He said knowledge is “penetrated” by words and “illuminated” by words. He believed the knowledge is in linguistic form and distinction between words give rise to distinction between objects. Macadamias distinguished sound and sound complexes (includes words and sentences) from their manifestations. The grammarians ,instead, distinguished between word and sound. They made the word as the bearer of the meaning and referred to it as Sparta.

Hence a theory of Sparta’ as formulated by the grammarians “A word is grasped as a unity by an instantaneous flash of insight (prohibit)” Madman stressed that the phenomenal world is real, though either falsely superimposed on words or a genuine transformation of the word essence. He also preached that distinctions are unreal appearances of word essence. Theory of Sparta is a linguistic theory which was required to understand the problems of the theory of meaning. It was employed by the grammarians to support their theory of word monism.


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