These yearss a immense scope of mega-events is offered to diverse mark groups. Harmonizing to Getz ( 1991 ) as cited in Robertson ( 2006 ) athletics events are more celebrated for male participants whereas humanistic disciplines and cultural events derive more importance for female participants. The scope of mega-events offered are large featuring events like the Olympic Games, the FIFA football World Cup, Formula One, every bit good as many more subjects. Furthermore there are besides World ‘s Carnivals like the Expo or large music festivals as for illustration the Glastonbury Festival in the sou’-west of England, merely to call some of the legion offers. All of them are in different states, parts or metropoliss spread out all over the universe. Some of them ever stay in one location whereas others change the locale each clip. Besides there is besides a fluctuation in the frequence the events take topographic point. There are some events that are hold several times during a twelvemonth and there are besides events that are one time a twelvemonth whereas many merely even occur every 2nd or 4th twelvemonth.
The purpose of this essay is to critically measure the influence mega-events have on touristry. Furthermore it contains general information about mega-events, like definitions. As there is a immense scope of different events along with many issues, the focal point is chiefly on athleticss mega-events. ; on their diverse stakeholders every bit good as particularly on the undertaking of hosting them. The result is a decision and recommendations for future mega- events.
Mega-events in general are non easy to specify due to the antecedently named different signifiers that are bing. In 1988 Jafari did non cognize how to clearly specify them. For him it was non clear what an event needed to carry through to be considered a mega-event. Therefore he had the undermentioned inquiries that needed to be answered beforehand: Is it more of import to see “ the figure of visitants attracted ” ? Or should it be the continuance or the orientation it has that makes it a mega-event? ( Jafar Jafari, 1988: 272 ) .
However, Robertson ( 2006: 1 ) presented the definition Roche ( 1994 ) made: “ Mega-events are best understood as large-scale cultural ( including commercial and featuring ) events which have a dramatic character, mass popular entreaty and international significance. ” Roche avoids paying attending to the continuance but in contrast considers the international importance as a key-value. Sing the ‘global significance ‘ he mentions within his definition, this leads absolutely to athleticss mega-events which are performed by international jocks and at the same time are watched all over the universe. But before even reasoning about athleticss mega-events it is of import to specify what they are considered to be.
Harmonizing to Horne ( 2006 ) “ sport mega-events are of import elements in the orientation of states to international or planetary society. ” As can be seen here, Horne talks about the importance of the ‘global idea ‘ as good. This makes obvious that mega-events ever have an influence on the whole universe and therefore every bit good impacts on it. There is the possibility that they take topographic point about all over the universe and besides that the visitants are coming from all over the universe, excessively, to watch such a spectacle, which covers the touristry facet in this instance. But it is of import to be cognizant that every individual event has a different figure of visitants coming due to several grounds. The writer of this essay has the sentiment that above all it is necessary to look at the topographic point the event takes topographic point. This is really important because of likely bing political issues for illustration, tourers would instead see a state where they feel safe than a state where they perchance would be afraid of. So the figure of visitants attracted is non merely dependant on the subject of the event itself but besides on the state where it takes topographic point.
One cardinal inquiry is: why did mega-events addition such an importance for the whole planetary community within the last old ages? To clear up this inquiry Horne ( 2006 ) suggests as stated in Robertson ( 2006:2 ) that there are “ three grounds for the enlargement and turning attractive force of mega-events. ” First he mentions the media as an of import factor for it. The possibility to utilize mass communicating is responsible for “ unprecedented planetary audiences ” for these eyeglassess. As can be seen, the media makes it possible for the whole universe to take part in a certain manner in mega-events by e.g. watching them or reading about them in newspapers. Second he names a theoretical account called “ tri-partite theoretical account ” . Within this theoretical account are “ sponsorship rights, sole broadcast medium rights and selling ” which “ have been pulling patrons by the association with the athleticss and the huge planetary audience exposure the events achieve. ” ( Robertson, 2006:2 ) . And thirdly there is besides the importance of using as host state, metropolis or part because harmonizing to the above mentioned author mega-events “ have become seen as valuable promotional chances for metropoliss and parts. ” Sing above all the 3rd ground makes it obvious why there are ever so many metropoliss, parts and states using to host such a large spectacle. However, these bidders should take into consideration that hosting a mega-event can besides do negative impacts. For illustration for the Olympic Games 2008 in Beijing a immense figure of people has been displaced in the readying of the Games for constructing the needed substructure. This is a truly bad issue because the same job will inevitable occur for the Olympic Games taking topographic point in London 2012 and likely besides for the approaching Games in the hereafter.
However, when believing about this it is non truly sensible that for illustration the local population has to endure when a mega-event is taking topographic point in the country where they are populating. Otherwise hosting a mega-event has many advantages for the host metropolis, part or state: legion occupations are created and most notably there is the possibility of enlarging touristry. But harmonizing to Roche ( 2000: 141 ) : “ [ aˆ¦ ] any new command is likely to concentrate on long-run image-building and non short-run touristic economic returns. ” That means that those responsible of a possible host metropolis or state know, that they likely will non profit from the event short-run but there will be more touristry long-run due to an improved image for illustration. This goes along with Kang and Perdue ( 1994 ) as cited in Roche ( 2000: 141 ) : “ mega-events have a long-run impact on international touristry to the host state ; the impact is the greatest in the twelvemonth following the event and diminishes over clip. ” Besides that there are other writers who besides see the possible economic impact. As stated by Toohey and Veal ( 2007 ) the possible positive economic consequence is the ground for metropoliss and states to offer to host a mega-event. In add-on to the possibility to enlarge touristry in long-run there are several other stimulations to host a mega-event harmonizing to Richard Cashman ( 1999 ) as cited in Toohey and Veal ( 2007: 74 ) : He mentions “ different signifiers of bequests like economic benefits, built environment ( transport substructure ) , public life, political relations, civilization and built clean substructure. ” All these bequests benefit the host metropolis or state long-run.
Additionally to the long-run impacts there is ever the danger of incorrect appraisals harmonizing to Horne ( 2006 ) as stated in Robertson ( 2006: 5 ) : “ [ aˆ¦ ] prognosiss are about ever incorrect. [ aˆ¦ ] A major concern in considerations of athleticss mega-events has been the spread between the prognosis and existent impacts on economic system, society and civilization. ”
Harmonizing to Horne and Manzenreiter ( 2006 ) another of import fact is that on the one manus some countries will profit through tourers sing a mega-event but on the other manus the organisers have to be cognizant that tourers who possibly would hold come to see the metropolis or part will non come because they are non interested in the event. There will ever be a batch of people who come because of the event taking topographic point but there will besides be adequate people who avoid to see the host metropolis or part because they are possibly non interested in the event that is offered or they do non desire to be in that peculiar topographic point when there are so many other people at the same clip.
Harmonizing to Kim and Chalip ( 2004: 695 ) “ sellers of mega-events have the demand to excite international trial to their event in order to optimise the events fiscal and touristry results. ” As seen it is the undertaking of the sellers to do a mega-event attractive to appeal to as many tourers as possible.
Sing the facet of pulling tourers Kim and Chalip ( 2004 ) see events as pull-factors for finishs. In the sentiment of the writer of this essay it is hence of import for finishs to host mega-events to pull tourers. This goes along with Alexandris et Al. ( 2009 ) , who mention that “ mega-events play an of import function in schemes that expressly target an international touristry market. ” In add-on to this, Weed ( 2008: 296 ) provinces that “ The chief economic benefit for a part derives from the ingestion by visitants during the event and increased touristry in the station event period. ” As can be seen he besides mentions the addition of touristry after the event took topographic point and to boot brings up the theory of ingestion during the event. But it is non easy to gauge the economic benefit that will be made through hosting a mega-event because along with Preuss ( 2008 ) as cited in Weed ( 2008: 296 ) “ one of the chief hurdlings in finding the economic impact of major multi-sport events on a metropolis or part is the deficiency of cognition on ingestion forms of visitants and the figure of individuals that are sing the event. ”
As a mega-event is such a large spectacle has to be planned for a really long clip. Harmonizing to Robertson ( 2006: 10 ) “ [ aˆ¦ ] things come together after months and sometimes old ages of planning. ” Therefore different stakeholders are indispensable as there are so many undertakings that have to be fulfilled and as there is the demand of a immense sum of money to do mega-events go on. This leads to a really of import inquiry: who is paying for organizing any sort of mega-event? A perfect illustration that shows the complexness about funding a mega-event are the approaching Olympic Games in London 2012. As the official Internet website presentation of the Olympic Games in London provinces, there are “ two cardinal administrations – one private, one populace. ” ( London 2012, 2010 ) . Harmonizing to this website the private sector is the ‘London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games ‘ ( LOCOG ) . The budget they have will be delivered through the private sector by for illustration the sale of tickets and trading articles, every bit good as it will have income from the ‘International Olympic Committee ‘ ( IOC ) and extra money through a “ domestic sponsorship programme ” . ( London 2012, 2010 ) . The public sector, which is responsible for the new locales and the substructure, is represented by the ‘Olympic Delivery Authority ‘ ( ODA ) . “ TheA ODA is funded by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, the Greater London Authority, the London Development Agency and the Olympic Lottery Distributor. ” ( London 2012, 2010 ) . As can be seen there are many different organisations that have to pay a immense sum of money to fund this specific large spectacle. And of class it would non be possible to do such an event happen if there would non be so many support it.
However, as mentioned by Toohey and Veal ( 2007 ) the host metropolis or state knows beforehand that hosting a mega-event will be them more money than they in fact will derive. So why are at that place each clip so many bidders who want to host a mega-event? This inquiry can easy be answered with the already above mentioned statements that the long-run impacts of these events are more of import for a metropolis or the whole state than the fact that they have to pay more money than they really will have through hosting them. This was already found out by Pyo et Al. ( 1988 ) by looking on several Olympic Games between 1964 and 1984, that “ there were non adequate visitants and there was non adequate disbursement by them to warrant the event costs. ” ( Pyo et al. , 1988: 141 ) .
Along with Toohey and Veal ( 2007: 127 ) the most of import beginning of income for the organisers are the airing rights: “ [ aˆ¦ ] the Olympic Movement is significantly dependent on income from airing rights. ” Furthermore they list some other “ chief beginnings of income for Game events: universe and local sponsorship, ticket gross revenues, lottery, sale of trading articles every bit good as Government contributions. ” ( Toohey and Veal, 2007: 135 ) . These statements show that there are many beginnings where money can be gained earlier and during a mega-event but it has ever and likely will ever be less than the money spend beforehand and during the event by the organisers.
Research for this essay shows that it is non easy to specify mega-events in one term due to the immense scope of bing events. However there are assorted sorts of events that are called mega-events even if some have a batch more visitants than others. Besides each individual event has a different mark group that is attracted by it.
The fact that mega-events can take topographic point practically all over the universe makes them a modern-day issue for the travel and touristry industry. There may be some tourers who could be afraid to see a certain state for illustration due to political issues. Therefore each state that is chosen to host a mega-event will hold different impacts. There will ever be a difference in the figure of visitants attracted to an event and above all each host metropolis or state will hold different long-run touristry impacts afterwards.
As seen hosting a mega-event does non gain the host metropolis or state short-run but all the statements like enlarging touristry long-run, constructing enduring conveyance substructure and edifice up the image of a state are more of import than the loss of money that likely will be coming in the old ages after the event took topographic point. But even when the costs for hosting mega-events are much higher than the money gained through them the writer of this essay has the sentiment that such immense events are really of import for the whole universe as already mentioned every bit good sing the statements of Robertson ( 2006 ) and Weed ( 2008 ) .
In the sentiment of this essays ‘ writer events and particularly mega-events conveying the universe together due to the planetary importance and decidedly assist people to acquire a better apprehension of other states.
Because of all the above mentioned statements mega-events are a modern-day issue for travel and touristry and due to the fact that there ever will be such events in the hereafter the issues will be prevailing.
“ Mega-events like Olympic Games and exhibitions have been and go on to be of import phenomena at many degrees and in many respects. ” Roche ( 2005:5 )