The Republic of Turkey is a modern state located in thegeographical plot where ancient civilizations fought over it, ancientGreek, Persian, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman empires, It has themost strategic place and was the heartland of the ancient world.The Republic of Turkey is a transcontinental country, it extends toAsia and Europe, and controls straits, lands, seas, and otherimportant roads.The establishment of the Republic in Turkey is considered as one ofthe biggest turning points moment in the whole of Turkish politicalhistory. The establishment of the Republic of Turkey isn’t a normalevent, but rather a complicated incident which changed the face ofcontemporary Turkey for decades until now.Studying such an issue needs returning to roots and diving deep intohistory, setting theoretical frames, anatomizing the scene and itscomplexity, dealing with the subject from all angles, considering allpoint of views and arranging historical events in their contexts.Let’s ride in the time machine and go back to the 19th century andsail in the seas of history to know what exactly happened to lead tothis enormous historical event in the world which it was ‘TheEstablishment of the Turkish Republic’IntroductionWhen we want to talk about the establishment of Turkish Republic, we have to talk about twointerlaced issues. One is the final years of the Ottoman Empire, the other is the upswingcharacter of the Turkish Republic’s founder ‘Mustafa Kemal Ataturk’. No one can study theestablishment of the Turkish Republic without focusing on the details of the political, military,and psychological aspects of Atatürk’s life.Before that, it’s necessary to set a theoretical framework of formation of states in the world, howAtaturk follows whole or part of these theories, which allow us to anatomize the complications,intricacies, and complexities of this issue.Theoretical Framework Of Establishment & Formation StatesCarles Boix, a professor of politics and public affairs in Princeton University, set theories aboutthe formation of states which can be summarized into three theories;1. Set-up; is the traditional theory and this theory assumes that groups formed agents because oftheir close ‘resemblance’ to each other, allowing them to cooperate in a stable and permanentmanner.2. Self-Sustaining Peace under Anarchy; depend on sustaining peace by avoiding the reasonsbehind conflicts, both at the lowest level (individual) and at the highest level (groups), whena state of anarchy (no authority) exists.The social unitary can sustain cooperative relations with other human groups, while takinginto consideration that the same degree of relative equality applies at that level.This model provides us with a theory of why cooperation may exist at some levels but not atother levels of social interactions.3. Sorting of Agents and Emergence of State Institutions; when an economic division within thesociety happens, one of the two groups of the society has two available strategies. One is topay the other group, which pushes the second group to protect the first in order to preserve itsincome. The other strategy is to employ soldiers to protect them from the second group, bothcases involve the formation of some organization or structure that controls the monopoly ofviolence over a given territory, thereby involving the construction of a “state”.Ataturk followed many paths in founding the republic, which will be studied in detail in thefollowing sections, as here we can just give glances.According to the first model, we can say that Ataturk depended on nationalism to homogenizeTurkish people and create among them the ‘resemblance’ which will make them support him.In the second model, which is the most relative to the case of Ataturk, he benefited from theopportunity of the mess, disorder, anarchy and deteriorating situation of the “sick man ofEurope” as the Ottoman Empire was called in its last days and began to collect all the peoplearound him.The third model is also relative to what Ataturk did in order to gain the land, as people supportedhim to protect themselves from the invaders, Ataturk began to establish congresses,commissions, and associations which were the foundation stones of the republic.Ataturk’s Role In The Establishment Of The RepublicMustafa Kemal Ataturk wasn’t really born when he was born and didn’t really die when he died,a great world-historical figure was born not like anyone else, and although he died in 1938, hisideology is still ruling the Turkish Republic until now.The Turkish Republic was established on October 29, 1923, but of course, it was not just thepressing of a button, there were corpses on the road of this foundation, there were moments offeeling pride and moments of melancholy.Early Military Life Of AtaturkHe was among the officers who volunteered to fight Italians who attacked Tarablus in September1911. This ended with the losing of Ottomans, the route to Libya was so dangerous because theonly route was to cross through Egypt, which was under the control of the British forces.He shared in the Balkan Wars in 1912 which ended with the victory of the Ottomans and madethe invaders retreat from the Ottoman lands.The Rising of Ataturk In Çanakkale & GallipoliAtaturk was the chief of the19th division in the third Ottoman army and the mission to protectthe Dardanelle strait was entrusted to Ataturk.In 1915, British forces began a military campaign to control the Dardanelles strait to help itsallies (Entente States) occupy Istanbul. They were so confident in victory that therefore theydistributed tickets of a concert that would be held there.In the beginning of the campaign, Ataturk’s forces destroyed six ships and prevented them fromcrossing the strait. He knew that invaders would attack the Gallipoli lands because they couldn’tcross the strait. As a result, Ataturk requested from his leadership to let him face the EntenteStates there, but German forces didn’t accept that. However, Ataturk refused to be subjected toforeign officers and took the decision by himself to face the forces there. The result was anumerous amount of deaths among the attackers forces, more than 200,000 killed, and of coursethe victory was a portion of the Ottoman Empire.Wars With The Russian On The Eastern FrontThe Ottomans couldn’t celebrate in the victory because Russian forces were gaining grounds onthe Eastern front and had occupied Erzurum. Mustafa Kemal was the leader of the forces whichfaced the Russians and became the leader of the third corps after gaining a special promotion forhis efforts in the battle of Gallipoli.Growing Of Ataturk’s Influence On AnatoliaMustafa Kemal found that his forces were exhausted, therefore he sent to the sultan to make aceasefire as fast as possible. that is what happened with the signing of the Mudros Armistice in1918, which was a kind of surrender of the Ottoman forces to the Entente States.There was an uprising in Anatolia from the people and the Entente States requested fromOttomans to stop these movements of resistance in Anatolia. The Ottomans sent Mustafa Kemalto do this task, but the reality behind this mission was to arrange the people who didn’t havemilitary experience to resist the occupier.Mustafa Kemal went to Amasya to begin his mission, he invited military commanders to Amasyato hold a national congress to arrange the resistance movements. The British didn’t welcome thecoming of Mustafa Kemal to Anatolia and they requested from the Grand Vizier Farid Pasha toreturn him back to Istanbul, but Mustafa Kemal rejected that. The reaction of the Grand Vizierwas to discharge him from In the meantime, Greeks occupied the Western front of the Ottoman Empire, Izmir, whichencouraged all the people of Anatolia to begin the War of Independence.After the discharging of Mustafa Kemal, he decided to hold an introductory congress in Erzurumbefore the national congress in Sivas, but the Sultan released a decision calling for the arrest ofMustafa Kemal to his friend Kâz?m Karabekir, who was the commander of the Eastern Army ofthe Ottoman Empire, which was the only one wasn’t dissolved after the agreements with theEntente States. But surprisingly Karabekir disobeyed the order and joined the national movementunder the leadership of Mustafa Kemal. The Congress in Erzurum was held and Mustafa Kemalwas elected as the chief of the national congress.The War Of IndependenceHistorians consider the War of Independence the first war in which people could achieve theirindependence in facing the foreign occupation by themselves in the modern history.Ataturk gave a famous speech in the Grand National Assembly, in which he requested theabsolute powers to lead the war of independence, and this is exactly what happened.Greeks went toward Ankara and the Ottomans resisted fiercely in a 22-days long battle, whichresulted in the death of about 42.000 of Greeks and went back to Izmir after Entente states’abandoning of Greeks, they signed the Armistice of Mudanya in October 1922.Conflict Of LegitimacyIn 1922, the Entente States sent an invitation to both governments, the Istanbul governmentwhich was led by the Sultan and the Ankara government which was led by the Grand NationalAssembly’s chief Mustafa Kemal. With this step the Entente States moved the conflict frombetween the people and the invaders forces to between the two governments of those people, newTURKISH POLITICAL HISTORY Monday, December 11, 2017conflict emerged is about the “legitimacy”. Here Mustafa Kemal took the decision to abolish thesultanate, the next day the establishment of the Turkish Republic was announced, with half of themembers of the Grand National Assembly.On 24 July 1923 The Treaty of Lausanne was signed in Lausanne, Switzerland, it recognized theTurkish Republic, which it remained on Ankara as the capital of the new republic, in a sign of theformation of a new state and new regime.The last step was the abolishment of the duplication of decision making in Turkey, which wasended by abolishing the Caliphate, here a new era began in Turkey which was witnessed afterthose several breakthrough events changed the face of the Turkey until now.Conclusionat last, the history, identity andcharacter of Turkey are composed oftwo faces of a coin, the first beingthe Ottoman roots of this country andits glories which extend deep into itshistory. The other is the modernrepublic of Turkey which preservedits geography, protected society, andachieved independence, that impliesthat any attempt to let one of themswallow the other is a threat of lossof the historical Turkish identity.


I'm Niki!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out