1. Introduction Books have evolved greatly since the first Hagiographas in clay tablets a thousand old ages B. C. to nowadays with the digital versions of most books that were. non long ago. merely available in paper. Even though narratives have been carried and passed from coevals to coevals since the outgrowth of linguistic communication. merely until around the 5th century has it been heard about books and their usage.

In the antiquity. crude stuffs in which to carve such as rock and wood were replaced by finer and more portable stuffs like coils. papyrus and manuscripts. which allowed the authorship of longer texts with less attempt. and which lead the reading experience making an elect minority until the innovation of the print. The history of books in modern times is straight related to the creative activity of the print. in the mid fifteenth century. by Gutenberg. This innovation allowed texts to be translated and diffused. making much wider audiences and contracting the cognition spread between different societal categories.

The first book that Gutenberg printed was the Bible. which wholly revolutionized the manner in which faith was regarded by the so nonreader multitudes. and which’s impact was so followed by a series of non merely spiritual. but besides more general cultural transmutations when all types of books were reproduced and made accessible for the people. Printing made it possible for narratives and cognition to be materialized and kept throughout the old ages. With the promotions of the printing industry. books became easier to print. cheaper and more come-at-able to people.

The first printing machine had been made of wood and required a batch of manus labour and clip to publish. so the available transcripts of a book were still comparatively limited. However. as the old ages passed. pioneers sought better options to wood and created metal and subsequently on Fe printing machines. which subsequently on became mechanized. rushing up the printing procedure and non depending on an extended manus labour to map. In 1867 the typewriter was invented. easing the typewriting procedure. With this innovation. the monetary value of books became more low-cost and an increased figure of readers appeared.

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The paper book tendency lasted for centuries. deriving more audience and strength with each print invention that was made. From Gutenberg up to the late twentieth century. print books had an tremendous success and turning popularity. However. with the rise of computing machine engineerings. in 1971 the first digital library was eventually created. 2. From Documents to Screens Project Gutenberg was founded in 1971 by Michael Hart. who created the first electronic book of all time. with the rule of doing literature accessible to everyone and to diminish the degrees of illiteracy in the universe.

The undertaking gathered the most of import books in history in assorted linguistic communications. converted them into an electronic signifier and made them available to the populace for free. This was a turning point in the history of books. since books were no longer read merely by those who could afford their monetary value in bookshops. but besides by those who did non hold the agencies to purchase hardbacks and who now had easy and free entree to literature and cognition. Without cognizing. Undertaking Gutenberg started what would go the digital age of books by taking the passage from print books to digital books.

When the advantages and the success of digital books were seen. a whole new market of on-line retail merchants began to take topographic point. The outgrowth of e-books attracted other writers every bit good as electronics concerns that saw an chance for invention and large net incomes. Electronic readers were created. easing the electronic reading experience and leting people to read nomadic e-books alternatively of being fixed to large heavy screens. However. during the 70’s and the 80’s. e-books were chiefly specialized. and they attracted sections of the population who were interested in a few available subjects.

As the cyberspace progressed in the 70’s and the 80’s and e-book electronic reading devices hit the markets. the 90’s Internet promotions allowed the easy spread of e-books from computing machine to computing machine through the web. and besides the digitalisation of a broad assortment of genres. This meant that books were made available for people with all gustatory sensations and non merely for a specialised audience. Reading was able to go a agency of amusement and non merely of instruction and cognition for the less favorite categories. like it had been up to so.

Books went from being expensive and unaffordable by many. to being a trade good of which everybody could bask. The higher figure of genres and of books in the Internet created an increasing demand for e-books. from which on-line retail merchants. such as Amazon. took advantage in the mid 1990’s. Businesss took the chance to digitize books and sell them online for cheaper monetary values than those of their original paper formats. Another large participant in the cyberspace was Google. which decided to pay publishing houses to digitize books and do certain parts. if non all of them. available for free.

Apart from the digitalisation of books. reading devices such as Amazon’s Kindle. Barnes & A ; Noble’s Nook. and Apple’s Ipad show the immense market that was created due to e-books. and the competition that took and still takes topographic point in the digital universe for the monopoly of e-books. 3. Reading experience As mentioned above. thanks to the innovation of the print. reading became a common activity and was no longer reserved for a privileged bulk. As books spread. illiteracy degrees dropped and the audience for books became so diverse that it allowed for the distribution of books of all genres for all civilizations and gustatory sensations.

It was likely thanks to the digitalisation of books that sub-genres gained popularity and were non left and forgotten in the shelves of bookshops and libraries. E-books. therefore. revived dead genres and gave an advantage to the 1s that already enjoyed from a large demand in paper format. The reading experience has therefore changed sing new audiences reached and more genres available for cheaper monetary values. Another manner in which e-books have benefited the audiences has been through the creative activity of digital libraries by physical libraries every bit good as on-line libraries.

Since e-books do non busy shelf infinite and they need merely to be stored in databases. it is easy for libraries to form their digitalized books and for clients to happen specific subjects and writers. In this sense. the procedure of happening books has been simplified compared to the regular library systems for non-digital versions. The procedure of digitalisation is a long one but one time all books become portion of the digital library. they are easier to pull off and to administer when people look for them.

Electronic libraries allow the storage of big Numberss of books in a little memory infinite. without the demand of bookshelves. infinite and a big staff. Thankss to this storage advantage. libraries can hold more books readily available and people have a larger pick and are non limited by the physical infinite of libraries. At the same clip. bookshops with e-book archives can salvage clients clip by giving a faster service and avoiding waiting lines and waiting lists for books that for case. have no yet arrived to the bookshop or due to distances or to a big demand.

Apart from the storage facets. an of import portion of the passage from paper to screens has been the involuntariness of certain people to accommodate to the electronic signifiers of books. Hardcover books have been portion of civilizations for so many centuries that for some people it is non so easy to suit to e-readings. The modern universe is improbably digitalized. from music to films. so the digitalisation of books appears to be natural. peculiarly to the youngest coevalss. The reading experience between paper books and e-books is clearly different since paper books offer the possibility of reading with more senses alert.

For case. when reading a handcover book. the reader can experience the pages’ texture and the odor of the book. and can see traits that are non present in e-readers. such as worn out and bended pages. which could be seen as a disadvantage. but they can besides give a rewarding esthesis to the reader who makes his manner through the book and can comprehend and appreciate how he gets closer to the terminal. Another component of the appeal of paper books is the unhurried reading experience that they offer. This implies the relaxation with which books can be transported and the small it matters where the reader is in order to be able to make his reading.

Contrary to e-readers. paper books do non necessitate battery bear downing. careful attention from bad conditions conditions. uploading or downloading of narratives. among other factors. Therefore. paper books can be said to be simpler to read and to offer a echt reading experience that merely requires a book and a reader. Despite these reading experience factors. future coevalss will really likely turn being progressively familiar with e-books. which will be in favour for the enlargement of the e-book market and will ensue in a farther shrinkage demand for print books.

Children born in the digital age are non be cognizant of the long manner that print books have come from if they are non taught about it. and they likely regard e-books as the initial province of books. Therefore. the reading experience is linked by big to former reading experiences and to the capableness to compare e-books to non-digital books from an rational and besides sentimental or sensory point of position. 4. Writers and Cost Reductions For authors. the digitalisation of books does non needfully connote negative effects. since there are several points which are in their favour.

These include the possibility of self-publishing. no demand for paper. easy redacting. and no excesss. Self-publishing is a great advantage for authors since publication houses normally get most of the additions. go forthing the writers with minimum net incomes from their ain books. By jumping the mediator. which in this instance is the publishing house. authors can set their books up in the cyberspace for sale and acquire all the net incomes. This attack does hold its hazards since the advantage of traveling public through publishing houses is that they know about the concern and they take attention of all the stairss.

There is besides the advantage of non necessitating paper. which once more means fewer costs and therefore. more additions for the writers. Writers can make up one’s mind to print their books straight online without holding a print version if they do non wish to. This saves authors from the long permanent period of printing and book piecing before their book is launched. Besides. no printing means one mediator less in the procedure of book publication. Working with publishing houses already costs a batch of money. so cutting any monetary value. in this instance paper. printing and collection monetary values. is helpful for writers.

Related to the paper advantage. is easy redacting. Contrary to publish books. e-books can be easy edited even if they have been already published ; they do non confront the incommodiousness of holding misprint that would be a batch of money to rectify. In the instance of print books. one time the book is printed in large Numberss. misprints are non possible to rectify until the following printings. but by so the populace will already hold the version with the misprint in their custodies. Editing besides refers to bigger redacting other than misprints. such as whole transition alterations. which are possible to do in digital versions but non in paper.

Writers can besides profit from the deficiency of book excesss that result in money put into the lease of warehouses. Excesss are really common for print books since at the minute of publication. writers and publishing houses make an estimation of the books that will be sold. but they might non ever be right or even approximative. due to the quality of the authorship or of other external factors. In the instance of e-books. no printing is necessary and purchases are done digitally so no warehouses are needed. This saves the writers money and allows for investing in other countries such as the advertisement of their books. 5. More Readers for Writers.

Refering the readers. they have easy entree to books and do non depend simply on the monetary values offered. since paper books normally cost a batch of money. Even if some digital books can be more expensive than others because of publishing houses. they are well cheaper than paper books. Another advantage for the readers is that they do non necessitate to physically travel if they need or want to acquire an e-book. As mentioned before. they have the advantage of avoiding long library and bookshop waiting lines and waiting lists. and they can hold entree to the book they want straight from the comfort of their place or computing machine.

These advantages mean that readers look for their books online more readily than they look for physical books. since these necessitate more clip. money and attempts. Therefore. authors can profit for a wider. or at least more active. audience. 6. E-books and Different Genres In the instance of the genres affected by the digitalisation of books. academic books most likely will non increase their gross revenues and will non be making a wider audience. since these books have a specialised audience that does non increase or diminish its demands with the handiness of e-books.

On the other manus. novels and books of popular genres like scientific discipline fiction will most likely increase their demand Numberss. since they do non necessitate a specialised audience. but can entertain people from all societal strata. Science fiction entirely accounts for around 20 % of all e-book purchases. At the same clip. since digital readings offer the possibility of hyperlinks. hunt engines. and so forth. within or around the text. these distractions affect the reading quality of novels. but non so much the reading quality of lexicons and cookery books. for case. 7. Refering Publishers.

Some of the participants who are the most affected by the digitalisation of books are publishing houses. since traveling to digital signifiers has reshaped in the manner in which books are marketed and besides the costs involved and net incomes earned. Some of the advantages to publishing houses are the release from the restraints of printing and from excesss of stock lists. Another advantage is that older books that stopped selling on print can be published once more in their digital signifier and range wider audiences because of the cheaper monetary values. so net incomes can be made from book print inactive books.

Despite these advantages. the disadvantages are besides great. One of the biggest menaces of printing online is buccaneering. since plagiarists can easy take the book and administer it illicitly. Another disadvantage is the pricing for e-books in the cyberspace. since different retail merchants and Sellerss have at times monetary values that differ greatly from one another and while large retail merchants can afford to cut costs and increase gross revenues with some net income losingss. little publishing houses can non afford such a move. One more of import disadvantage for publishing houses is that there are no more book shows in bookshop shelves that help publicize books.

Publishers try. nevertheless. to make advertisement for their clients through the societal web in order to do up for this ruin. A technique used by publishing houses in order to maintain their print gross revenues alive is called “windowing” and it consists of printing first the print version of a new book and detaining the e-version to increase the print gross revenues. The thought is non to allow people cognize when the e-version will be available so that they buy the print version and do non wait for the e-book to be published. However. this technique can travel incorrect and can make losingss if the clip length between the print and on-line publication is non good foreseen.

For case. if the print book is sold out after a hebdomad. when the planned clip was two months. so people will rapidly bury about the book and once it is eventually published digitally. it will non hold the same consequence it had back when there was outlook for the two publishes. A 2nd technique that publishing houses are utilizing is the publication of sections of a book. which the populace can read. and if they like what they see. they are encouraged to do contributions so that the writer can complete composing the book and that it can be published.

This is a really advanced thought. since it allows publishing houses to avoid excesss. every bit good as publishing if they decide to make this lone with e-books. 8. Libraries Libraries are one of the most of import stakeholders of the digitalisation of books since they are normally decades all and have invested great amounts of money on the local. the books. the care. and so forth. For libraries. the transition of books into e-books is really expensive because even though it is cheaper than hive awaying physical books. there are far more e-books and hence. the storage in a digital signifier is more expensive in the long tally.

Fortunately for libraries. literature will still be literature and regarded as such. no affair if it’s stored in bookshelves or in databases. This means that library clients would still patronize the library when looking for books. and besides because libraries are non merely topographic points where books are stored. but besides cultural topographic points where people can garner and speak about literature or rational subjects. At the same clip. due to the creative activity of digital databases. libraries will hold to get down cutting down forces and infinites in order to be able to afford the passage to digital signifiers.

9. Bookshops: Boundary lines In the instance of bookshops. they suffer more than libraries from e-books. since bookshops are non a topographic point of audience but of merchandising. and when money is involved. clients tend to turn where they can pass the least for the same service. One of the chief concerns of bookshops is the low monetary value that is charged for books in e-form. since for the same content there are important monetary value differences that clearly draw clients off from bookshops to the cyberspace.

Another chief concern of bookshops is that the infinite that is used for hive awaying and exposing print books will non be of any usage. and even if they create digital databases to sell e-books in their shops. they can non vie with on-line sellers since they still need to cover local costs such as electricity. forces. rent. care. etc. Some of the schemes tried out by bookshops in order to last the digital age is to host book nines and societal assemblages. every bit good as selling goods other than books.

In the instance of smaller bookshops. since they can non vie with the others’ monetary values. have opted for offering authorship categories. for case. in add-on to selling books in their shops. These schemes work in some instances but in others they have non been able to salvage bookshops from fall ining. On July 2011. the American bookshop giant. Boundary lines. liquidated all of its shops after it went Bankrupt in February 2011. Following with its terminal went 11. 000 lost occupations. In an interview to Border’s President Mike Edwards. he says. “Following the best attempts of all parties. we are saddened by this development.

We were all working hard toward a different result. but the head winds we have been confronting for rather some clip. including the quickly altering book industry. [ electronic reader ] revolution and disruptive economic system. have brought us to where we are now. ” It is clear that Borders was non prepared for the digital moving ridge that hit the book industry. and when it tried to respond it was already excessively late. Boundary lines had large shops and advanced equipment to turn up books clients looked for.

However. when the digitalisation of books started taking topographic point. Borders did non concentrate on constructing its ain e-book market. but alternatively it used one of the above mentioned techniques. which was selling other goods. such as Cadmiums and DVDs. It besides invested on the substructure of its stores alternatively of taking action in the digital book market. Its chief rival was Barnes & A ; Noble. which has managed to last and maintain up by concentrating on the publicity of e-books and on the release of its ain e-reader. the Nook. which put it straight into the digital market and which allows it to better advance its ain digital books.

There is still much to be achieved and much competition to accomplish from the portion of Barnes & A ; Noble. but if it continues to suit to the digital flow so it is really likely that it will pull off to prolong itself. For Borders. for Barnes & A ; Nobel. and for all bookshops presents. the large rivals are on-line retail merchants. particularly Amazon. which is considered to be the biggest e-retailer on the web. 10. On-line Retailers: Amazon Amazon was founded in the mid 1990’s and started off as an on-line book marketer. With the old ages. it started spread outing its market to multiple countries such as music. package. videogames and playthings.

Today. it sells an infinite assortment of merchandises and covers an international market as one of the biggest online retail merchants in the universe. With the outgrowth of e-books and the tremendous competition that surrounded Amazon. it decided non merely to sell digital versions of its books but besides to establish its ain e-reader. the now celebrated Kindle. Its chief antagonist in footings of e-readers was and still is the iPad. In order to maintain up with the competition and be the figure one on the e-book market. Amazon lowered the monetary value of the Kindle to a degree where it was doing no net incomes and was in the contrary. making losingss.

The logical thinking behind this scheme was to promote people to purchase the Kindle alternatively of other e-readers. and by purchasing the Kindle they would be likely to purchase the e-books from Amazon excessively. Up to now. Amazon has been able to maintain on viing with Apple. nevertheless. both are directed at different clients. since Apple’s iPad is more about design than about e-books. while Amazon’s Kindle is all about the e-books Amazon offers with it. The online retail merchant has the advantage on doing its net incomes from a broad assortment of merchandises and non holding to trust wholly on e-books merely.

However. it is today the biggest e-retailer online and its e-books history for an of import portion of its success. and thanks to its Kindle and its monetary values it continues its manner to ruling the e-book market. The hereafter of Amazon is tightly related to the hereafter of Bookstores and the hereafter of print books. While Amazon continues to offer low monetary values for digital books. people will maintain on turning to the cheaper digital versions and the demand for print books will maintain on decreasing.

At the same clip. the international range of Amazon and its monetary values make it hard for bookshops to vie with it. since they rely on books chiefly. while Amazon relies on many other merchandises that it sells successfully on-line. 11. Decision The hereafter of books seems to be as e-books mainly. even though the print versions will most likely continue to play an of import function in society due to the historical and emotional charge that they carry.

The coevalss that grew up with print books are non likely to turn to digital signifiers excessively rapidly. but as every twelvemonth since the late 1990’s a new digital coevals is born. print books will non hold the same significance they have today. merely as they do non hold the same significance today as they had before the rise of the cyberspace.

In order for print books to last. monetary values need to be lowered. and the most successful manner to make this for writers is by self-publishing and making the audiences straight. This entails hazards. but if print books continue to be every bit much as they do today. the demand for them will diminish further with clip.

In the instance of bookshops. for the minute they have no other alternate than to accommodate to the digital market and to seek to happen other beginnings of income. Possibly in the hereafter. one time the universe is used to e-books. merely like it is used to CD’s and non to cassettes today. people will look back and get down turning to publish versions which will be seen as unique and which might derive back the initial esteemed position that they one time had when the print was foremost created. Works Cited Adam. Nabil R. Digital Libraries: Research and Technology Progresss: ADL ’95 Forum. McLean. Virginia. USA. May 15-17. 1995: Selected Documents.

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2009: 13. Print. “Michael Hart. ” The Economist 24 Sept. 2011. Obituary sec. : 102. Print. Montgomery. Kathryn C. “Children in the Digital Age. ” Media Awareness Network. Web. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. media-awareness. ca/english/resources/special_initiatives/wa_resources/wa_shared/backgrounders/digital_kids. cfm & gt ; . Noguchi. Yuki. “Why Boundary lines Failed While Barnes & A ; Noble Survived. ” National Public Radio. 9 July 2011. Web. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. npr. org/2011/07/19/138514209/why-borders-failed-while-barnes-and-noble-survived & gt ; . Postrel. Virginia. “Amazon vs. Apple: What Should E-Book Monetary values Be?

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“The Future of Libraries. with or without Books. ” CNN. 04 Sept. 2009. Web. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //articles. cnn. com/2009-09-04/tech/future. library. technology_1_metropolitan-library-librarians-books? _s=PM: TECH & gt ; . “The Transformation of the Book Industry: Disappearing Ink. ” The Economist 10 Sept. 2011: 15. Print. Wong. Jackie. “Genre-fiction Fans Quell Hunger with E-books. ” Straight: Vancouver’s Online Source. 7 July 2011. Web. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. consecutive. com/article-402353/vancouver/genrefiction-fans-quell-hunger-ebooks & gt ; . ——————————————– [ 1 ] . Kovacs. Maureen G.

The Epic of Gilgamesh ( Stanford. Calcium: Stanford Univ. . 2004 ) 13. [ 2 ] . Eliot. Simon. and Jonathan Rose. A Companion to the History of the Book ( Malden. Ma: Blackwell Pub. . 2007 ) 87. [ 3 ] . Howard. Nicole. The Book: the Life Story of a Technology ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. 2009 ) 31. [ 4 ] . “Printing Yesterday and Today. ” Harry Ransom Center. . [ 5 ] . “Background to Project Gutenberg. ” Project Gutenberg Australia. . [ 6 ] . “Michael Hart. ” The Economist 24 Sept. 2011. Obituary sec. : 102. Print. [ 7 ] . “The History of the Internet. ” Investintech. com. . [ 8 ] . Menn. Joseph.

“Alliance Helps Google Finally Go into Print with 2m Books. ” The Financial Times [ San Francisco ] 18 Sept. 2009: 13. [ 9 ] . Cohen. Dan. “The Fight Over the Future of Digital Books – Dan Cohen – Technology – The Atlantic. ” The Atlantic. 23 Sept. 2011. . [ 10 ] . Adam. Nabil R. Digital Libraries: Research and Technology Progresss: ADL ’95 Forum. McLean. Virginia. USA. May 15-17. 1995: Selected Documents ( Berlin: Springer. 1996 ) 244. [ 11 ] . “The Future of Books: Not Bound by Anything | The Economist. ” The Economist. 24 Mar. 2007. . [ 12 ] . Montgomery. Kathryn C. “Children in


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