Job analysis is the formal process of identifying the content of a job in terms activities involved and attributes needed to perform the work and identifies major job requirements. Job analysis was conceptualized by two of the founders of industrial/organizational psychology, Frederick Taylor and Lillian Miller Gilberts in the early 20th century-Call Job analyses provide information to organizations which helps to determine which employees are best fit for specific jobs.

Through job analysis, the analyst needs to understand what the important tasks of the job are, how they are carried out, and the necessary unman qualities needed to complete the job successfully. Essentially, job analyses provide information to organizations which helps to determine which employees are best fit for specific jobs. The process of job analysis involves the analyst describing the duties of the incumbent, then the nature and conditions Of work, and finally some basic qualifications. After this, the job analyst has completed a form called job cacography, which displays the mental requirements of the job. 2] The measure of a sound job analysis is a valid task list. This list contains the functional or duty areas of a position, the elated tasks, and the basic training recommendations. Subject matter experts (incumbents) and supervisors for the position being analyzed need to validate this final list in order to validate the job analysis. [3] Job analysis is crucial for first, helping individuals develop their careers, and also for helping organizations develop their employees in order to maximize talent.

The outcomes of job analysis are key influences in designing learning, developing performance interventions, and improving processes. [4] Job analysts are typically industrial/organizational psychologists or human resource officers ho have been trained by, and are acting under the supervision of an industrial/organizational psychologist. One of the first industrial; organizational psychologists to introduce job analysis was Morris Vittles. In 1922, he used job analysis in order to select employees for a trolley car company. Vittles’ techniques could then be applied to any other area of employment using the same process. 5] Job analysis was also conceptualized by two of the founders of Industrial-Organizational psychology, Frederick Taylor and Lillian Miller Gilberts in the early 20th century. [l] Since then, experts have presented many different systems to accomplish job analysis that have become increasingly detailed over the decades. However, evidence shows that the root purpose of job analysis, understanding the behavioral requirements of work, has not changed in over 85 years. [J Job analysis aims to answer questions such as: * Why does the job exist? What physical and mental activities does the worker undertake? The job to be performed? * Where is the job to be performed? * How does the worker do the job? * What qualifications are needed to perform the job? * When is What are the working conditions (such as levels of temperature, noise, offensive fumes, light) * What machinery or equipment is used in the job? * What constitutes successful performance? Procedure rest As stated before, the purpose of job analysis is to combine the task demands of a job with our knowledge of human attributes and produce a theory of behavior for the job in question.

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There are two ways to approach building that theory, meaning there are two different approaches to job analysis. [l O] * Task-oriented Task-oriented procedures focus on the actual activities involved in performing work. 7] This procedure takes into consideration work duties, responsibilities, and functions. The job analyst then develops task statements which clearly state the tasks that are performed with great detail. After creating task statements, job analysts rate the tasks on scales indicating importance, difficulty, frequency, and consequences of error. Based on these ratings, a greater sense of understanding of a job can be attained. L] Task analysis, such as cognitively oriented task analysis (COTTA), are techniques used to describe job expertise. For example, the job analysts may tour the job site ND observe workers performing their jobs. During the tour the analyst may collect materials that directly or indirectly indicate required skills (duty statements, instructions, safety manuals, quality charts, Functional job analysis 1] is a classic example of a task-oriented technique. Developed by Fine and Cornrows in 1944, work elements are scored in terms of relatedness to data (0-6), people (0-8), and things (0-6), with lower scores representing greater complexity.

Incumbents, considered subject matter experts (Seems), are relied upon, usually in a panel, to report elements of their ark to the job analyst. Using incumbent reports, the analyst uses Fine’s terminology to compile statements reflecting the work being performed in terms of data, people, and things. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles uses elements of the BAJA in defining jobs. [l] * Worker-oriented Worker-oriented procedures aim to examine the human attributes needed to perform the job successfully. [7] These human attributes have been commonly classified into four categories: knowledge, skills,abilities, and other characteristics (ASKS).

Knowledge is the information people need in order to perform the job. Skills are the proficiencies needed to perform each task. Abilities are the attributes that are relatively stable over time. Other characteristics are all other attributes, usually personality factors. [l] The Soaks required for a job are inferred from the most frequently-occurring, important tasks. In a worker-oriented job analysis, the skills are inferred from tasks and the skills are rated directly in terms of importance of frequency. This often results in data that immediately imply the important Soaks. However, it can be hard for Seems to rate skills directly.

The Fleischman Job Analysis System (F-AS) developed by Edwin A. Fleischman represents a worker-oriented approach. Fleischman factor-analyzed large data sets to discover a common, minimum set of Soaks across different jobs. His system of 73 specific scales measure three broad areas: Cognitive (Verbal Abilities; Idea Generation & Reasoning Abilities; Quantitative Abilities; Memory; Perceptual Abilities; Spatial Abilities; and Attentiveness), Psychosomatic (Fine Manipulative Abilities; Control Movement Abilities; and Reaction Time and Speed Abilities), and Physical (Physical Strength Abilities; Endurance;

Flexibility, Balance, and Coordination; Visual Abilities; and Auditory and Speech Abilities). Jacobson is a measurement instrument which defines the personality dynamics within a specific type of job. [12] By collecting PDP Prosaic Survey results of actual performers and results of job dynamics analysis surveys completed by knowledgeable people related to a specific job, Jacobson provides a suggested ideal job model for that position. Although it does not evaluate the intellect or experience necessary to accomplish a task, it does deal with the personality of the type of work itself.

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