I. Introduction

Ecology is the survey of environmental systems. or as it is sometimes called. the economic system of nature ( Hall and Weiss. 2010 ) . It surveies interactions between different beings and their environments. including dealingss within its ain species and members of others. Ecology focuses more on the population. community. and ecosystem ecology although it besides includes a broad assortment of Fieldss. Both the life ( biotic ) and the inanimate ( abiotic ) constituents of the natural universe is its capable affair. Processes like primary production. alimentary cycling. and assorted niche building energies are sustained by the biodiversity within them and modulate the flux of energy and affair through an environment. Biodiversity is the assortment and besides the copiousness of workss and animate beings in a peculiar environment and the procedures that are functionally enriched by ecological interactions.

The ecosystem is defined as a unit of biosphere which has the structural and functional parts. It consists of the biotic constituents and the physical environment including the interactions between them. There are different sorts of ecosystem. Some are impermanent and some are lasting. They may be natural which includes the fresh water systems and the forest ecosystems. There are besides manmade which includes the agroecosystem like rice Fieldss. It can be little as a fallen log or every bit large as an ocean. There is besides a little ecosystem known as the micro ecosystem. The distinguishable community dwelling of figure of different species forms an ecosystem.

Students of environmental biological science and other partisans in the field of ecology will be able to place the different constituents of an ecosystem and their interactions by detecting the beings in their ain environment.

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II. Aims

At the terminal of the exercising. the pupil should be able to:

1. enumerate the different composings of the ecosystem ;

2. describe the interaction of the different constituents of the ecosystem ; and

3. understand the operation of the ecosystem.

III. Methodology

To find the interactions between the physical and biotic constituents in an ecosystem. three different types of ecosystems found in the locality of the University of the Philippines Los Banos campus. viz. agroecosystem. fresh water ecosystem. and forest ecosystem has been visited by a group of environmental biological science pupils from the category of subdivision Z-3R.

A 10x10m country is first chosen in each ecosystem. Students were given 20 proceedingss in each site to study the surrounding. The autophytic and heterotrophic beings present in the Phil Rice for the agroecosystem. Molawe Creek for the fresh water ecosystem. and the Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve and a fallen log for the forest ecosystem were observed and listed in Tables 1. 1. 1. 2. and 1. 3 severally. The figure of identified beings and their distribution forms along with the physical factors impacting the beings were besides listed in the same tabular arraies. The physical factors together with their interactions and their function in each ecosystem were besides observed and listed in Tables 2.

After sing and detecting all of the ecosystems. single information of the group members were gathered for comparing. The group deliberated and formalized a general decision for the study.

V. Discussion

In Table 1. 1. consequences show that there is less figure of heterotrophic beings than autophytic beings. This is due to the controlled environment they are in. An agroecosystem. or specifically a rice field. is a manmade ecosystem. Many facets are controlled in this sort of environment like the even distribution of rice and besides their rate of growing with the sort of dirt and fertiliser that are used on them. This is the same with the heterotrophic beings. the population of animate beings is controlled because they can destruct harvest Fieldss and can destruct the ecosystem. In add-on. people who work in the field of agribusiness will be affected.

In Tables 1. 2 and 1. 3. consequences show that these two ecosystems. the fresh water and wood have a more diverse figure of both autophytic and heterotrophic beings than a manmade ecosystem. These environments are less manipulated by a individual that is why there are a batch of different species of workss and animate beings populating in these countries. With many foods and nutrient dispersed in the country. there is a random distribution for most of the beings here.

Physical factors of the environment that interact with the workss are light strength. temperature. comparative humidness. air current speed and wave speed. Plants rely on these factors for many maps like growing. sprouting. blossoming. and photosynthetic activity. Plants besides adapt to some alterations in the physical environment. In a wood ecosystem. small visible radiation is received by workss in the forest floor so workss have broader and greener foliages for better soaking up of visible radiation. In an agro-ecosystem nevertheless. workss like rice are distributed equally so no competition is present for the soaking up of visible radiation. Alternatively. their foliages are composed of hair-like constructions or cuticles to retain more wet against the intense visible radiation of the Sun.

Temperature controls growing. blossoming. sprouting. maturation of fruit and transpiration of workss. Since the workss listed from the three ecosystems visited are from the Torrid Zones. warmer temperature is indispensable for the procedures of the workss. Relative humidness indicates besides the rate of transpiration of workss. Plants respond to this physical factor with their pores.

( Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. cropking. com/articlerrh )

Wind affects the rate of pollenation in workss. Faster air current increases the rate of pollenation of the workss. Wave speed determines the temperature of the H2O and its surrounding. In a fresh water ecosystem in the Torrid Zones. warmer temperature is indispensable for the growing of workss therefore the moving ridge speed of most watercourses and rivers here are slow.

( Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. thebigger. com/section/biology/ecosystem/ )

Plants contribute to the environment by cleaning up the air. Plants lessen the C content of the ambiance lending to climate alteration. Plants are besides responsible in landscaping the land by keeping the dirt with their roots and besides serve as natural barriers of the environment. Many workss may be in the same environment. This may do them competition for foods of the dirt and light soaking up. Plants of the same species may be clumped in one country and some may be random. However in a manmade ecosystem like a rice field. workss like rice are equally distributed.

Besides bushs. herbs and big trees like dipterocarps. there are other groups of photosynthetic being nowadays in the different ecosystems. In an agroecosystem. algae and Azolla are present in the watery parts of the field while phytoplanktons are found in the fresh water ecosystem. Near the H2O are ferns. mosses and vines. Like the fresh water ecosystem. the forest ecosystem besides has ferns and vines populating in it. The presence of H2O affects most of these beings since it is indispensable for their growing. These beings are classified as non-vascular workss. Mosss and ferns can be farther classified as nonvascular plants.

( Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. cliffsnotes. com/study_guide/Nonvascular-Plants-Defined. topicArticleId-8741. articleId-8671. hypertext markup language )

One major difference of works and animate beings is that workss are manufacturers which mean they can bring forth their ain nutrient. On the other manus. animate beings are called consumers. which rely on workss for nutrient. Since non all workss can be eaten by animate beings. they are more legion than animate beings. They are besides found at the start of the nutrient concatenation. which means. if there are no workss so there are no animate beings. If there are more animate beings present in the nutrient concatenation. so there is an instability. Aside from nutrient. other benefits that animate beings receive from workss are oxygen and workss besides provide shelter for the animate beings.

Animals of the same species can be in a common or competitory relationship. Different species nevertheless can feed on other animate beings depending on what type of consumers they are. Primary consumers eat lone workss intending they are herbivores. Secondary and third consumers eat other consumers so they are considered carnivores. In some instances. consumers can eat both manufacturers and other consumers. therefore they are considered as omnivores. Animals of the same species normally group or are clumped while other beings that thrive entirely are in random distribution.

Like in workss. light strength. temperature. comparative humidness. air current speed and wave speed affects animate beings. The presence of animate beings besides balances the figure of being in an ecosystem. If animate beings did non be so there will be giantism of workss. Certain animate beings can be found in certain ecosystems. This is because there are different environmental features that merely certain species can accommodate to. Since all of the ecosystems visited are in the Torrid Zones so merely animate beings that can boom in warm temperatures can be here.

Most fungi live in wet topographic points because they need wet to populate. Fungus kingdoms are normally saprophytic ; booming on dead organic affair like a fallen log. Fungi are capable of interrupting down dead organic stuffs ; moreover they can partner off with algae to organize white thread-like constructions called lichens that are found in the dirt and many topographic points that indicate the environmental pollution of an country. ( Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. ispot. org. uk/fungi-and-lichens )

Other being nowadays in the dirt that have similar functions in the ecosystem as the Fungis are algae. actinomycetes. bacteriums. blue-green algae. segmented worms ( metameric worms ) and roundworms ( normally known as pinworms or tineas ) . These are called decomposers. The type of nutrient web decomposers form is called a detrital nutrient web. Some factors of the dirt environment impacting the growing of dirt beings are the wet nowadays in the land and besides the sum of works litter. Since these dirt beings do non bring forth their ain nutrient. they thrive in acquiring the foods from dead organic affair. They can non hive away H2O long plenty which they need to interrupt down or break up the organic stuff they feed on. ( Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. landfood. ubc. ca/soil200/soil_organisms/flora_fauna. htm )

An ecosystem can come in different sizes. One common ecosystem we frequently overlook is a fallen log or a rotting tree. This little community is a place to beetles and other insects. The moistness of the fallen tree makes it a good topographic point besides for mushrooms and other Fungi. It provides nutrient for workss and animate beings such as white ants. Many of those beings in bend become nutrient for larger animate beings.

VI. Decision

Every life and inanimate thing in the natural universe is connected. An ecosystem is a community of being together with physical factors that affect them. Ecosystems have no peculiar size. An ecosystem can be every bit big as an ocean or every bit little as a tree. If you have a rice field. that is a manmade ecosystem. The visible radiation. H2O. air current. and dirty all work together. If the workss lack the sum of visible radiation or H2O or if the dirt doesn’t contain sufficient foods. it will decease. If the workss die. animate beings that depend on them will decease. If the animate beings that depend on the workss die. any animate beings that depend on those animate beings will decease. All the constituents work together to do a balanced ecosystem.

Each being has a function in its ecosystem that helps maintain the system healthy. If the ecosystem is healthy so it will be less disturbed by worlds and clime alterations. Every twenty-four hours we discover different species of beings in different types of ecosystems. we have yet to detect many of its maps. By analyzing and keeping biodiversity. we help maintain our planet healthy.

VII. Mentions

California Biodiversity Council. What is Biodiversity? hypertext transfer protocol: //biodiversity. ca. gov/Biodiversity/biodiv_definition. hypertext markup language

CliffsNotes Study Guides. Biology: Nonvascular Plants Defined. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. cliffsnotes. com/study_guide/Nonvascular-Plants-Defined. topicArticleId-8741. articleId-8671. hypertext markup language

CropKing. Relative Humidity.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www. cropking. com/articlerrh

Elaine Pascoe. 2003. A Fallen-Tree Community. In: The Ecosystem of a Fallen Tree. The Rosen Publishing Group. Inc. pp. 30.

Hall and Weis “Ecology” . In: Encyclopedia of Earth. August 3. 2010 ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. eoearth. org/article/Ecology

iSpot. Fungi and Lichens. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. ispot. org. uk/fungi-and-lichens

Nature Works. Ecosystems – We’re All In This Together. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. nhptv. org/natureworks/nwepecosystems. htm

Reece. Urry. Cain. Wasserman. Minorsky. and Jackson. 2010. Campbell Biology. 9th Edition. Pearson Benjamin Cummings. 1301 Sansome St. . San Francisco. CA

Soil Web. Soil Organisms.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www. landfood. ubc. ca/soil200/soil_organisms/flora_fauna. htm


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