Tourism is the biggest industry in the current universe scenario, cultural and heritage touristry being most built-in portion as it unleashes the history and genuineness of a state to the visitants. Tourism all over the universe is dining and so make the menaces to the genuineness of the touristry sites due to the increased trial. And when it comes to the heritage and cultural sites, the genuineness of the sites could be easy deteriorated by increased visitant volume but ne’er can be regained as it is a gift from the history. So, the lone possible manner is to pull off and keep it to the maximal extent, but at the same clip, supplying a great degree of “ edutainment ” to the visitants.

Pull offing such sites has ever been a challenge to the governments as they barely can command the tourer traffic as it creates greater gross for the state. Understanding and advancing sustainable tourer behavior ( Pearce 2005 ) has been an efficient tool to keep the genuineness of any tourer sites. The attending of tourers can be directed to the heightening characteristics of the finishs every bit good as the importance of prolonging the societal and natural environment. The focal point of this literature is to unveil the sustainable touristry direction patterns in the universe heritage touristry site known as Ajanta caves, which is situated in Aurangabad, India.

Ajanta Caves

TheA Ajanta caves are consisted of 30 stone cut cave memorials situated 107 km North of Aurangabad, known as “ metropolis of Gatess ” in Maharashtra province of India. The caves acquired its name from a nearby small town named Ajanta located about 12 km.A These caves were discovered in 1819 and immediately the find became really celebrated and Ajanta attained a really of import tourer finish in the universe. Since 1983, Ajanta caves have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The caves are celebrated for its pictures, which are considered to be the chef-d’oeuvres of Buddhist spiritual art and cosmopolitan pictural art.

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These are the first Buddhist cave memorials day of the month from the 2nd and first century B.C. During the 5th and 6th centuries A.D. many more amply decorated caves were added to the group. These caves are excavated in horse-shoe molded crook of stone surface about 76 m in tallness overlooking a narrow river known as Waghora. The caves were excavated in different periods ( circa. second century B.C. to 6th century A.D. ) harmonizing to the necessity. Each cave was connected to the watercourse by a flight of stairss, which are now about demolished, although hints of some could be noticed at some topographic points.

The site is unfastened to visitants from 9 am to 5 autopsies on all twenty-four hours s except Monday.

Entrance Fee: Citizens of India and visitants of SAARCA ( Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Maldives and Afghanistan ) and BIMSTEC Countries ( Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Myanmar ) – Roentgen. 10 per caput.

Others: US $ 5 or Indian Rs. 250/- per caput

Management issues of Ajanta Caves

Archaeological study of India is the exclusive section responsible for keeping and pull offing the site through its assorted subdivisions like preservation, scientific discipline and gardening. The direction issues falls into two classs ; the first one doing impairment of the caves which needs immediate attending and the 2nd being the desirable steps which could take the site to a great degree of sustainability. The primary issues are:

Construction and enlargement ( developmental force per unit area )

Lack of public information system


Insect activity due to migration from forest modesty.

Deterioration of stone surface

Entry of chiropterans into the cave inside

Scribbling on stone surface by visitants

Construction and enlargement ( developmental force per unit area )

UNESCO has established certain standards for finishs for being in the list of universe heritage sites and one of the most of import norms is the limitation of Reconstruction. Reconstruction or farther development of the site can be carried out merely with the anterior audience with consultative organic structures of UNESCO. It besides calls for regulations and ordinances in the regional and national degrees that should assure the safeguarding of the site against any development and buildings that may impede the reliable values. So, there is force per unit area from an international bureau for forestalling enlargement plants against the national development force per unit area. Hence, for being in the universe heritage list, archeological study of India is obliged to protect the site from any farther buildings which is non necessary apart from protecting it.

Visitor direction

Lack of patterns to command the figure of visitants is making a figure of issues to Ajanta caves. The norms allows 40 visitants at a clip in each cave but presently the figure of visitants at a clip on an norm is more than twice the permitted figure. This may take to devastation and pilferage, at the same clip cause increased humidness which may take to fungus growing inside the caves, pulling insects and more frequently bats.

Lack of public information system

Lack of public information system non merely restricts the popularity of the site, but besides limits the consciousness of the populace and the tourers, the importance of continuing it. A good established public information system can bring forth great degree of consciousness among the visitants to collaborate with the archeological section to protect and keep the site. Ajanta caves have a big potency to do usage of first and 2nd agents ( Pearce 2005 ) like mass media, travel and circuit operators and other independent information agents like intelligence articles and docudramas. Archaeological study section should see the illustration of unbelievable India run ‘s move that made Amir Khan ( celebrated Bollywood famous person ) its expansive embassador for advancing touristry in India and making public consciousness to be hospitable towards tourers.


The caves faces H2O escapes in certain parts, due to clefts created by tree roots and heavy rainfall. This has been an issue for several old ages since it was excavated. Moisture can take to impairment of stone surfaces and pictures and besides can do biological onslaughts. Even though safeguards has been taken by building an anti drain system ( Rizwanullah, S. 2009 ) on top of caves which had serious jobs, there are other caves in which similar jobs are encountered after heavy rainfall. There are restrictions to these buildings excessively as per the guidelines of UNESCO which is a quandary for the regulating authorization.

Insect activity and Entry of chiropterans into the cave inside

There is a job of insects and other little animate beings migrating from the nearby wood modesty to the caves which may do amendss to the cave insides and pictures. As described above uncontrolled visitant figure is besides accounting to pulling insects. To undertake this, fumigation and Polyvinylchloride interventions are being conducted frequently.

Deterioration of stone surface

Penetration of little woody roots of flora over the top of caves has been making infinitesimal cleft over the stone surface and H2O escape is doing the impairment of stones for old ages. These jobs are monitored sporadically and actions are carried out as per demands. However international aid is required to get any information and engineering for intervention of the stone surfaces.

Scribbling on stone surface by visitants.

This is another issue in keeping the caves. This is slightly unmanageable as the staff can non watch the activities of visitants from start to stop at the present state of affairs. These activities are adding to the challenge of saving apart from impairment and cleft formation.

The secondary issues are:

Extra preparation for staff

Staff would be more efficient and effectual if they receive more preparation in the heritage saving techniques like GPS, GIS, Photogrammetry, exposure certification, mapmaking etc. with international aid.

Lack of GIS and GPS.

Archaeological study of India is looking frontward for doing usage of planetary placement system ( GPS ) and geographical information system ( GIS ) which can heighten the saving of site with advanced techniques. GPS can do the site prepared for any serious menaces or natural catastrophes. GIS helps to analyze and pull off geographical information impacting the site.

Multimedia visual image & A ; Cadmiums

This is a desirable technique which could be an added characteristic to public information system and besides for heightening the visitant experience.

Lack of visitant direction program

Visitor direction in heritage sites like Ajanta caves is indispensable as it ‘s non an environment built for tourer intent and later has limited transporting capacity. Even though Ajanta caves have tracts which control the motion of the visitants and information boards to educate them, there is no proper visitant direction programs in usage for this site. Plans should be formulated to do visitants more responsible and cognizant of civilization and nature, preservation of the environment and to increase opportunities of repetition visits. Agreements should be made to distribute the visitants all over the caves and cut down the clip spend in sensitive countries like wall pictures and besides to advance off season visits to cut down the mass during season.

Lack of exigency or hazard readiness program

Even though archeological section has installations to cover with little issues impacting the site, it does non hold resources to run into any major menaces or catastrophes. GIS and GPS can be made usage for such intents.

Current direction patterns

Periodic describing – archeological study of India is obliged to fix and direct a elaborate study on preservation of the site each twelvemonth depicting the place of saving and monitoring. It includes the impacts by tourers, nature and other factors impacting the site and besides the steps taken for cut downing the same.

Entree to the caves – the entree to the caves is regulated from 4 kilometers off from it. Vehicles are non allowed to go through beyond this point and the tourers are taken from at that place to the site in non polluting coachs, operated by the Maharashtra Transport Corporation. This is a wise move by the governments to cut down the air and noise pollution around the caves and to protect the buffer zone ( ASI 2002 ) of the site.

The chemical science subdivision – looks after the affairs like chemical intervention and saving of pictures.

The garden subdivision – preserves the flora around the caves.

The preservation subdivision – looks after the structural preservation and saving of the caves.

Geological probes by geology study of India – conducts the geophysical surveies of caves and the environing countries.

Communication of heritage values to the populace and tourers – ASI has introduced booklets and brochures depicting the heritage values of the site and importance of preservation. It besides uses print and audio media for pass oning. All the activities go oning in the site are besides posted in the official web site of the ASI viz. http: // . World heritage twenty-four hours ( April 18 ) and universe heritage hebdomad ( November 19-25 ) are other activities used for pass oning the values and preservation of the Ajanta caves.

Educational programmes – ASI conducts painting competitions, arguments, exhibitions etc on universe heritage twenty-four hours and hebdomad in which school and college pupils can actively take part. This will assist to make consciousness of the ancient memorials and importance of preservation of it on immature coevals. This enterprise by ASI can be considered as an investing for the hereafter as it educates the following coevals about the heritage values and history.

Aforestation – To cut down pollution and prevent dirt eroding. Horticulture section is looking after this portion to construct suited flora around the green belt of Ajanta caves. This helps keep the natural environment but at the same clip addition insect population and subsequent insect onslaughts inside the caves.

Other direction patterns

Path ways and prosaic pes Bridgess

Light of the cave insides

Construction of fallen and broken pillars

Construction of fallen and collapsed frontages

Approach roads up to the foothill

Erection of roadblocks in forepart of the pictures and painted surfaces to curtail the tourers from touching it.

Point of view and attack stepped pathway by forest section.

Available installations for the visitants

Drinking H2O installation.

Post office.

Guide installations.

Porter installation.

Light of caves

Guide books, booklets and booklets.

Public agreeableness

Descriptive signage

There are no bing programs for public usage of the site.


A site information system at the foothill or near the vehicle parking country.

Pre recorded cultural texts and messages at the entryway or parking country

Public engagement



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