Ghana ‘s touristry sector is likely to turn at an mean rate of 4.1 % per annum over the following two decennaries which will be majorly because of the state ‘s alone historical, cultural and natural attractive forces. Placed centrally at the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa, Ghana has a entire land country of about 238,540 square kilometer and a 540 kilometer picturesque coastline. In add-on to being home to many historical landmarks and natural attractive forces, Ghana besides owns the alone position of most frequent initial point of entry for most westerners sing Africa for the first clip.

Reports and indexs show that the growing in the touristry sector underscores the demand for adjustments and other installations to serve the turning figure of visitants to Ghana. Ghana has less than 1,800 suites in the 2-5 star classs – 224 five-star suites, 514 four-star suites, and 567 three-star suites. Demand projections for 2- 5 star suites are 4,480 ( 2000 ) , 6,385 ( 2005 ) and 8,250 ( 2010 ) . The National Tourism Development Plan is looking for advancement in the visitant installations in 8 designated touristry centres, 7 tourer gateways, 75 tourer way stations and a web of jaunt paths, all concentrating on and associating the major attractive forces throughout the state.

Ghana ‘s travel and touristry sector is viewed as the most promising sector of the national economic system. It is presently the 3rd highest foreign exchange earner. It is expected to go the figure one foreign exchange earner for the state by the twelvemonth 2010 due to its systematically increasing rate of international arrivals.A

The authorities of Ghana established a Ministry of Tourism in 1993 to underline its committedness to touristry development and with aid from the United Nations Development Programme ( UNDP ) and the World Tourism Organization ( WTO ) ; the ministry prepared a 15-Year Tourism Development Plan for the period 1996 to 2010.

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Ghana ‘s Tourism Policy states that the type of touristry to be promoted shall be non-mass and shall concentrate on that which shall esteem and conserve the natural, cultural, historical, ecological and environmental heritage.A

Some marks that have been set under the National Tourism Policy include:

a. Tourism reachings to make the million grade by the twelvemonth 2010

B. Foreign exchange grosss to hit the US $ 1.5 billion grade by the twelvemonth 2010

c. Employment in the industry to hit the 1,000,000 grade by the twelvemonth 2010

d. Contribution to Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) to hit the 2-digits per centum grade by the twelvemonth 2010

e. Average length of stay of the tourer to make at least 14 yearss by 2010

f. Average outgo per international tourer to be a lower limit of US $ 2,500 by 2010

g. By 2010, hotel room supply ( star-rated ) should be over 20,000 and shall concentrate on:

Multi-hotel resorts at beaches, lakes and hill locations

Business hotels in metropoliss, towns

Sir oliver lodges and hostel at tourer sites

Apartment hotels and serviced flats

Motels, hotels and other auxiliary adjustment workss


A figure of investing chances arise out of Ghana ‘s long-run touristry programs. They include:

1. Tourist Adjustment

a. Multi-hotel resorts

One each for the Volta Estuary, Accra and environments, Brenu beach in the Central Region, Cape Three Points in the Western Region, Lake Bosumtwi in Ashanti, the Volta Lake Basin integrating Dodi Island, Dwarf Island, Digya National Park, Melinli Peninsular, Amedzofe and Wli-falls in the Volta Region.

b. Single-hotel resorts at beach sites, botanic garden sites, other lake sites, etc.

c. Business Hotels of all categories peculiarly in:

Accra, the capital metropolis and chief conference locale in Ghana.

Tema, the freshly declared free port and Ghana ‘s industrial metropolis.

Takoradi, a free port and major commercial Centre.

Kumasi, the Centre of Ghana ‘s cultural touristry circuit.

Tamale, the concern capital and gateway to the Northern portion of Ghana.

Other regional and territory capitals which are emerging as commercial Centres.

d. Lodges and Inns

Desirable locations include eco-tourism sites, every bit good as other stray touristry attractive force sites and towns.

e. Motels on major tourer paths such as

Accra-Lome with Aflao as the best location.

Accra-Abidjan with Elubo as best location.

Accra-Ouagadougou with Kintampo falls and Paga as best locations.

f. Camping Sites for the trans-Saharan escapade tourers in Paga, Tamale, Kintampo Falls, Kumasi and Accra.

2. Rest Stops

Recommended paths for remainder Michigans include Accra-Lome, Accra-Abidjan, Accra-Kumasi-Ouagadougou, Kumasi-Wa and Accra-Adomi Bridge-Hohoe.

a. Small Scale Rest Stops

This is a simple basic road-side halt with installations for parking, washrooms, basic refreshment, etc.

B. Medium Scale Rest Stop

This is reasonably luxuriant with installations for parking, washrooms, cafeteria, store, fuel and car service.

3. Tourist Information Shops

These independent stores are in high demand in major tourer Centres peculiarly in Accra, Kumasi, Cape Coast and Elmina and boundary line entry points. These stores may specialise in the undermentioned traveller necessities:

a. international direct dial telephone services

b. sale of tourist/travel publications, maps etc

c. reserves and verification of flights

d. sale of keepsakes

e. toll lavatories

f. bite service

4. Tourist Transport Servicess

a. Tourist Cab

This is extremely unequal and it may be operated by companies licensed by Ghana Tourist Board and registered to run from specified bases viz. hotels, airdromes and other conveyance terminuss.

B. Air Taxi

This is besides extremely unequal but there is turning demand for it by both concern and vacation visitants necessitating speedy visits to locations outside Accra peculiarly, to topographic points such as:

the Mole National Park, some 400km North of Accra

Dodi Island in the Volta Lake

The gold and other excavation towns in Ashanti and Western Region.

Key tourist countries like Ada Beach, Busua Beach, Kakum National Park, the Garrisons and Castles in the Central Region etc.

Major Business Centres like Kumasi, Tamale, Bolgatanga, Ho, Sunyani, Takoradi, Hohoe etc.

c. Car Hire

This is for the turning tourer traffic in the assorted classs of route conveyance vehicles, particularly tourist managers, tourer coachs, limousines, and cross-country vehicles for trekking and campaign.

d. Cruise Boats

The Volta Lake offers chance for the operation of assorted types of lake transit for assorted leisure intents such as sail jaunts or strictly passenger service or for a more individualized diversion like angling etc.

5. Tourist Travel Servicess

The growing of assorted types of touristry has created chances for puting in tourer handling services including:

a. Tour Steering Servicess

These involve puting up a company which employs a pool of circuit ushers for operators, conference organisers etc.

B. Tour Handler Services

This is a small-scale operation whose services may be hired by an in-coming circuit operator to manage the land logistics required by in-coming bundle tourers.

c. Tour Operationss

This is a larger signifier of a circuit landing outfit. In this instance, the operator is required to ain coachs, managers, and must hold his or her ain circuit bundles. It requires significant investing in office adjustment, equipment, staff spending, considerable experience in air hose and tourer travel operation every bit good as a significant insurance screen.

d. Travel Agencies

This sector is about choked with a mushroom of outfits but an enterprising new entrant can do it.

6. Tourism Medical Servicess

There is turning demand for assorted types of wellness services for visitants and these include:

a. Tourism wellness insurance companies

b. Ambulance service for tourers including the construct of the winging physician to service remote tourer sites.

7. Entertainment

Accra and all major metropoliss every bit good as tourer Centres literally go to bed at sunset for deficiency of nightlife activities. There is turning demand for international category as in:

a. Pubs

b. DiscothequesA

c. Night-clubs with unrecorded shows

d. CasinosA

e. Amusement Parks etc, in towns such as Accra, Tema, Kumasi, Cape Coast, Takoradi, Tamale and Koforidua.

8. Leisure & A ; Sports

There is high demand for leisure and featuring activities to invigorate up the stay of European, American, Asian and African tourers. The following would greatly heighten tourers ‘ experiences:

a. First golf classs for international tourneies

b. Marinas on our Atlantic Coast, inland lakes and large rivers for athletics fishing, boating, skiing, seafaring, surfing etc.

c. Theme Parks to alleviate ennui.

d. Sports Centres in metropoliss offering a broad scope of indoor/outdoor activities. publicity


The Ghana Oil Company Limited ( GOIL ) is to supply the Ghana Police Service with equipped

edifices to function as constabulary Stationss or stations at selected main road remainder stops throughout the state.

The Managing Director of GOIL, Mr Yaw Agyeman – Duah, said this at the gap of a modern constabulary station at Linda Dor Rest Stop at Bunso on the Accra-Kumasi main road. This is the first constabulary station to be opened at a remainder halt on a main road. Mr Agyeman-Duah said the Takoradi-Elubo main road in the Western Region is the following country where GOIL intends to supply a similar installation to look into offenses on the roads.

The new constabulary station which has a good equipped charge office, general office, officer ‘s office, a cell and two H2O cupboard lavatory installations is wholly funded by GOIL. Mr Agyeman-Duah said the Minister for Local Government and Rural Development, Mr Samuel Ofosu-Ampofo suggested the thought last twelvemonth during the formal gap of the Linda Dor Rest Stop.

He hoped that the Ghana Police Service will supply good officers to adult male the installation to assist accomplish the intent for which it was provided and thanked the Chiefs and People of Bunso for their support.

Deputy Commissioner of Police ( DCOP ) , Frank Adu-Poku who opened the constabulary station on behalf of the Inspector General of Police ( IGP ) , thanked GOIL for the support, adding that GOIL has been such a faithful spouse to the constabulary.

He gave the confidence that the Police Post will be put to good usage to control offense in the country and urged the constabulary forces who will be posted at that place to exhibit a sense of professionalism.

Assistant Commissioner of Police ( ACP ) , Kwabena Gyamera-Yeboah, Eastern Regional Police Commander said forces to adult male the installation are ready and expressed their readiness to control offense in the part.

Beginning: GNA 2011


The World study on route traffic hurt bar studies that worldwide, an estimated 1.2 million people are killed in route clangs and every bit many as 50 million are injured each twelvemonth. Many causes contribute to this high figure and among them are drunkenness, careless drive, hapless roads, etc.

However, an emerging latent safety issue confronting the route conveyance industry today is fatigue ( both for the drivers and the riders likewise ) as it is non easy recognized and diagnosed.

Road accidents on the Kenyan roads claim about 3,000 lives yearly. It is estimated that the economic system farther looses about 4 billion or 5 % of its gross domestic merchandise excessively on accident related disbursals.

However, this intractable job persists amidst attempts to present steps including enforcement to utilize seat belts and interpolation of speed-governors. In an attempt to understand some of the implicit in causes, this survey examined travellers ‘ perceptual experience of weariness as a subscriber to clangs.

The consequences showed the happening of weariness to be a major cause of 87 % , 83 % and 82 % of the nodding off, exhaustion and oscitance experienced severally by riders. Similar consequences were reported for drivers. The effects of weariness were attributed to hapless route conditions by 76 % and long periods of sitting by 64 % of the riders interviewed. To counter fatigue effects, 72 % and 79 % of the private auto and truck drivers severally stopped to loosen up at gasoline Stationss. The usage of unfastened countryside was cited by 53 % of the riders interviewed as an alternate topographic point to halt. The consequences underscore the demand to invent effectual steps that will alleviate weariness but at the same clip be environmentally sound. Indeed good planned rest-stops by location, propinquity to urban centres, at black musca volitanss and near scenic sing points can supply avenues to re-energize and supply an flight from driving under risky conditions and besides be used as a point to bask the particular characters of part. JAGST Vol. 14 ( 1 ) 2012


Fatigue is a general term normally used to depict the state/experience of being “ sleepy ” , “ tired ” or “ exhausted ” . Generally, weariness can be taken to be the physical and mental damage brought approximately by unequal remainder over a period of clip. This means fatigue affects both the physical and the psychological wellbeing of persons. It can ensue from long or backbreaking work, small or hapless slumber and the clip of twenty-four hours when the work is performed and sleep obtained. This loss of watchfulness is accompanied by Poor judgement, slower reactions to events, and decreased accomplishment, such as in vehicle control. ( )

Road Safety and Fatigue

Every twelvemonth, constabulary see ‘mystery clangs ‘ in which it is non possible to find a cause. Many of these incidents are thought to affect a fatigued driver who fell asleep at the wheel. A typical enigma clang might happen on a main road when one vehicle drifts out of its lane into the way of oncoming traffic and hits another vehicle head-on, frequently with tragic consequences. While this could easy be dismissed as an unfortunate incidence, it has been noted that drivers are under huge force per unit area and emphasis to drive longer periods for economic grounds.

Rest-Stops as a Countermeasure to Fatigue

The fast gait in today ‘s “ 24 hr society ” seems to supercharge many people to give their wellness. The survey has revealed clearly that weariness is going a common job. It is impacting both the drivers and the riders every bit and its effects are being felt randomly. Therefore, the intercession attack to tire adapted in this survey is focused on the demand to turn to the fatiguing facets of going demands and the handiness of interruptions during long journeys, which offer the chance for impermanent convalescence from the effects of weariness. The construct of presenting rest-stops is based upon the premiss that traveller weariness, the ennui and humdrum associated with traveling can be reduced if route users break their journey on a regular basis. Rest-stops could farther offer extra chance to safely pull-over and give the travellers clip to alleviate, reenergize and bask the particular character of the parts through which they travel through. Apart from this really utile health-restoring ability, rest-stops can besides supply drivers an flight from driving under other risky conditions including bad conditions conditions.

Rest-stops would function multiple intents including:

( I ) Supplying safety interruptions for going automobilists on long distances,

( two ) Supplying a location for travellers to loosen up and take a interruption from main road travel,

( three ) Supplying comfort Stationss, and in some instances, nutrient and drink services

( four ) Supplying safety and convenience locations on the route where travellers can halt and alleviate themselves before continuing on the journey.

To accomplish the above stated intents, rest-stops require some minimal design elements to work suitably. This would include: lavatories ( with related comfortss ) , landscape furniture ( including benches, drama equipment, picnic tabular arraies ) , shade ( unreal or natural ) , infinite for stretching, parking infinite, refuse bins, safety and offense bar through design, among others. The inclusion of all these installations would depend on local conditions, the quality of care able to be secured and the sum of usage. Designation of possible halting chances along the path is of import.

Locations would include near black-spots, close towns, at junction and at scenic locations. Figure 5 illustrates some of the possible location that rest-stops could be sited.

Rest-stops can cut down fatigue-related accidents by leting automobilists to halt and rest at regular intervals. If they are to be effectual against weariness, they must be located at strategic points, taking into consideration automobilist velocities, weariness oncoming times, desired driving interval times and the location and suitableness of other halting chances as discussed above. Further, to guarantee they run into the demands

of automobilists, and to promote on-going hereafter usage, rest-stop countries need to be handily located, readily accessible, attractive, and include appropriate remainder installations.

The proviso of good, sufficient and safe rest-stops should organize an built-in portion of route substructure safety direction. Relaxation is indispensable for safety on long distance trips by users of all types of vehicles. Good rest-stops should supply parking, outdoor installations, healthful installations and personal safety. Basically, good rest-stops should supply the mental relaxation and chances to stretch and walk ; in kernel they should resemble a little park. They should, if possible, supply a glance of the countries ‘ scenery and its original local spirit.

Security is a really of import facet of a rest-stop country. Not holding security invites vandals and felons to feed on the going populace at a clip when they are the most ( physically ) vulnerable. With addition in offense, a lessening in usage will happen, which means the country may stop up staying a “ vacated ” country. JAGST Vol. 14 ( 1 ) 2012


Rest-stops could be managed utilizing the undermentioned options:

( I ) Public sector direction: this is better placed to advance authorization of local occupants from a impersonal point of view, where a service is the chief aim and net incomes are secondary.

( two ) Private sector direction: if public sector lacks sufficient capableness to administrate the rest-stops, private sector could convey in its resources and expertness to pull off them.

( three ) Public-private partnerships direction: combines concern acumen of the private sector with the solid creditworthiness of the public sector. A joint development would be a feasible mechanism to countervail the cost of edifice and keeping rest-stops while offering much sought after services to travellers.

( four ) When good maintained and managed, rest-stops could supply many benefits to the local community and the going public. These include:

( V ) Road safety: rest-stops will better route safety by cut downing the happening of fatigue-related route clangs.

( six ) Authorization: local community could be economically and socially empowered through chances to services such as selling goods to road-users.

( seven ) Regional revival: local occupants can get down independent concerns and sell local wares and agricultural green goods to travellers, therefore rousing an otherwise “ sleepy ” vicinity. JAGST Vol. 14 ( 1 ) 2012

Tourism Benefits

One industry that is expected to be a major donee of any proposed main road betterment option is the touristry industry, which serves both concern and recreational travel. Tourist benefits occur in so far as main road betterments lessen travel clip, cut down safety jeopardies and do travel more gratifying for trips to assorted tourer finishs and recreational attractive forces within main road remainder Michigan. Tourism benefits occur chiefly due to greater trial and disbursement by out of three state visitants. Shifts among in-nation visitants finish are of no economic benefits to the state.

Travelers and Tourist Benefit

Tourist travellers are a diverse group of users. The class chiefly comprises self-contain travellers, with many campervans, motor places, etc. As a general regulation, this class of users has a pick of when to halt.

Tourist travellers are a diverse group of users. The class chiefly comprises self-contain travellers, with many going campervans, motor places, etc. As a general regulation this class of users has a pick of when to halt. This class of travellers will frequently use rest halt chances in towns and commercial installations.

Pleasant reprieve awaits travellers along highway rest Michigans. These are good maintained and offer a assortment of characteristics. All, some or limited services may include ; full lavatory installations with hot and cold H2O, imbibing fountains, public wage telephones, handicapped accessible installations, peddling machines for soft drinks and bites, designated pet exercising countries, field day shelters and tabular arraies, country visible radiations at dark, existent clip conditions and route information, historic information and tourer information.

While clip and locations may change from twelvemonth to twelvemonth, travel guide Stationss are normally available from June through August at several remainder Michigans. Travelers are connected to take advantage of the remainder country comfortss offered for their benefit.

The function of the private sector in the Ghana ‘s development:

The of import function of the private sector in the development of the state ‘s touristry industry can non be over-emphasized. The touristry industry in Ghana did non have serious attending though the state ‘s alone history kept pulling visitants from all over the universe. Taking the cue from other states, authorities in 1986 decided to advance the sector with the purpose of doing touristry an of import foreign exchange earner and accelerator for national development. The enterprise received the support of the state ‘s development spouses and public response soared as each part and territory tried to surpass the other in the publicity of both their known and less known local attractive forces.

To give the sector the precedence it deserved, a substantial Ministry of touristry was created in 1993 to ease authorities policy on the industry. Fortunately from the beginning, authorities acknowledging the critical function played by the private investors in supplying the needed travel touristry services such as conveyance, nutrient, housing, amusement and other services ; did non waver in promoting them as the engine for the growing of touristry.

Already, some operators in the assorted trade associations including hotels, air hoses, auto tenants, eating houses, leisure and athleticss including World category golf classs for international tourneies, subject Parkss, and stores such as souvenir stores, supermarkets, shopping arcades, shopping promenades and responsibility free stores had come together and formed their single trade associations in chase of their ain ends.

It was to authorise these associations to efficaciously joint their concerns and to heighten productiveness that authorities in 1995 initiated the formation of Ghana Tourism Federation ( GHATOF ) , to function as an umbrella organisation or individual voice for the countless organisations and their affiliates.

Besides advancing the public assistance of member associations, GHATOF harmonizing to its fundamental law besides undertakes other activities to assist progress the cause of touristry by and large in Ghana, such as on the care of high service criterions of practicians in the industry. Since 2006, GHATOF in coaction with the Ministry of Tourism and Diaspora Relations ( MOTDR ) and the Nipponese International co-operation Agency ( JICA ) have been working to progress farther the execution of Tourism Development through the strengthening of the public-private partnership.

Why are n’t concerns permitted to publicize on main roads, why merely touristry operators?

Highway Signage

Restricting main road signage to tourist-related service and attractive forces is standard around the universe. All automobilists, particularly visitants need waies for indispensable services such as fuel, nutrient and housing. Supplying clear signage to regional attractive forces, historic sites and other tourism-related concern is good for all concerns in a specific part. Restricting signage minimizes highway jumble, which detracts one from the natural beauty of the environment. An environment promoted in our touristry literature appreciated by both occupants and visitants likewise. Too many marks serve merely to deflect automobilists and do all signage less effectual.

World Wide Web.

Rural concerns

Rural concerns are particularly dependent on main road signage.

Rural-based touristry operators, like all other operators, will still hold to supply way to their concerns located off the main roads. The difference would be that it would be in a consistent format that would work best for the going public, resident and tourers likewise. The bing policy was ne’er intended to be first and foremost about advertisement or publicity but instead to direct automobilists to a designated location. The state ‘s main roads are intended to be promotional or advertisement corridors for concerns.

Municipalities are responsible for signage by Torahs and policies within their ain boundaries. As portion of this procedure, we have invited municipalities to state us how we can outdo address the demands of all concerns within their legal powers. The provincial authorities is trusting that municipalities will see the benefits of the TODS theoretical account when reexamining their ain signage ( Wikipedia/ ) .


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