To originate the undertakings of the given assignment Lashkar-e-Taiba us see the instance of an organisation viz. ‘Scotts -trips around the universe ‘ which are involved in the Tourss and travels industry moving as travel agents.To briefly explain the organisation and on the job civilization at Scotts, it has been in the travel bureau concern since its origin on April 12,1984.Serving 1000s of clients with its traditional gracious and friendly staff runing from its two offices situated at Banjara hills, Hyderabad and Mahindra Hills, Secundrabad covering both the North and south countries of Hyderabad the capital of Andhra Pradesh ( India ) , with a bombinating population of over 4 million.25 old ages of service in the travel bureau concern it has enjoyed a formidable name for itself functioning a broad assortment of clients with changing cultural, societal and economical backgrounds. Its laminitis and C.E.O, Mr Scott Reddy has successfully ran the organisation for the last 25 old ages and now plans that his boy Robin Reddy would take over his place and run the household concern. Robin Reddy, a bright and ambitious concern direction pupil wants to implement modern electronic concern patterns into the concern so as to maintain up with the modern technological times doing it easier for the clients every bit good the employees of the organisation. The slogan of Robin Reddy is to supplying exceeding client service in the least sum of clip when the client is interacting with the organisation. In this manner he assumes there would be minimal fusss and, the efficiency of the employees would be on a high graph. The construction of Scotts would be 4 travel agents in each of its two offices,1 Human resources forces in its chief office at Mahindra hills, Secundrabad and so Robin Reddy ‘s cabin at the chief office every bit good. Robin tends to hold an unfastened door policy with his staff and would on occasion besides join in on the work floor if the haste escalates during extremum vacations and booking periods. In this manner he is ever updated about the service being provided and how the employees are working. He besides wants to ramify out into engagements of RAILWAYS and STATE AND NATIONAL ROADWAYS ( State conveyance corporation coachs ) tickets and RENTAL CAR, besides from customised vacation bundles, flight and hotel engagements which it has been already offering. The chief ground of come ining the new markets of railroads and roadways would be to function the new clients who plan on utilizing their services and besides mixing their existing services.

Aim and Aims: – The primary purpose of this essay is to analyse the issues related to the execution of e-business processs at Scotts.The challenge would fundamentally be the major chances and issues refering to the execution of the electronic concern procedure.The papers besides briefs the altering tendency in travel bureau operations being carried out now-a-days. Our purpose is to understand the e-business processs, expecting the hereafter developments and analysing hazard, benefits and the disadvantages of presenting such a system at Scotts Travels. Now with the proposal of presenting the new concern system to his male parent, Robin wants to show it taking into history all the factors which could come into being by the debut of such a system at their household tally concern. Robin knows that his male parent is a adult male who believes in practicality and the land worlds before taking a determination ; he wants to go forth no foliage unturned before showing the instance to him. He wants him to see the constructs and range of B2B ( concern to concern ) and B2C ( concern to client ) cyberspace engineerings and the advantages they would convey to the concern. By integrating tools of soft system and methodical attack we eventually concentrate on some slippery design facets. 1. DEFINITION OF SYSTEM OF INQUIRY:

A System of question is a 1 of the technique to give a examination sing the job of involvement. For any system by and large the undermentioned elements are involved.

INPUT – Get downing point of any enquiry method.

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OPERATOR – The manner the processing is traveling on to bring forth an end product.

OUTPUT – Concluding consequence from the selected method.

GUARONTOR – The individual who choose the particular method to acquire the end product.

For this intent we can place 5 systems of question. Those are

CONSENSUAL – Deductive

ANALYTICAL – Inductive




To look into the issue, I have chosen ‘Multi-Realities ‘ as the pick of tool. By using this method, I intend to make a research proposal to Scotts Tours about the wagess or disadvantages of implementing E-Commerce engineerings. By utilizing the multiple worlds theoretical account we will be able to foretell the outlooks of clients and employees of Scotts Tours and travels to carry through exceeding client service. Furthermore we besides focus peculiar on B2B and B2C engineerings, and economical and sociological issues on concern. Furthermore this could help the concern to provide to a wider cliental base and aid in doing important and noticeable growing in the concern.

In Multiple realities the job should be viewed up from a assortment of positions. In instance of Scotts Tours the likely magnitude that we want to look at the job are:




Using MULTI-REALITIS for Scotts Tours:

We start our research by briefly presenting the some facets of the new emerging engineerings that are altering the touristry industry, get downing from the cardinal issue of E-commerce.

E-commerce is a general term which is used in state of affairs like when, making purchases online through the cyberspace. In instance of Scotts Tourss, the different entities involved, which might impact this alteration if we overlooked them during the transmutation stage, are: Employees, Management, IT Consultant, IT seller and Customers. Each entity is either straight or indirectly associated with each other.

Advantages of E-commerce to Scotts Tourss: Scotts Tourss, if they adopted E-commerce Technology in its concern so, there is a great trade of entrapped potency to upgrade the capacity of concern to work expeditiously. While at the same clip they can go more competitory and productive in the service bringing industry. As the worldwide travel and touristry industry is turning at an all clip high.

Hazards: There is ever a hazard associated with execution of new engineering in a Business Process. As clients have to be on-line to make hard currency minutess, the hazard of hackers stealing recognition card information and personal informations is at hand, clients non being good educated about the use of cyberspace. It ‘s the Managements duty what policies they can supply to safeguard clients informations from Social Engineering and Ethical Hacking.

Task 2-

The Dynamic External environment ; –

The ambiance of travel bureaus has gone during a extremist alteration since the operation of the new engineerings as the cyberspace. This has been both advantageous and a ground which has leaded them to a figure of issues they have been faced with. The major benefits being the efficient direction of clip, for the possible clients by virtuousness of avoiding personally sing the constitution of the travel bureau. This would n’t hold been the manner of operation about 10-12 old ages ago. The growing of cyberspace has had a immense border on travel with more concerns driving gross revenues straight to the clients via the web.

One of the other chief factors which have undergone a drastic transmutation are alterations seeable in the growing and inflexion seen in the finishs offered. The client now has a assortment to take from the millions of finishs offered by the traveling bureau or stipulate his ain seamster made holiday finishs.

There are three driving forces in alterations in the touristry industry. These are political, economical and societal.


The political stableness is of import for effectual execution of foreign policy. Countries where the Torahs are non merely for book, but for implementing safety of both the local and aliens are preferable finishs for bulk of tourers.

Because of terrorist onslaughts, it has influenced the pick of states a client privation to see for their. Due to un-rest in any state visitant or tourers are non wanted to take hazard for sing those tourist topographic points or states. So the accomplished states have to take serious action on terrorist act and eliminate the terrorist act. At the same clip Government provide wellness and safety steps for smooth and peaceable enjoyment of circuit.

The Government besides takes enterprises for supplying substructure installations. It includes easy handiness to airdromes, railroad Stationss, coach Stationss, travel usher, security, etc. Reduce the Visa processing clip, hotel adjustment, revenue enhancement exclusions are besides really of import things to maintain in head while taking any journeys.


The economical state of affairs of the state is besides one of the cardinal factors in touristry industry. When a state is developed economically, so automatically it represents good substructure installations. The economically developed states will besides supply the basic demands, needed for tourers like adjustment, security, conveyance and besides they will give subsidies to tour operators to promote them. Now a yearss touristry is a planetary industry, the sociology of tourers besides really of import, it means the buying capacity, gaining capacity, disbursement nature and what extend they spend their money on diversion and refreshments. So, based on all these the authorities should organize touristry policy for pulling the aliens to their state, at the same clip to gain foreign currency.

B2B is still in its babyhood, nevertheless it is the fastest turning country on cyberspace and it has immense potency for income chances. A Gartner study estimates it at $ 7.2 trillion in 2003.

By pull offing the procurance procedure on-line Scotts Tours will be able to incorporate the procedures with all purchasers and providers to plan bundles and leave the pick to the clients online. This will greatly cut down the Operating cost for Scott ‘s Tours in footings of optimized use of its resources, real-time coaction with Hotels, Airlines and Cruise line service suppliers etc. This manner they can reassign these nest eggs to client holding low cost vacation bundles.

Harmonizing to the World Tourism Organization statistics of 2003, Europe attracts 57 % , USA at 17.6 % , East Asia and Pacific at 16 % . If we break this by state wise France with 10 % , Spain 7.1 % and USA at 6.6 % . ( Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: // )


Scott ‘s Tours by utilizing IT to acquire better development of new E-commerce Technologies such as cyberspace, by the industry and touristry province bureaus, is necessary to better selling and client Relationship direction. For this intent the touristry province bureaus to back up and promote the debut and development of effectual client friendly E-commerce applications more widely in the industry.

At the same clip Scott ‘s Tours besides see people have a repute for being friendly, capturing and witty assisting to give us a competitory advantage compared to other finishs. Culturists and excursionists is the section where the great growing possible lies. What extent the people are utilizing cyberspace and how freely the cyberspace is available for accessing instantly wherever and whenever they want.

The conditions conditions besides plays critical function for pulling the tourers to any states.

Ex-husband: By and large cheery states pull more people with comparison to cold states.

For illustration, in Europe Spain has really good temperature during peculiar seasons of the twelvemonth which is the ground why most Europeans visit Spain for vacations.

Health and Safety besides plays a really of import function – Travel insurance while going is portion of the standard bundle, which is compulsory while sing most of the states.

Due to recent eruptions of deathly diseases like Swine Flu travelers are going more wellness witting while taking finishs.

Culture: Every state has its ain civilization, as travelers move between these states ; they exchange their cognition, linguistic communication and wonts.

This will hold a great influence in the development of a state.

Food Habits: Food wonts besides play a major function in pulling Tourists to assorted states. For illustration, people come from assorted topographic points to exhibit different nutrients. Dublin hosts nutrient festivals from assorted states at assorted hotels or eating houses.


Business2Business or Business2Customer or merely E-commerce refers to the emerging online concern theoretical account, where concern / companies and consumers interact electronically or digitally in some manner. By utilizing this method Scott ‘s Tourss interact with consumers straight, without any jobbers or agents. This is one manner a fillip to the clients, by agencies of cheaper bundles for travel and housing. Further it retains them and its concluding end is transition of shoppers into purchasers as to the possible extent.

Harmonizing to PhoCusWright ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) one tierce of on-line travel purchasers purchased a holiday bundle last twelvemonth. This stands in contrast to the figure of on-line travel bases in contrast to the figure of on-line travel purchasers who purchased prepacked Tourss, which declined in 2004 to 13 % from 19 % in 2003. Clearly, consumers prefer to make their ain bundles instead than buy pre-packaged offers.

Tourism is undergoing rapid and extremist alterations. A broad scope of chances and menaces emerge for Scott ‘s Tours and Travels. Now Information Technology is being used for a assortment of maps in the touristry industry, runing from an internal organisation function to external communicating between different parts of the state. The uninterrupted development of information engineering has profound deductions for the whole touristry industry.

In this essay the function of information engineering in the touristry industry is first analyzed in the undermentioned subdivision. Then, the recent developments of information engineering in touristry are introduced. After that, recent progresss of touristry research in information engineering are observed. At least, same bing jobs about the application of touristry research in information engineering are mentioned. In the decision, the future possibility of development is probed.

The most of import function of information engineering is the development of imprisonment advantages by both cut downing cost and heightening distinction. Harmonizing to Sofield ( 1998 ) , information engineering affects the touristry industry in four chief countries, viz. the bringing of touristry services, the direction of touristry, the selling of touristry and relationship between manufacturers and consumers.

SinceA theA introductionA ofA theA firstA ComputerA ReservationA SystemsA ( CRSs ) A inA earlyA 1960s, A fourA mainA erasA haveA beenA identifiedA inA theA applicationA ofA informationA technologyA inA theA tourismA industry.A TheyA areA dataA processingA epoch, A managementA informationA systemsA ( MIS ) A epoch, A strategicA informationA systemsA ( SIS ) A eraA andA theA networkA epoch, A startingA respectivelyA fromA 1960s, A 1970s, A 1980sA andA 1990s.A ( Frangialli, A 1998 ) A DueA toA theA rapidA developmentA ofA informationA engineering, A manyA ofA theseA systemsA haveA beenA changedA fromA theirA originalA forms.A Therefore, A newA informationA technologyA toolsA emergeA toA takeA advantageA ofA theA benefitsA introducedA inA direction, A communicating, A marketingA andA promotionA procedures.

TheA emergenceA ofA DestinationA ManagementA SystemsA ( DMSs ) A inA theA lateA 1980sA enablesA destinationsA toA disseminateA comprehensiveA informationA aboutA resourcesA andA servicesA ofA destinationsA andA localA tourismA productsA aswellA asA facilitateA theA planning, A managementA andA marketingA orA regionsA asA tourismA entitiesA orA brands.A DMSsA areA aA majorA publicity, A distributionA andA operationalA toolA forA bothA destinationsA andA SMTEs.A However, A DMSsA haveA failedA toA developA productsA thatA wouldA beA utilizedA fromA theA independentA orA institutionalA tourismA demand.A Therefore, A BuhalisA ( 1997 ) A takesA theA DMSsA conceptA aA stepA forwardA andA introducesA theA construct, A contents, A distributionA andA organizationA ofA DestinationA IntegratedA ComputerA InformationA Reservation.

ManagementA SystemsA ( DICIRMSs ) , A aA strategicA toolA toA maximizeA theA economic, socioculturalA andA environmental, A benefitsA forA tourismA destinations.A InA fact, A travelA agenciesA serveA asA bothA informationA providersA andA planningA andA bookingA providersA forA aA largeA amountA ofA travelersA inA theA internationalA context.A AlthoughA moreA andA moreA travelersA areA searchingA travelA informationA online, A mostA ofA themA stillA purchaseA theirA ticketsA throughA theA travelA agents.A TravelA agenciesA areA oftenA theA primaryA sourceA ofA tourismA informationA soughtA byA theA tourists.A Therefore, A it’sA rightA toA sayA thatA travelA agentsA canA surviveA inA theA InformationA AgeA ifA theyA canA useA theA entireA rangeA ofA ITA tools, A adjustA theirA servicesA accordingA toA theA tourists’A needsA andA provideA greatA valueA whenA servicingA theA clients.

On-lineA Selling

InformationA technologyA isA idealA forA marketing.A AtA nowadays, A differentA countriesA are usingA differentA methodsA toA offerA theirA tourismA informationA electronically, A e.g.A floppy, A CDROM.A However, A networkA isA theA mostA promisingA one.A ” AA competitiveA marketingA strategyA hasA toA haveA theA capacityA toA identifyA leadingA engineerings, A spotA valueaddedA applicationsA andA beA flexibleA toA implementA andA respondA toA technologicalA alterations. “ A ( Bruce, A 1994 ) A ThereA isA aA growingA interestA inA theA applicationA ofA theA InternetA asA aA mediumA forA marketA research, A whichA isA calledA electronicA market.A TheA researchA isA chiefly inA twoA countries: A destinationA marketingA andA databaseA selling.

DestinationA selling

DestinationsA areA theA majorA beneficiariesA ofA theA informationA technologyA developmentsA becauseA theyA canA takeA advantageA ofA theA newA strategicA toolsA forA direction, A planningA andA marketing.A TheA InternetA natureA isA synergistic, A spacelessA andA timeless, A soA theA productsA andA servicesA areA marketedA differentlyA fromA theA conventionalA way.A SinceA theA decisionA toA visitA theA destinationA isA basedA solelyA onA informationA madeA availableA toA theA tourer, A withA theA increasingA numberA ofA theA InternetA users, A it’sA veryA importantA forA aA destinationA toA recognizeA thisA situationA andA makeA fullA useA ofA theA InternetA toA promoteA itself.A TimelyA andA accurateA informationA relevantA toA consumers’A needsA isA theA keyA toA successfulA satisfactionA ofA tourismA demand.A Therefore, A theA destinationsA thatA canA winA willA beA thoseA thatA canA satisfyA theA needA forA informationA andA thatA canA convinceA theA touristsA onlineA thatA theirA destinationA andA theA productsA experiencedA thereA areA worthA theA timeA andA expenseA ofA sing.

DatabaseA Selling:

AlthoughA thereA hasA beenA aA generalA understandingA inA theA tourismA marketingA literature thatA itA isA moreA cost-effectiveA toA re-attractA previousA clients, A thisA notionA wasA seeminglyA completelyA ignoredA byA theA practitionersA forA aA longA time.A Now, A beingA moreA awareA ofA this, A theA tourismA sectorsA areA empoweredA toA developA personalA relationshipsA withA theirA clients, A toA understandA theirA needsA andA toA makeA sureA thatA theyA addressA themA throughA personalA communications.A TheyA areA tryingA toA learnA moreA aboutA customersA andA potentialA customersA byA manipulatingA theirA computerA databaseA soA thatA theyA canA marketA toA themA moreA effectively.A WithA theA establishmentA ofA databasesA ofA customers’A profilesA inA air hoses, A hotelsA andA travelA bureaus, A moreA andA moreA researchersA areA doingA researchesA inA thisA country.

To advance the e-commerce type of concern within his company, Robin Reddy ( the boy of Scott Reddy, who is about to take over the concern from his male parent ) should take into consideration the undermentioned factors before he can implement his thoughts of conveying the e-commerce revolution within Scotts Travels to achieve minimal break within the company and to successfully be after for the hereafter. |These factors can be listed as under-

1 ) Handiness of Ideal Technology

2 ) Scheme for Economic restraints of Management

3 ) Scope of E-commerce services they intend to utilize or implement

4 ) Scheme to cover issue with Employees and Management

In order to cover efficaciously with the above issues the Aron King can utilize the Effect, chance and action grid theoretical account.

This theoretical account is some what similar to the- ‘What if Analysis ‘ which is used in assorted IT undertaking executions. Here, Aron King can happen out what will be the effects of new engineering on its staff, direction and clients and clients and how efficaciously he can cover with it. Effected Entities by E-commerce theoretical account are:





1 ) Consequence on Customer: With the new B2B or B2C enterprise, Scott ‘s Tourss will be able to make clients in about every state. At the same clip clients who donot have sufficient cognition of cyberspace or computing machines, it will be a difficult sell. On the other had Customers from any portion will be able to look into the offers or bundles and book them whenever they wish. They can inquire for citations send electronic mail to ask for a merchandise or service. Customers ever like to acquire clear and concise information to do judgement by comparing monetary values from other similar service suppliers. Customer is the cardinal driver of this engineering.

Probability: There is a high chance that Scott ‘s Tours will be able to make to every corner of the universe. Will hold entree to Global clients, like hotels, Car Rentals, Airlines and adjustment suppliers etc.

Actions: The of import actions to take, to do this happen is to publicize either through direct / indirect selling or push selling. They can post advertisement online at assorted web sites related to touristry. Construct a web site that is self explanatory to client with a FAQ subdivision where they can acquire replies to common inquiries.

2 ) Consequence on Technology Management: Scott ‘s Tour ‘s direction and staff with the aid of E-Commerce can cognize hold the benefits of advanced engineering coming in touristry industry. If it is suited to its concern, depending on its cost and handiness, they may follow for their concern. Management has to concentrate on, what technologies they have to travel for, do cost Benefit Analysis of the investing for over the period. What resources will hold to be excess and what new resources to acquire and from where. The security of online shopping lies at directions custodies. It ‘s the direction ‘s duty to implement rigorous informations security policies for online and internal Database.

Probability: There is high chance of failure of this undertaking if this issue is overlooked. As every organisation planning alteration, need to hold this basic issue dealt, during be aftering stage. They have to see the cost of informations backup, security, developing staff and purchase of engineering both hardware and package ( sphere name, hosting, website design etc ) and staff redundancy in front of any alterations.

Actions: Draft a scheme for the regular backups, ascents and developing with IT Vendor or adviser. With a centralized Data warehouse, they can bring forth hebdomadal or monthly studies within seconds to analyse the tendencies to be after future scheme of marketing their merchandises.

3 ) Consequence on Employees: Staff needs to be trained on how to utilize the new engineering in order to efficaciously use it. With computing machines in topographic point all manual work can be automated to most extent. As a effect to that, all the employees might non be willing to accept the alteration because they were used to the traditional method of work. Management has to plan schemes to do certain their staff is up to day of the month with the user of latest tools and techniques to work expeditiously with E-commerce applications.

Probability: The chance will be low for this undertaking might neglect as alteration is portion of the concern procedure. But the impact might be fringy if it fails. As, it can be observed from the Global IT industry which is confronting a deficit of skilled work force.

Action: This can be avoided by good communicating between the staff and direction. Both of their subdivisions can pass on rapidly and update the information in real-time by agencies of EDI Electronic Data Interchange.

4 ) Consequence on Clients: Scott ‘s Tourss by utilizing B2B and B2C Technology can cover ( or ) build the Customers straight. B2B means an cyberspace scheme of covering with concern, instead than clients, i.e. concern 2 concern. By utilizing this method Scott ‘s Tourss intends to better its internal and external communicating through effectual E-Marketing. They can take bulk orders online and updated their database through on-line coaction tools like ERP / CRM.

Probabililty: The chance that they lose their clients is really low as the cost borders are reduced by selling direct to clients. There will be a important impact on pulling clients and clients and traveling into new ventures.

Action: Scott ‘s Tours can do bulk trades easy due to its planetary range. More clients will be nearing them to offer bundles at cheaper rates compared to what they were able to accomplish locally.

The undermentioned graph depicts the Effect / Probability and Action grid based on the 4s issues we looked at above: It shows the ratio of chance of success of each event and the impact it might hold on Business public presentation of Scott ‘s Tours






Impact of failure

Probability of success

Issue 2


Issue 4



Fig 3.1 – Consequence Probability Grid

Task 4-

Soft System Methodology ( SSM ) was the thought foremost put frontward by Peter Checkland at University of Lancaster, UK in 1970s. In this subdivision we analyze the issues of Scott ‘s Tours by using the techniques available in soft system methodological analysis to assist plan a scheme to be successful in B2B or B2C execution.

The thought of SSM is to look into a messy job in order to place a set of utile solutions that can be created to work out a debatable state of affairs. SSM is a sequence of rhythms, at each rhythm we learn something about the job by using a acquisition scheme based on system thought and rules of question.

With the usage of SSM Methodology Scott ‘s Tours will be able to place the root definition of the job at each rhythm and construct an abstract theoretical account to stand for the existent universe state of affairs. Then compare the abstract theoretical account with the existent universe state of affairs ( in this instance – Organizational alteration ) and bill of exchange possible actions to be taken and implemented subsequently.

SSM methodological analysis stresses the importance of sing cultural, political and societal factors connected to an action ; and it suggests implementing merely actions that are in conformity with the cultural environment of the organisation. It is carried out with two parallel analyses:

Logical Stream – trades with the definition and comparing of theoretical accounts

Cultural Stream – trades with intercession of societal and political facets

These two watercourses are ever interacting with each other. We will use Cultural Stream analysis and se how it helps Scott ‘s Tours.

Analysis Intervention identifies clients and the job convergent thinkers in the state of affairs which is under survey.

The switching from traditional method of work to and B2B or B2C theoretical account will impact every portion of the company. This means that the client, staff and the job convergent thinker are non fixed functions, but they may change. Employees are straight impacted every bit good as the IT contractor.

Problem convergent thinkers are IT companies and direction of Scott ‘s Tours. IT companies will be responsible for the proper execution, preparation, support and aid of Technology inorder to be successful. Management owes the duty of specifying the rules, guidelines and outlining demand and budgeting of the undertaking to be implemented. Scott ‘s Tours can near an IT adviser ( job convergent thinker ) to supply them with the design for the bash ‘s and do n’t and for aid in planning and budgeting the transmutation to a to the full E-commerce enabled company.

Political Analysis: It takes into consideration the distribution of power in the environment where actions need to be taken.

For Exp: An action which seems utile but can hold strong impact on distribution of power should be avoided. An action against the proprietor of organisation, where a class of staff looses their importance, due to non being able to maintain up to the alteration or loose involvement in work.

In this subdivision we will analyse the how Scott ‘s Tours can ‘Provide client specific vacation bundles online ‘ . This will depict the whole activity that is involved in this undertaking execution.

In the societal analysis we identify the different functions involved in a typical Organization like Scott ‘s Tours. For each function we identify its expected behaviour and its value, i.e. when the expected behaviour is judged as positive or negative.

Internet is a topographic point where people from all walks of life from different parts of universe are able to pass on and portion their ideas with each other. Keeping this in head, Scott ‘s Tours has to plan its website content aiming groups where they have bulk of their clients.

As the client will no longer will be pass oning their demands, Scott ‘s Tours have to make a market research to outline clear and concise information online. Supplying links to assorted inquiries a client might hold while making an on-line purchase. They can analyze the bing sites like Walmart, ebay, or other circuit operator ‘s web content.

Management of IT hardware and package will be the primary duty of the direction. There will be a new section viz. IT Support and Services which will be the key for 24/7 handiness of their service.

Fig 4.1- Soft Systems Methodology Stages


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