Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is a well-thought out set of procedures for making
and examining the inputs and outputs materials and the connected effects on the
surrounding condition directly caused by the functioning of a productor service system throughout its life cycle

I. Life Cycle Analysis of Paper Bags

on J.K Lakshmipat (2012) trees provide the most important raw materials for the
paper. Wood is made from cellulose in the form of fiber. Cellulose fiber can
found in many vegetable tissues that can be pulled mechanical or chemical
means. These sources are so much many in plant species from which it can be
received from, and the number of species gives fiber which could be used for
paper runs into thousands.

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are cut down and the trunk is put into a chipping machine where it is cut into
very small pieces. Then the wood chips that contain cellulose are boiled in
water to form a thick wood pulp chemicals. Fresh river water is used in paper
making process. The pulp is washed make better, cleaned and something remove
the color then turned to slush in the beater. Colored dyes, coatings and other
are mixed in, and pulp slush is pumped onto moving wire screen. As the pulp
goes down the screen, water is drained away and recycled. The resulting very
simple, rough and rude paper sheet, or web, is press between large rollers to
remove most of the remaining water and secure of smoothness and uniform
thickness. The pulp is spilled over a fine mesh and the water escapes leaving
the cellulose fiber behind. The finished paper is wound into large rolls, which
can be 30 feet wide and weigh close to 25 tons. A slitter cuts the paper into
smaller, and the paper is ready for use. That will form papers. V. Ryan (2004)

on Times Op-Ed (2013) the average person who uses a product or service uses 500
bags a year, about 80 percent plastic and 20 percent paper. Plastic bags cost
stores like grocery stores 2 cents to 5 cents each, and paper one cost 5 cent
to 23 cents. In study that managed and done by, Edelman Berland they found out
that gauge person who uses a product perceptions of different types of bags, to
specify how often reusable bags are used to, and to try and established the
that future plastic and paper bags will continue to play in checkout lnes. The
person who responded was surveyed composed of people who have either received
or bought reusable non-woven polypropylene (NWPP) bags roughly 28 percent of a
nationwide sample. J. Eick (2014)

Kathryn Sukalich (2016) stated that in 2011, over 66.8 percent of paper used
destroyed in the United State  was
recycled. Each ton of papers that recycled saves more than 3.3 cubic yards
where garbage and trash is dumped space, and if they measure through weight,
more paper is recovered for recycling than plastic, aluminum and glass
combined. Paper is a material that used to recycling, since 87 percent in
community of people have to reduce recycling paper. So basically after the
person used papers they will collecting it and recycled again. This analysis is
about papers because paper bags are made on papers that usually used as
shopping bags, packaging and big sacks.

II. Life Cycle Analysis of Plastic Bags

bags are made from a ubiquitous polymer substance polyethylene. This kind of
substance begins as ethylene, and it is commonly pulled out from natural gases,
and then treated to become the polymer, that forming long chains of carbon and
hydrogen atoms. This chain will be depending on what type of polyethylene is
being used, but they all help create different types of plastic bags. T. Lacoma
(2017) A polythene is produced is produced from oil extracted from the ground
and natural gas, two non-renewable use valuable supply is found
underground,  through a process known as
tubular film process.

 Basically there are many types of polyethylene
in creating plastic bags the HDPE, PETE, LDPE, LLDPE, PVC, PP, and PS. The HDPE
stands for high density polyethylene, it is the most and common type of
polyethylene used to create shopping bags. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET or
PETE) is tough, clear and has good gas and moisture barrier compositions that
making it ideal for carbonated beverage applications and other food Tupperware
or containers. The LDPE is made from low density, branching chains of
polymer materials.  This chain makes a very light, almost film like
plastic that is used to make the tear-away bags dry cleaners that are used for
wrapping cleaned clothes. The LLDPE is connected to linear low density
polyethylene; these plastics do not branch, but also didn’t have the same
strength as HDPE versions.  It means that the shopping bags created from
LLDPE plastics need to be thicker and heavier weight that traditional grocery
bags.  PVC is known as Polyvinyl Chloride which is excellent transparency,
chemical resistance, long term stability, good weather ability and stable
electrical properties. The flexible vinyl is used in wire and cable sheathing,
insulation, film and sheet, flexible floor coverings, and others. The Polypropylene
(PP) has excellent chemical resistance and it is commonly used in packaging.
Polypropylene is found in everything that are flexible and rigid packaging to
fibers for fabrics and carpets and consumer products. Then Polystyrene (PS) is
a versatile plastic that can be rigid. The general purpose of polystyrene is
clear, hard and brittle. Its clarity allows it to be used
when transparency is important, as in medical and food packaging, and in
certain electronic uses.

to Rutan Poly Business INC. (2014) to create plastic bags the process is just
like the process for creating book. There are two steps to make plastic bags
the process known as” extrusion” first step in making a plastic bag. An
extruder is used to heat the polyethylene plastic to a temperature of up to 500
degrees F that can melt the pellets, and then the (hot) liquid plastic flow
into machine and a die that decides the thickness that the bag will produced.
After that the plastic film is pushed into a bubble by the outside air and
through a cooling process. Then the film will cut into the appropriate size and
then placed onto spindle. On the second step, once plastic bag is placed onto
spindle, it will go into conversion department. This group of people will
unwraps the film roll and cuts it with a heated knife that also seals each of
the sides of the bags together and conversion department also adds more
characters on it. Lastly handles are cut out using a heat process, and logos,
design and text is added to the bag. On plastic bags the chemicals is in use
are the commonly taken from natural gases and natural oil that involves the
types of polyethylene. Based on Plastic Industry over 150,000 plastic bags
capable on two pallets. The same number of paper bags would fill a 40ft truck.
Plastic is also very strong. Supermarket bags can hold at least 22lb of
shopping. Some hold twice that. Every year each person consumes 216 plastics
and guessed amounts of 500 billion are being used around the globe each year.
It is commonly use for shopping and being thrown for an average of 20 minutes.
Daily Mail Reporter (2008) showed that the 5 trillion carrier bags produced for
each year start life as oil extracted from the ground. Demand is so highly that
0.2% of the oil is used to make them about 60 million barrels. Based on the
evaluation over 86,000-117,000 tons 18kg per person of after a product or
service plastic packaging waste was created in Finland in 2014. In majority,
84% of the waste was in the mixed MSW flow in 2014. In year 2016, almost 40% of
the plastic packaging could become available for recycling. Because launching
new sorting facilities and separate collections for after plastic packaging.
Because of this 50% recycling rate for after plastic packaging (other than PET
bottles) would be needed to increase the overall MSW recycling rate from the
current 41% by around two percentage points. H. Dahlbo, et al. (2017)

III. Conclusion

you can see from the information above, creating plastic bags is a fairly
simple and easy process that industry can do quickly and without a lot of
trouble. A lot of bags can be produced in only a few minute, and since the
process is so easy, the cost of the plastic bags keeps down to an affordable
price. Plastic bags are very easy to be made and they have so many different
purposes that make them handy in our everyday lives. 

as you can see paper bags came from trees, a lot of trees in logging
industries. The trees are found, marked and felled in a process that all too
often involves clear-cutting, resulting in
huge destruction and long-term ecological damage. Needs a mega machinery that
requires fossils to operate. Then in the process of making papers it needs a
lot of materials to create a product. But in terms of raw material, paper bags
are much better to use since it is renewable, recyclable and biodegradable
unlike plastic bags, scientist estimate it takes 400 to 1,000 years to vanish.
Then In terms of effect on the surrounding conditions, paper
bags are much safer since it is made of wood from trees while plastic bags main
part is HDPE or High Density Polyethylene and the very harmful chemicals that
involves on it for ending up in rivers, streams and other that lead to oceans.
Plastic bags are cheaper that paper bags, but may be worst for the ecological

IV. References

J.K. Lakshmipat (2012) Pulp Production


V. Ryan (2004) How Paper and
Card are Manufactured


Times Op-Ed (2013) Plastic and
paper bags hide costs as well as groceries. Retrieved from

J. Eick (2014) Consumer
Behavior and Retail Bag Usage

Kathryn, Sukalich (2016) Everything
You Need to Know About Paper Recycling
business- policy/ business/paper-recycling-details-basics/

Lacoma, Tyler (2017) Materials Used
for Making Plastic Bags

Rutan Poly (2014) How are Plastic
Bags Made?

H. Dahlbo, et al. (2017) Recycling
potential of post-consumer plastic packaging waste in Finland https://
science/ article/pii/S0956053X17307791



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