* During the Gilded Age. American concerns were transformed: * Massive corporations replaced little. household concerns * New engineering. transit. selling. labour dealingss. & A ; efficient mass-production * By 1900. the U. S. was the most industrialised state in the universe * 19th-century discoverers led to an “Age of Invention” : * Cyrus Field’s telegraph overseas telegram

* Business typewriters. hard currency registries. adding machines * High-speed fabric spindles. car looms. run uping machines * George Eastman’s Kodak camera
* Alexander G. Bell’s telephone
* By 1905. 10 million Americans had phones ; ( Bell Telephone Co became AT & A ; T ) * Thomas Edison. the “Wizard of Menlo Park. ” created the 1st research lab in New York * Edison Illuminating Co was the to 1st usage electric visible radiation in 1882 * Tesla’s jumping current ( AC ) allowed electricity to go over longer distances & A ; to power trams & A ; mills * New engineerings allowed for increased industrial production * New machines were incorporated into the first assembly lines which allowed for uninterrupted & A ; faster production of goods * The railway linked every part of America & A ; allowed for a mass ingestion of goods * The Midwest Made Meat for America

* A new-and-improved “market revolution” : More regional specialisation made mass production & A ; mass ingestion possible * Chicago > meat.
* St Louis > beer.
* Minneapolis > grain
* New Methods of Marketing
* Marketing became a “science” Ad houses boomed * Department shops like Macy’s & A ; Marshall Field’s allowed clients to shop & A ; purchase * Chain shops like A & A ; P Grocery & A ; Woolworth’s “Five & A ; Ten” * Mail-order catalogues. like Montgomery Ward sold to all parts of America * New Forms of Business Organization

* New types of concern organisation were used to increase net incomes: * “Trusts” & A ; “holding companies” integrated assorted concerns under 1 board of managers * “Trusts” use a board of legal guardians to pull off a company * “Holding companies” oversee & A ; pull off other subordinate companies * Vertical & A ; horizontal integrating maximized corporate net incomes * Frederick Taylor’s “scientific management” emphasized clip efficiency & A ; mid-level directors * Led to monopolizers like Carnegie. J. P. Morgan. & A ; Rockefeller * By 1900. 1 % of U. S. companies controlled 33 % of all industry * Business leaders used a assortment of thoughts to warrant their wealth: * The “Gospel of Wealth” argued that it is God’s will that some work forces attained great wealth * Social Darwinism taught that natural competition weeds out the weak & A ; the strong survive * “captains of industry” or “robber barons” ?

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The Industrialization of America
* The Second Industrial Revolution was fueled by 3 industries: railwaies. steel. & A ; oil * The Railroad Industry
* America’s foremost “big business” was the railway industry: * Railroads stimulated the coal. crude oil. & A ; iron/steel industries * Large companies bought little railwaies. standardized gages & A ; agendas. & A ; pooled autos * Small lines in the E acted as feeders to the 4 great bole lines into the West * Cornelius “the Commodore” Vanderbilt was the most powerful figure in the railway industry * But. the railway industry faced jobs due to overbuilding in the 1870s & A ; 1880s: * Mass competition among RRs

* RR lines offered particular rates & A ; discounts ( secret price reductions ) to entice riders & A ; freight on their lines * Pooling & A ; consolidation failed to assist over-speculation * Speculators like Jay Gould built & A ; bought rail lines to gain with small concern for efficient usage * RR foremans asked bank moneyman J. P. Morgan to salvage their industry: * Morgan created a traffic-sharing program to stop uneconomical competition * “Morganization” fixed costs. cut debt. stabilized rates. publish new stock. & A ; ended discounts * Created a “board of trustees”

* By 1900. 7 giant ( centralized & amp ; efficient ) rail systems dominated * The Steel Industry
* Steel transformed universe industry:
* Allowed for taller edifices. longer Bridgess. stronger railway lines. & A ; heavier machinery * Andrew Carnegie’s company made more steel than England * Andrew Carnegie was the great illustration of the “American Dream” & A ; societal mobility * Carnegie converted his steel workss to the Bessemer procedure & A ; was able to out-produce his competition & A ; offer lower monetary values * Henry Bessemer ( & A ; William Kelly ) turned Fe into steel in 1850s—process allowed for mass production of steel * Rockefeller and Oil

* Petroleum besides changed industry
* New industrial machines needed kerosine for illuming & A ; lubricators * John D. Rockefeller monopolized the oil industry. lowered oil costs & A ; improved the quality of oil * In 1863. John D. Rockefeller created Standard Oil Company in Cleveland ( at age 24! ) ; he besides used undercover agents. graft. menaces * By 1879. Standard Oil ruled 90 % of all U. S. oil & A ; sold to Asia. Africa. & A ; South America The Industrial Workers

* Industrial work was difficult
* Laborers worked long hours & A ; received low rewards but had expensive life costs * Low rewards ( $ 400-500/year but populating cost $ 600 ) ; railroad hurt rate 1 in 26. decease rate 1 in 399 ; Composition of work force in 1900: 20 % adult females ( in 296 of 303 occupations ) 10 % of misss & A ; 20 % of male childs had occupations ( “child labor” meant v14 year ) * all kids ill paid. but girls less than male childs ; Gaining comparings: Adults & gt ; Children ; Men & gt ; Women ; Skilled & gt ; Unskilled ; Protestants & gt ; Catholics or Jews ; Whites & gt ; Blacks & A ; Asians ; * Blacks worked humble occupations ; Chinese worked on Pacific Coast ; frequently discriminated against ( Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 ) * Industrial work was unskilled. unsafe. & A ; humdrum * Gender. spiritual. & A ; racial prejudices led to different wage graduated tables * These conditions led to a little. but important brotherhood motion * . Knights of Labor

* Membership regardless of accomplishment. race. or sex
* In 1868. Knights of Labor formed to assist all type of workers escape the “wage system”
* The KoL lacked organisation to last died at Haymarket Strike * American Federation of Labor ( 1886 )

* The most successful brotherhood. led by Samuel Gompers
* Made up merely of skilled labour & A ; sought practical aims ( better wage. hours. conditions )
* Excluded adult females. inkinesss. unskilled labourers
* Included 1/3 of all U. S. labourers
* The U. S. experienced an “era of strikes” from 1870-1890 * The Great RR Strike of 1877 shut down railwaies from WV to CA & A ; resulted in 100s of deceases * During the Chicago Haymarket Strike ( 1886 ) . union members demanded an 8-hr twenty-four hours ; led to throng force & A ; the decease of the Knights of Labor * The Homestead Strike ( 1892 ) resulted from a 20 % wage cut at one of Carnegie’s steel workss

Urbanization: 1870-1900
* From 1870 to 1900. American metropoliss grew 700 % due to new occupation chances in mills * European. Latin American. & A ; Asiatic immigrants flooded metropoliss * Blacks migrated into the North

* Rural husbandmans moved from the countryside to metropoliss * By 1920. for the 1st clip in U. S. history. more than 50 % of the American population lived in metropoliss * Skyscrapers and Suburbs

* By the eightiess. steel allowed metropoliss to construct skyscrapers * The Chicago fire of 1871 allowed for reconstructing with new designs: * John Root & A ; Louis Sullivan were the “fathers of modern urban architecture” * New York & A ; other metropoliss used Chicago as their theoretical account * Tenements & A ; Overcrowding

* ? of NYC’s edifices were tenements which housed the hapless on the job category * “Dumbbell” tenements were popular but were cramped & amp ; plagued by firetraps * Slums had hapless sanitation. contaminated H2O & A ; air. TB * Homicide. self-destruction. & A ; alcohol addiction rates all increased in U. S. metropoliss * Jacob Riis’ “How the Other Half Lives” ( 1890 ) exposed the poorness of the urban hapless * Strangers in a New Land

* From 1880-1920. 23 million immigrants came looking for occupations: * These “new” immigrants were from eastern & A ; southern Europe ; Catholics & A ; Jews. non Protestant * Kept their linguistic communication & A ; faith ; created cultural newspapers. schools. & A ; societal associations * Led to a revival in Nativism & A ; efforts to restrict in-migration * 4 of every 10 Americans today can follow their lineage through Ellis Island’s gates * The inflow of cultural nationalities led to a new “melting pot” ( “salad bowl” ? ) national image * Urban Political Machines

* Urban “political machines” were loose webs of party precinct captains led by a “boss” * Tammany Hall was the most celebrated machine ; Boss Tweed led the corrupt “Tweed Ring” * NY County Courthouse supposed to be metropolis $ 250. 000 but ended up bing $ 13million. * Political machines were non all corrupt ( “honest graft” ) ; helped the urban hapless & A ; built public plants like the Brooklyn Bridge * Social Changes in the Gilded Age

* Urbanization changed society:
* The U. S. saw an addition in self-sufficing female workers * “Family time” disappeared for working category
* Peoples of all races married later & A ; had fewer kids * Most provinces had mandatory instruction Torahs & A ; kindergartens * 150 new public & A ; private colleges were formed
* Land Grant Act ( 1862 ) led to the Universities of WI. CA. MN. IL * Private philanthropic gift led to Stanford. Tulane. Vanderbilt. Cornell. & A ; the Univ of Chicago * Women made up 40 % of university pupils

* Cities set aside land for Parks & A ; American workers found clip for music hall & A ; baseball * American Industrialization
* Benefits of rapid industrialisation:
* The U. S. became the world’s # 1 industrial power * Per capita wealth doubled
* Bettering criterion of life
* Human cost of industrialisation:
* Exploitation of workers ; turning spread between rich & A ; hapless * Rise of elephantine monopolies
The Politics of the Gilded Age
* Politicss of Stalemate
* The 5 presidential elections from 1876 to 1892 were the most closely contested elections of all time * No more than 1 % of the popular ballot separated the campaigners in 3 of 5 elections * Congress was split every bit good:

* Democrats controlled the House
* Republicans held the Senate
* This “stalemate” made it hard for any of the 5 presidents or either party to go through important statute law for 20 old ages * Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883
* Created a civil-service committee to fix competitory scrutinies for federal occupations * It prohibited politicians form inquiring govt. employees for run parts * Interstate Commerce Act of 1887

* Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
* McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
* Raised the duty rates to an all-time high & A ; Bankrupt husbandmans * Voting Blocs in the Gilded Age
Democratic| Republican|
* Supported by white Southerners. husbandmans. immigrants. & A ; the working hapless * Favored white domination & A ; supported labour unions| * Supported by Northern Whites. inkinesss. & A ; nativists * Supported large concern & A ; favored anti-immigration laws|

* Civil Service Reform
* The most of import political issue of 1880s was civil service reform: * The federal bureaucratism swelled in size after 1860 & A ; these places were appointed via backing ( spoils system ) * Dept of Agriculture & A ; Bureau of Indian Affairs were added * Treasury Dept grew from 4. 000 employees in 1873 to 25. 000 by 1900 * 56. 000 bureaucratic occupations were filled by backing in 1881 * Congressmen frequently took payoffs or company stock for their ballots * Political machines ruled metropoliss through payoff & A ; personal favours * Civil service reform received a encouragement when disaffected backing searcher. Charles Guiteau. assassinated President Garfield: * “If the spoils system could kill a president. it was clip to stop it” * In 1883. Congress created the Pendleton Act for merit-based tests for civil service occupations * State & A ; local gov’ts mirrored these reforms in 1880s & A ; 1890s * Gov’t Regulation of Industry

* From 1870 to 1900. 28 province committees were created to modulate industry. particularly RRs: * In 1870. Illinois declared RRs to be public main roads ; this was upheld by Munn v. Illinois ( 1876 ) * Munn instance “ private belongings impacting public interest” can be “controlled by populace for the common good” * But. was overturned in Wabash v. Illinois ( 1886 ) : “only Congress can modulate interstate trade” * Tariffs & A ; Trusts

* Congress responded by making:
* The Interstate Commerce Commission ( ICC ) in 1887 to modulate the railway industry * This was the 1st effort by the federal gov’t to modulate large concern * The ICC became the theoretical account for future regulative bureaus * The Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890 which made it illegal to keep trade ( punishable by disintegration of the company ) * The Supreme Court weakened the Sherman Antitrust Act by governing that this sugar monopoly do non keep trade because doing a good is non the same as selling it * U. S. v. E. C. Knight Co ( 1895 ) was the first trial of the Sherman Antitrust Act * The Pullman Strike ( 1894 )

* In 1894. Pullman Palace Car workers went on work stoppage when the company cut rewards by 50 % * American RR Union leader Eugene V. Debs called for a national railway work stoppage * Debs was arrested for go againsting injunction & A ; gained popularity ; turned to socialism in gaol & A ; went on to
found Socialist Party of America—mixed success in early 1900s *

* President Cleveland issued an injunction & A ; sent the ground forces to stop the work stoppage & A ; resume inveigh traffic * In rhenium Debs in 1895. the Supreme Court upheld the injunction since the work stoppage “restrained” U. S. trade *

* Strikers in 27 provinces resisted U. S. troops & A ; tonss died * Effectss of the Pullman Strike:
* Eugene Debs was arrested & amp ; became committed to socialism while in gaol. triping a brief U. S. socialist motion * In the 1895 instance. In re Debs. the Supreme Court used the Sherman Antitrust Act to continue Cleveland’s injunction since the work stoppage “restrained” U. S. trade * This was a cagey application of the Sherman Antitrust Act * In rhenium Debs made the Sherman Act a great anti-labor tool The Farmers’ Movements & A ; the Rise of the Democrats

* Political Organization
* The Gilded Age saw a rise in political organisation among ill-affected Americans: * Labor brotherhoods ( like the Knights of Labor & A ; the AFL ) encouraged industrial workers to vote * Women’s Christian Temperance Union ( WCTU ) advocated moderation. race dealingss. & A ; the right for adult females to vote * The great moderation agitator—Carrie State

* The Farm Problem
* The most discontent group during the Gilded Age were husbandmans: * Harsh agriculture conditions
* Declining grain & A ; cotton monetary values
* Rising RR rates & A ; mortgages
* Government deflation policies
* Farmers lashed out at Bankss. merchandisers. railwaies. & A ; the U. S. pecuniary system ( gilded criterion ) * Many husbandmans blamed railway proprietors. grain lift operators. land monopolizers. trade good hereafters traders. mortgage companies. merchandisers. bankers. and makers of farm equipment for their predicament. * Many attributed their jobs to discriminatory railway rates. monopoly monetary values charged for farm machinery and fertiliser. an oppressively high duty. an unjust revenue enhancement construction. an inflexible banking system. political corruptness. corporations that bought up immense paths of land. * They considered themselves to be subservient to the industrial Northeast. where three-fourthss of the nation’s industry was located. They criticized a deflationary pecuniary policy based on the gilded criterion that benefited bankers and other creditors. * All of these jobs were compounded by the fact that increasing productiveness in agribusiness led to monetary value diminutions. In the 1870s. 190 million new estates were put under cultivation. By 1880. colony was traveling into the semi-arid fields. At the same clip. transit betterments meant that American husbandmans faced rivals from Egypt to Australia in the battle for markets. * Greenback & A ; Silver Motions

* Many husbandmans supported the “free silver” motion: * The U. S. minted Ag & A ; gold coins at a ratio of 16:1. but stopped in 1873 due to an glut of gold * But western mineworkers found immense loads of Ag & A ; wanted “free silver”—the gov’t should purchase all Ag from mineworkers & A ; coin it * This would take to rising prices & A ; person would systematically purchase Ag from mineworkers * In 1878. Congress passed the Bland-Allison Act to coin between $ 2-4 million in Ag coins * Bland-Allison Act was non successful in deflating the US money supply—hence the frowny face * In 1890. Congress passed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act to increase silver mintage but non to 16:1 ( the act was repealed in 1893 ) * The Granger Movement

* The 1st effort to form husbandmans began with the Farmers: * Grangers grew angry at the exploitative patterns of Eastern bankers. railwaies. & A ; jobbers * Grangers formed co-op shops. Bankss. & A ; grain lifts * The Grange died in the depression of the 1870s. but established the case in point of husbandman organisation * The National Farmers’ Alliance

* In 1890. the National Farmers’ Alliance replaced the Grange as the taking farmers’ group * In 1890. made Ocala Demands:
* Allow husbandmans to hive away harvests in gov’t silos when monetary values are bad * Free-coinage of Ag. a federal income revenue enhancement. & A ; ordinance of RRs * Direct election of U. S. senators

* The Populist Party
* In 1890. husbandmans & A ; factory workers formed the Populist Party: * Their platform included the Ocala Demands. an 8-hour twenty-four hours. gov’t control of RRs & A ; Bankss. the dissolution of monopolies. & A ; tighter in-migration limitations * Democrats emerged as a powerful 3rd party & A ; got legion province & A ; national politicians elected * 3 governors. 10 congresswomans. 5 senators. & A ; dominated the province authoritiess of Idaho. NV. CO. KS. & A ; ND * The Election of 1896

* A Populist-Democrat amalgamation looked possible in 1896 when William Jennings Bryan received the Democratic nomination against Repub William McKinley: * Called for free Ag & A ; income revenue enhancement ; attacked trusts & A ; injunctions * Bryan visited 26 provinces on his whistle-stop run to educate Americans about silver * “Having behind us the bring forthing masses…we will reply their demand for the gilded criterion ‘You shall non press down upon the forehead of labour this Crown of irritants. you shall non crucify world upon a cross of gold. ’” * Bryan: The Farmers’ Friend

* Advised by RNC president. Mark Hanna. McKinley waged a “front porch” run from Ohio * Aided by the imperativeness. McKinley’s message reached as many electors: * Advocated economic. urban. & A ; industrial growing * Aroused fright that a “free silver” triumph would ensue in 57? dollar * The election of 1896 killed the Populist Party. but cardinal Populist thoughts ( income revenue enhancement. secret ballot. & A ; direct election of Senators ) would be enacted by other parties The McKinley Administration

* Republicans benefited from an bettering economic system. better harvest production. & A ; finds of gold: * The election of 1896 cemented Republican regulation for 30 old ages & A ; became the party of prosperity * From 1860-1890. Republicans had promoted industry ; by 1900. it was clip to modulate it * McKinley was an activist president and became the first “modern” president: * He communicated good with the imperativeness

* The Spanish-American War brought the USA regard as a universe power * The Gold Standard Act ( 1900 ) ended the Ag contention * A Decade of Changes: The 1890s
* The Depression of 1893 and the jobs faced by husbandmans & A ; industrial workers forced people to rethink industry. urbanisation. & A ; the quality of American life * Many embraced the demand for reform which opened the door to the Progressive Era


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