Trackstar 9:

  1. Meiosis:
  2. a. Interphase: chromatin are non condensed or seeable under a light microscope, but are depicted in a condensed mode and central bodies are together at the one pole

    b. Prophase I: chromatin condenses to chromosomes, mitotic spindle begins to organize at central bodies move to poles

    c. Metaphase I: crossed over chromosomes are aligned at the “metaphase plate” and connected to the mitotic spindle

    d. Anaphase I: each brace of chromosomes with 2 sister chromatids is pulled to the poles, where the shortened spindle fibres are connected to the central bodies

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    e. Telophase I: chromosomes condense to two separate chromatin, and atomic envelopes signifier

    f. Prophase II: the chromatin recondenses to partner off of chromatids, and central bodies begin to travel to poles, making spindle fibres

    g. Metaphase II: chromosomes are aligned, and connected to the mitotic spindle which is present in both halves of the cell

    h. Anaphase II: kinetochores divide, and the chromatids become separate chromosomes ; besides, they move to the opposite poles to the central bodies

    i. Telophase II: atomic envelope signifiers in all four separate cells, with an equal figure of chromosomes in each envelope

  3. Answers:
  4. a. Hints:

    i. sister chromatids do non travel to the same girl cell

    two. Homologous chromosomes do non go to the same girl cell

    B. Similarities:

    I. Same venue

    two. Both homologous

    three. Sister chromatids are homologous chromosomes

    c. Differences:

    i. Homologous have the same venue, but they can be different

    two. Sister chromatids are EXACTLY likewise, NO DIFFERENCE AT ALL

  5. Answers:
  6. a. There are 8388608 different combinations in worlds

    B. This demonstrates the jurisprudence of independent mixture because it shows how there are many different ways

    c. Statement 1: Random orientation of homologous chromosomes occurs in metaphase I of miosis

    d. Statement 2: There are 16 possible chromosome orientations in a cell that has four brace of chromosomes.

    e. Statement 3: For a cell that has three braces of chromosomes, the fraction of gametes produced from this cell that will merely incorporate merely maternal chromosomes is 1/8.

    f. Statement 4: The part of the cell where chromosome braces batting order is referred to as the home base.

    g. Statement 5: The existent construction that homologues bind to is called the spindle axis.

  7. Answers:
  8. a. 3 similarities between mitosis and miosis:

    i. Chromosomes replicate from the parent cell

    two. The atomic membrane interruptions down as the Deoxyribonucleic acid organizes into chromosomes

    three. Chromosomes separate to the poles where the central bodies are one time they are on the metaphase home base

    B. Statement 1: In miosis, the figure of cells produced is twice the figure of cells produced by mitosis

    c. Statement 2: In miosis, the figure of chromosomes in girl cells is half of those which are made in mitosis

    d. Statement 3: A alone characteristic of miosis that is non shared by mitosis is its “crossing-over” before dividing into girl cells

    e. Statement 4: The girl cells that are produced by miosis are non indistinguishable, due to the jurisprudence of independent mixture.

    f. Statement 5: A characteristic that is shared by mitosis and miosis is the fact that, before they both begin, the chromosomes duplicate.

  9. Answers:
  10. a. Three alone characteristics of miosis:

    i. Synapsis: homologous chromosomes pair all along their length

    two. homologous recombination: the exchange between two joined homologous chromosomes ; traversing over

    three. Reduction division: after miosis is over, each cell merely ends with half of its original figure of chromosomes

    B. Statement 1: There are three alone characteristics of miosis: synapsis, homologous recombination, and decrease division

    c. Statement 2: Crossing overs in miosis occur when familial stuff is exchanged between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes

    d. Statement 3: In each of the four girl cells that our produced in miosis contain one of each brace of chromosomes of the parent cell

    e. Statement 4: The crossing over of chromosomes in miosis occurs in prophase I

    f. Statement 5: The chromosome duplicate in miosis occurs before miosis even

    Begins, in the parent cell, in other words, taking into prophase I

  11. Answer:
  12. a. Statement 1: In a heterozygous cross for Mendelian genetic sciences, 3 out of 4 of the progeny should demo the dominant trait through their phenotype, with 1 out of 4 demoing the recessive.

    B. Statement 2: Mendel ‘s jurisprudence of segregation provinces that, when gametes are organizing, the allelomorphs for a individual trait segregate from one another.

    c. Statement 3: One homozygous dominant and a homozygous recessionary combine, all of their progeny will be heterozygous and reflect the dominant trait. If two heterozygous cross, or if the offspring ego fertilizes, so the A? of the progeny will be heterozygous, and the other A? will demo the recessionary trait

    d. Statement 4: When two loanblend, aka heterozygous, parents are crossed ; merely 25 % of the progeny will demo the recessionary trait, with 75 % demoing the dominant.

    e. Statement 5: When two loanblends cross, 25 % of the progeny will demo the recessionary phenotype.

  13. Answers:
  14. a. Statement 1: In a dihybrid cross that has two heterozygous traits for each parent ( XxYy ) , the distributions of the two allelomorphs in the gametes are 25 % XY, 25 % Xy, 25 % XY, and 25 % XY.

    B. Statement 2: In a dihybrid cross, the phenotypic ratio of two heterozygous beings ‘ progeny is 9:3:3:1, if the cistron brace assort independently during miosis.

    c. Statement 3: Mendel invented the dihybrid cross so that one could state the independent mixture of allelomorphs during the formation of gametes.

    d. Statement 4: In a dihybrid cross, each gamete receives ( in the footings of Ten and Y ) both a dominant or recessionary Ten, and a dominant or recessionary Yttrium.

  15. e. Statement 5: If a dual heterozygous and a dual recessionary dihybrid cross is made, there will be no gametes that are homozygous dominant for either trait.
  16. Answers:
  17. a. Statement 1: When two sex linked cistrons are combined, one dominant and one recessive, so 0 % will show the recessionary trait.

    B. Statement 2: In sex-linked genetic sciences, in order to go through down the recessionary trait to offspring if paired with a dominant homologous male, the female must be heterozygous.

    c. Statement 3: In sex-linked genetic sciences, when there is a cross between a homozygous dominant female and a homozygous recessionary male, the per centum of male traits that are present in the phenotype of the progeny is 0 %

    d. Statement 4: In sex-linked genetic sciences, merely because the trait is from the female does non intend that it is ever dominant or recessionary. It can be dominant for one allelomorph and recessive for another

    e. Statement 5: When two traits are crossed, with one being homozygous dominant and the other being homozygous recessive, the progeny will be heterozygous.

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