Tourism is defined by the World Tourism Organization as travel for recreational, leisure or concern intents. In peculiar, touristsA are people who “ travel to and remain in topographic points outside their usual environment for more than 24 hours and non more than one back-to-back twelvemonth for leisure, concern and other intents non related to the exercising of an activity remunerated from within the topographic point visited ” ( WTO, Ottawa Conference on Travel and Tourism statistics, 1991 ) .
Business touristry is a therefore portion of the wider touristry industry, that can be represented as a spectrum, along which the concern is at the high quality, high output terminal.
The footings “ concern touristry ” and “ concern travel ” are frequently used interchangeably, but really a difference exists as stated by Swarbrooke and Horner ( 2001 ) . The first one, in fact, refers to the all facets of the experience of the concern traveller and is much more focussed on those concern people acting as “ tourers ” , e.g. disbursement at least one dark off from place. At this proposal, Davidson R. ( 1994 ) gives the undermentioned definition of concern touristry: “ Business touristry is concerned with people going for intents which are related to their work. As such, it represents one of the oldest signifiers of touristry, adult male holding travelled for this intent of trade since really early times ” .
Business travel underlines the motions of concern travellers from one topographic point to another one, including besides those who make twenty-four hours trips for concern intents. Obviously, the boundaries of these two definitions are non so clear and precise and frequently there ‘s a kind of convergence between them.
There are other definitions of concern touristry. IMEX[ 1 ], for illustration, speaks about concern touristry as the proviso of installations and services to the exhibitions, concern events, incentive travel and corporate cordial reception.
By and large talking, concern travel refers to all the travels linked with the traveller ‘s employment or concern involvements. There can be assorted motives at the base of concern travels. They can be necessary in order to execute the work or they can enable the employee to larn how to make their occupation more efficaciously ; in other instances, they can be a kind of wages for a occupation good done. The major signifiers of concern travel and touristry are represented in Figure 1.
Figure: Typologies of concern travel and touristry
Beginning: Business Travel and Tourism ( J. Swarbrooke, S. Horne )
These classs are non thorough, but could be subdivided into other categorizations.
In more item, the sector comprises, as suggested Davidson and Cope ( 2002 ) :
Individual concern travel: refers to the transportations made by those people making a occupation that requires travels, such as journalists, politicians, talent-spotters.
Meetings: includes a huge scope of events, such as conferences, developing seminars, concern presentations and merchandise launches, one-year meetings, held by companies and associations in order to ease communicating with and between their employees, clients, stakeholders, etc.
Exhibitions: they can be trade carnivals, trade shows and consumer shows and they are events for purchasers and Sellerss in specific trade sectors. In these occasions, concerns take parts with their gross revenues staff in order to expose their merchandises to possible clients, who attend to purchase and have adept information about the goods, normally from the makers.
Incentive trips: comprises the trips that employees receive from their companies as a award for winning a competition related to their occupation, e.g. productiveness fillip and they are used by organisations to actuate their staff. Normally, they are offered in industries with high net income borders such as autos and fiscal service. Qualification for incentive travel is based on accomplishing agreed ends ( gross revenues marks ) .
Corporate events: include staff and client amusement that companies extend to their most valuable clients or chances at esteemed featuring and cultural events. This is a signifier of amusement that companies use as a manner of making good will and edifice relationship with VIP clients and leads. Close links exist between the corporate blowhole section and the catering industry.
In the instance of single concern travel, the finish is normally fixed, as the traveller must travel where the client to be visited is based or where the job has to be solved, where the contract has to be signed. It ‘s the lone non discretional sector of concern travel because the finish is non chosen, but determined by the object of the work.
All the other instances, that can be named concern touristry, are discretional. This means that the organisers have a pick over the finish of their events. These sectors are “ the premier focal point of selling activities by locales and finishs, because determinations about where the events take topographic point are unfastened to act upon ” ( Rogers, 1998 ) . Attendance to these events takes the signifier of group travel, with co-workers going together.
Frequently, an alternate term used to depict the concern touristry sector is the MICE industry, the acronym for meeting, inducements, conventions and exhibitions.
There are some cardinal features of the concern industry as depicted by Business Tourism Partnership in England, that can be extended to the overall corporate travel, including the followers:
concern touristry is year-around, top outing in Spring and Autumn but still with high degrees of activity in the Summer and Winter months, therefore prolonging lasting, full-time employment.
it complements the leisure touristry sector, trusting on much of the
same physical substructure, and conveying concern to finishs such as seaboard resorts which would otherwise be dependent upon a comparatively short Summer season for their economic wellness and prosperity ;
investings in concern touristry installations lead to the regeneration of urban and interior metropolis countries, many of the investings in a finish ‘s substructure designed chiefly for the concern tourer ( hotels, conveyance and communications installations, eating houses, attractive forces and comfortss, even conference auditoria ) provide benefits which can besides be enjoyed by the leisure tourer and the autochthonal population ;
it is elastic, being much less affected by economic downswings or
by catastrophes than leisure touristry and other sectors of the national economic system ;
concern touristry stimulates future inward investing as
concern people see the attractive forces of a finish while going on concern or to go to a conference, exhibition or inducement, and so return to set up concern operations at that place. They can besides go unpaid ‘ambassadors ‘ for a finish by pass oning to co-workers and others their positive feelings and favourable experiences ;
the higher quality of personal service demanded by the concern tourer requires more labor-intensive service providers, which in bend translates into higher degrees of occupation creative activity ;
research suggests that about 40 % of concern travellers will return with their households as leisure visitants to finishs they have enjoyed sing on concern ;
concern touristry is sustainable, offering higher added value with
fewer negative environmental impacts than mass leisure touristry. Furthermore, conference and incentive visitants are together as a
group, so that it is possible to inform and educate them about
the local community in which their event is being held in order to
maximise the enjoyment of their stay but besides to minimise any break and possible incommodiousness to the local occupant
population. It is really much harder to pull off, in the same manner,
the impact of single leisure travellers on a finish.
The concern travel sector ( figure 2 represents the general construction of the industry ) depends on a considerable figure of stakeholders, supplying installations and services for this market.
Figure: The construction of concern travel and touristry
adapted from Swarbrooke and Horner ( 1996 )
Private companies, both little and big, are the chief consumers and suppliers of concern travel services, although they are non the lone types of organisations active in this market. In fact, representatives and employees of the public disposal besides need to go often and members of associations are of import clients in the conference sector.
Furthermore, an of import difference exists between concern travel and touristry. There are in fact two dimension: the client and the consumer.
While in the leisure travel market, the buyer coincides with the terminal consumer, in the corporate travel market the individual who travels is seldom the individual who is paying for the trip. This item is of import because participants in this industry must turn to their attempts non merely toward the satisfaction of the demand, and so the purchasers, but besides towards the terminal consumers. A big per centum of the concern travellers is composed by managerial and sale staff who have the power to do determinations or to act upon the determinations taken by others. They have the authorization to negociate on behalf of their companies.
The public industry can be considered as both provider and intermediary. Many conference Centres are owned in fact by local governments and finish selling organisations are about ever supported through a combination of public and private sector.
As respects the providers and mediators, there are different participants in the industry: finish selling organisations, conveyance suppliers, adjustment and catering operators, providers of leisure and diversion installations.
As many other industries, concern travel is influenced by the province of the national economic system. At the same clip, this sector has an impact on the overall economic system of the finishs to which the traveller make their trips.