porter,2000 ) .

One thing to foreground for Macau is that it has established comprehensive legal construction and relevant Torahs to guarantee the proper growing for chancing and related industries. Presently casinos have to pay a fixed premium for the grant and a variable portion based on gross gambling gross. The revenue enhancement rate is presently 35 % , plus another up to 2 % and 3 % for societal and economic part, therefore the maximal revenue enhancement is hence 40 % . Macau has specific jurisprudence proviso for condemnable offenses related to gaming, nevertheless, the exclusion of participants from any chancing locales is voluntary as of November 2011 and the authorities is analysing a new bill of exchange jurisprudence to cover with job gaming ( DSEC,2012 ) .

All the economic information shows that the booming casino and related industry since 2003 has conveying enormous sum of wealth into the metropolis, and helped Macau to retrieve from the SARS crisis in 2003 really rapidly. GDP growing remained to be really strong in the undermentioned old ages, and it has been the figure one in footings of bet oning gross in the universe since 2006. This has greatly assist the local occupants with higher income, greater employment chances and better substructure. However, the gaming industry is dependent on the prosperity of other Asiatic economic systems, particularly mainland China in Macau ‘s instance, therefore it is non a really stable and independent concern theoretical account. Gambling entirely by and large does non supply technological promotion or productiveness growing, which are considered to be the better beginning of economic growing. Data shows that over 70 % of the new growing in gambling gross are from VIP suites and tabular arraies. Although gambling industry has provided a batch of employment chances, it nevertheless chiefly attracted low to medium skilled workers and does non supply many higher terminal places which are indispensable for a more balanced and sustainable society. In the yesteryear, gaming has besides brought many jobs in the colonial yearss, such as condemnable activities related to loan shark, money laundering and smuggling. There was a period that Chinese mobster three societies become the norm in the society and people tend to seek aid from them instead than from the constabulary. Since Macau ‘s return to China ‘s regulation in 1999, the public security state of affairs has markedly improved ( DSEC,2007 ) .

Does all this average Macau should halt developing bet oning industry? A simple reply would be no. Despite the immense economic growing that gambling has brought to Macau mentioned earlier, the heavy unemployment rate, higher authorities revenue enhancement gross and better substructure over the past decennary, there is merely no immediate menace that Macau should wholly halt the development. However, the high growing rate does convey some possible concerns, such as heavier trust on the gambling revenue enhancement for overall revenue enhancement gross and immense inflow of foreign plants and tourers may hold a negative impact on the local development as Macau has a comparatively little land country and little population. In response to these concerns, Macau SAR authorities has stopped publishing new grants since April 2008 in an effort to seek to decelerate down the casino development. However, on the other side, given the little population, is it non that harmful to pull tourers as a chief scheme to develop the local economic system as it merely does non hold adequate resources to develop full scaled industries such as fabrication, transportation and energy etc. Compared to Las Vegas which has more than 200 casinos and functioning 300 million possible visitants within 3-hour flight scope ; Macau has merely 31 casinos and functioning over 1 billion possible visitants within 3-hour flight scope. With turning economic system and higher urbanisation rate in China, which means more possible visitants to Macau, Macau still have a batch of room for growing in the casino touristry in the following few decennaries ( Cohn,2012 ) .

Unfortunately, chancing is non a thaumaturgy, it will convey in some ugly scenes every bit good as wealth. Prostitution, or under the screen of bodyguard services, drug dealing and maltreatments, and loan shark are frequently common in the metropoliss with casinos. The authorities needs to equilibrate the money chancing touristry has brought in and these negative societal impacts on the local community, as they are clearly non something good for the society. Although money can profit Macau economically, societal duties are more of import, particularly on the adolescents and younger coevalss. We shall deter and take stairss to forestall casinos to do money without any concerns on societal impact. One thing can be done is to supervise more closely in the casinos, particularly on those who won or lost big sum of money, as they are more prone to the above mentioned condemnable Acts of the Apostless ( John,2010 ) . An authorities bureau can besides be setup to advance assorted leisure and athleticss activities for adolescents so they are non merely attracted to chancing. Other activities such as regular promotional message can be produced by the constabulary on the roads in the manner of streamers, or over the wireless and Television broadcast. Government besides needs to put more to upgrade the engineering and equipment used by the constabulary and to upgrade their accomplishments with the latest development in forensic scientific discipline.

The hereafter

Macau ‘s gambling industry faces challenges in the coming twelvemonth including the scheduled execution of a smoke prohibition and outlooks of an anti-corruption thrust on the mainland from the new leading. Revenue growing is expected to decelerate farther in 2013, with Macquarie analysts calculating a 7 per cent addition year-on-year. ( Financial Times, Jan 2, 2013 )

However, substructure developments such as the enlargement of Macau ‘s boundary line crossing with China and the extension of a high-velocity rail nexus with the mainland Chinese metropolis of Zhuhai are expected to hike visitant Numberss. Besides, the instabilities on gambling gross and related hotel and eating house gross go a concern in Macau. In Las Vegas, half of the gross is from hotel, eating house and amusement sector while Macau ‘s has merely less than 20 % portion of the entire gross. This is really a really attractive and untapped section as non all tourers traveling to Macau will chance all twenty-four hours long, with more leisure activities and amusement shows it will go a more attractive topographic point for insouciant gamblers and household tourers. This will be a really good scheme to develop a more balanced and merriment casino touristry industry for Macau. For illustration, in order to farther advance the hotel for tourers in the following twelvemonth, we have proposed coaction with Chanel to hold a new merchandise launch event to be hold in March 2013. ( the inside informations of this event is on the booklet attached to this article. )


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