India is the largest democracy in the universe. There are many states in the universe that have democratic systems. We have been witnessing elections being held in the state at different degrees for over six decennaries. Municipal and Panchayat elections besides do take topographic point. But. can a state be called a democracy merely on the footing of the fact that elections are organized on a regular basis? Think over it. because we know that there are some states where elections do take topographic point. but those are non democracies in true sense. Then the inquiry is what does democracy really intend? What are the factors which makes a state democratic? . We are facing a figure of challenges. There are many critical jobs that need to be solved. so that India Marches in front as a progressive democratic state. The present lesson discusses all these issues and focuses particularly on the challenges that our state has been confronting.

Aims Identify major challenges to Indian democracy and appreciate those as possible chances to do it successful ; recognize the disciplinary steps for bettering the Indian democratic system and measure the attempts ; and place the functions of citizens in a democracy based on experiences of life. Understanding Democracy

Let us get down with understanding the significance of democracy and the conditions that are indispensable for its successful operation. This will assist us in appreciating the challenges to Indian democracy. Meaning of Democracy

When we are asked to specify democracy. we by and large quote a really popular definition: “Democracy is a authorities of the people. for the people. by the people. ”Whenever we define democracy. we begin by citing its significance in ancient Greece. We province that the term ‘democracy’ comes from the Grecian word demokratia which means “rule of the people” . It was coined from two words: demos that means “people” and Kratos which means “power” . That is. in a democracy the power rests with the people. This significance is based on the experiences of the authoritiess that existed in some of the Grecian city states. notably Athens. Challenges to Indian Democracy Let us discourse the undermentioned major challenges and appreciate as possible chances for bettering the operation of democracy. Illiteracy among people was a affair of grave concern for successful operation of democracy in India on the Eve of independency and it still continues to be a major challenge.

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The degree of instruction of citizens is cardinal to both the successful operation of democracy and socio-economic development of the state The literacy rate in 1951 was mere 18. 33 per cent and female literacy was negligible. 8. 9 per centum. It was. hence. feared by many that the citizens will non be able to play their functions efficaciously and exert meaningfully their right to vote which is an individual’s look of the power of the people. This apprehensiveness. nevertheless. has been proved incorrect by the Indian electorate over the old ages. In malice of a significant figure of them being nonreaders. in the society. Universal literacy is hence a must for the successful operation of Indian democracy. Although harmonizing to 2011 Census. the literacy rate has risento 74. 04 per cent. the female literacy rate is still 65. 46 per cent. This means that over one 4th of the country’s population is still illiterate while among adult females about one out of three is still illiterate. Poverty

It is the province of denial of chances to people to take a healthy and fulfilling life. Of class. India inherited poorness from the long exploitatory British colonial regulation. but it continues to be one of the gravest job. Even now a considerable proportion of Indian population lives below poorness line. The poorness line means an income degree below which human existences can non supply for their basic necessities of nutrient. much less for apparels and shelter. An norm of 2400 Calories per twenty-four hours and in urban countries an norm of 2100 Calories per twenty-four hours. The prevailing phenomenon of poorness is attributed to many factors. one of which is aggregate unemployment and underemployment. A big figure of people in rural countries do non hold regular and equal work. In urban countries besides the figure of educated unemployed is really high. Because of all this. poorness continues to be a great challenge to Indian democracy. Gender Discrimination

Womans are treated as peers and there is no favoritism against adult females. Fundamental Rights and Cardinal Duties every bit good as the Directive Principles of State Policy make these connotations really clear. But the favoritism against females continues to be a fact of life. By utilizing engineering. people are coercing female parents to acquire the foetus of a female kid aborted. The infant mortality rate among girl kids is high. as compared to that among boy kids. The maternal mortality ratio as per the Sample Registration System 2004-06 is 254 per hundred thousand unrecorded births. which is considered really high. Casteism. Communalism & A ; Religeonal Fundamentalism

( a ) Casteism: The challenges of casteism. communalism and spiritual fundamentalism are major menaces to Indian civil order. They weaken the operation and stableness of democratic system. The caste system which presumptively originated in the division of labor in the ancient society. has become a more or less stiff group categorization. based on birth. The caste system acts against the roots of democracy. The democratic installations – like cardinal rights associating to equality. freedom of address. look and association. engagement in the electoral procedure. free media and imperativeness. and even legislative forums – are misused for maintainingcasteist individuality. Casteism has besides been lending towards continuance of socio-economic inequalities. There are tremendous inequalities in our society which are presenting a serious challenge to Indian democracy ( B ) Communalism and Religious Fundamentalism:

Communalism and spiritual fundamentalism have acquired a really unsafe signifier and dismaying proportion in India. They disrupt the form of co-existence in our multi-religious society. Communalism is an insult to India’s patriot individuality and a tragic set back to its germinating secular civilization. As a affair of fact. communalism is an political orientation of political commitment to a spiritual community as a primary group and its base. It uses one spiritual community against other communities and perceives other spiritual communities as its enemies. It is opposed to secularism and even humanitarianism. Religious fundamentalism reinforces communalists in working both faith and political relations. In recent yesteryear besides communalism has proved to be a sedate menace to our societal and political life on several occasions

Regionalism
Democracy has besides been fighting with regionalism which is chiefly an result of regional disparities and instabilities in development. We all know that India is a plural state with diversenesss of faiths. linguistic communications. communities. folks and civilizations. Anumber of cultural and lingual groups are concentrated here in certain territorial sections Corruptness

Corruptness in public life has been a major concern in India. In 2010. India was ranked 87th of 178 states in Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index ( CPI ) . It is worse than its rank of 84 in 2009. In fact. corruptness is rampant in all Walks of life. be it land and belongings. wellness. instruction. commercialism and industry. agribusiness. conveyance. constabulary. armed Corruption in office

Above all. corruptness in electoral procedures and bribing of electors who participate in elections at different degrees have now become common experiences. Criminalization of Politics Criminalization of political relations in India has become an issue of sedate concern. And though the top leaders of all political parties agree that those with condemnable record should be debarred from contending elections. the figure of such people continues to increase. Political Violence

Violence has been with us for long. but usage of force for political terminal is unsafe for the being of any system. In India we have been witnessing assorted signifiers of force. Communal force. caste force and political force in general have attained serious proportion. Protest going Violent

Another facet of caste force is the higher castes backlash against the turning consciousness and averment of their rights by the Dalits and lower castes. peculiarly the Scheduled Castes and backward castes. During elections. force is being adopted either to mobilise electors or to forestall them from exerting their right to vote. CORRECTIVE MEASURES

From the above treatment. it becomes clear that democracy and society are confronting certain serious challenges. You will decidedly hold that there is a demand to take disciplinary steps to countervail the impact of these negative developments The authorities. the political parties and other political and societal organisations and above all the citizens must play their several functions in the battle against these challenges. Certain important disciplinary steps are as follows: * Universal Literacy ( Education for All )

* Poverty Alleviation
* Elimination of Gender Discrimination
* Removal of Regional Imbalance
* Administrative and Judicial Reforms
And Many More… . . “SO Lead a manner of life with Democracy Using these measures”………



( I ) to do disposal accountable and citizen friendly. ( two ) to construct its capacity for quality administration. ( three ) to orient disposal for advancing peoples’ engagement. decentalisation and degeneration of powers. ( four ) to do administrative decisionmaking procedure transparent. ( V ) to better the public presentation and unity of the public services. ( six ) to reenforce moralss in disposal. and ( seven ) to instill preparedness for e-governance.

Judicial reform besides has been a critical concern since long. Assorted recommendations have been made on many occasions. The major issues that need consideration in this respect are: ( a ) Simplification of Rules and Procedures. ( B ) Revoking Out-dated Laws. ( degree Celsius ) Increase in the Judge Population Ratio. ( vitamin D ) Time-bound filling of Vacant Posts in Judiciary. ( vitamin D ) Transparency in Appointment. Promotion and Transfer of Judges. ( vitamin E ) Judicial Accountability ; and ( degree Fahrenheit ) Transparency of Court Proceedings. MODULE – 4 Contemporary India: Issues

23. 3. 6 Sustainable Development ( Economic. Social. Environmental ) The Indian democracy can adequately react to all the challenges when it moves frontward on the way of sustainable development. A theoretical account of development without taking into history the basic demands of 1000000s. today every bit good as in the hereafter. can non be contributing for endurance of democracy. Development has to be human-centered and directed towards betterment of quality of life of all the people. It has to be focused on remotion of poorness. ignorance. favoritism. disease and unemployment. The development procedure has to take at sustained economic. societal and environmental development.

Sustainable development is a form of utilizing resources that aims to run into human demands while continuing the environment so that these demands can be met non merely in the present. but besides for future coevalss to come. The term was used by the Bruntland Commission ( 1987 ) which coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of sustainable development as development that “meets the demands of the present without compromising the ability of future coevalss to run into their ain demands. ”

INTEXT QUESTIONS 23. 3
1. What are the steps being undertaken in India to accomplish the ends of cosmopolitan literacy. poorness relief and remotion of gender favoritism? 2. Discourse the stairss needed for work outing the job of regional instability in India? 3. How can the administrative and judicial reforms be realized in India? 4. What is sustainable development? How will it beef up Indian democracy? 23. 4 ROLE OF CITIZENS IN A DEMOCARCY

As citizens of India. do we truly appreciate the function of a citizen in a democracy and why is this function so of import? By and large. it is believed that the authorities regulations over people who have to esteem the authorization and obey it. They are at that place to be governed. But don’t you think that this is non so in a democracy? The people who are citizens in a democratic system like India can non and ought non stay inactive and treat themselves as governed. In fact. a democracy can be successful and vivacious merely when citizens imbibe and reflect in their mentality. thought and behavior the basic values like equality. freedom. secularism. societal justness. answerability and regard for all. They have to appreciate the chances for their coveted functions and play proactive functions to realize the ends of democracy. SOCIAL SCIENCE MODULE – 4 Challenges to Indian Democracy

Contemporary India: Issues
and Goals
194
Notes
23. 4. 1 Appreciation of Opportunities for Citizen’s Role
The chances to play the function as a democratic citizen are available in all democracies. but they vary from one democratic system to another. Indian democracy in the modern sense began after a long period of colonial regulation. Although the democratic system started merely after independency in 1947. its socio-cultural scenes were and still are non in melody with the democratic civilization. India is a huge multicultural. multi-lingual genuinely plural society. which in many respects still carries the features of traditionality. But at the same clip it is seeking to absorb the values of modern democracy. Even now many think that the authorities has to govern and make everything. and if things are non go oning in an expected mode. it is merely the authorities which is to be blamed. But as you know. the democratic authorities in our state is run by the representatives chosen by us. In that sense. every citizen is responsible for how the authoritiess function at different degrees. national. province and local. And therefore. every citizen has to play a critical function and utilize every chance for making so. Are we Indian citizens making so? Let us see. Major chances for functions of citizens may be as follows:




( a ) Engagement
The cardinal function of citizens in a democracy is to take part in public life. The most normally ascertained chance of engagement is exerting the right to vote during elections. And in order to vote sagely it is necessary that each citizen listens to and cognize the positions of different parties and campaigners. and so do his or her ain determination on whom to vote for. But as is made public by the Election Commission of India after every election. on an mean about 50 per cent citizens do non vote. Decidedly really few are involved in runing for a political party or campaigner or in arguments on public issues.

Engagement in a democratic civil order. nevertheless. is non confined merely to engagement in elections. A critical signifier of engagement comes through rank of political parties and more significantly. active rank in independent non-governmental organisations. that are known as “civil society organisations. ” These organisations represent a assortment of involvements of different groups such as adult females. pupils. husbandmans. workers. physicians. instructors. concern proprietors. spiritual trusters. human rights militants. Such organisations and people’s motions help to convey consciousness about different issues among the people.

( B ) Making the System Accountable
Engagement in the political procedure is non plenty. Citizens have to do the democratic system antiphonal and responsible. The fundamental law makes the executive responsible to the legislative assembly. but citizens are needed to guarantee that the Parliamentarians. Members of State Legislatures and their representatives in Panchayati Raj and Municipal Institutions are accountable. The instruments created by Right to Information Act. 2005 in our state enable citizens to play their function efficaciously. Citizens have an duty to go informed about public issues. to watch carefully how theirMODULE – 4 Contemporary India: Issues

Notes political leaders and representatives use their powers. and to show their ain sentiments and involvements. When citizens find the authorities is non populating up to its promises. they can indicate it out through media. do recommendations and demands to the authorities. If the authorities still fails to carry through promises. citizens may protest. transport out peaceable Satyagraha. civil noncompliance or non-cooperation runs to do the authorities
accountable.

( degree Celsius ) Carry throughing Duties
We should recognize that citizenship is more than vote or doing the system accountable. Many people tend to see democracy as a system where literally everything is allowed. And every individual has the freedom to make whatever one desires. This frequently leads to a complete pandemonium that devastates the order of the society instead than bettering it. In that manner it leads to the opposite effects of the purposes of democracy. A citizen has to accept that freedom is ne’er absolute. If you have a right to make certain things. you have besides the duty to guarantee that your actions do non conflict upon the rights of others.

23. 5 Proactive ROLE TO ACTUALIZE CORRECTIVE
Measures
If democracy is to work. citizens must non merely take part and exert their rights. In fact. the disciplinary steps to run into the challenges faced by Indian democracy. as discussed above. can be actualized merely when citizens play a proactive function. They must esteem the jurisprudence and reject force. Every citizen must esteem the rights of his or her fellow citizens. and their self-respect as human existences. No 1 should denounce a political opposition as evil. merely because they have different positions. Peoples should oppugn the determinations of the authorities. but non reject the government’s authorization. Every group has the right to pattern its civilization and to hold some control over its ain personal businesss. but each group should accept that it is a portion of a plural society and democratic province.

When you express your sentiment. you should besides listen to the positions of other people. even people you disagree with. Everyone has a right to be heard. When you make demands. you should understand that in a democracy. it is impossible for everyone to accomplish everything they want. Democracy requires common cooperation. Groups with different involvements and sentiments must be willing to sit down with one another and negotiate. If one group is ever excluded and fails to be heard. it may turn against democracy in choler and defeat. Everyone who is willing to take part peacefully and esteem the rights of others should hold some say in the manner the state is governed.

It is besides of import that citizens must asseverate their sentiment. as in a democracy non asseverating your sentiment besides means that you are holding with the determination which you consider improper. You have seen in Activity 23. 2. how members of Sunil’s household did non asseverate their sentiment against the determination of the caput of the household. SOCIAL SCIENCE MODULE – 4 Challenges to Indian Democracy

Contemporary India: Issues
and Goals
196
Notes
ACTIVITY 23. 5
Now that you have tried to understand the sort of functions a democratic citizen dramas. you will happen it interesting to research how democratic you yourself are? Below are given some statements in a tabular array. compose whether the statements are write or incorrect.




S. No. Statement Right/Wrong
1. Right To Information Act. 2005 is an effectual tool to be used by the citizens to do the authorities accountable.
2. Everyone in your society is treated equal. whether he/she belongs to any economic or societal strata.
3. In your household. adult females and misss are non ever considered equal to work forces and male childs.
4. You believe that you should ne’er move in a manner that affects the rights of others.
5. The system of reserves for females. members of to SCs/STs and minorities is non good for Indian democracy.




Democracy is a signifier of authorities in which supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them straight or indirectly through a system of representation normally affecting periodic free elections. But it is defined non merely in the political context. but besides in societal context or even in relation to self. A system can be termed as a echt and comprehensive democracy. a successfully functioning democracy. merely when it fulfils certain political. societal and economic conditions.

Indian Democracy over the old ages has been able to joint many of these indispensable conditions. But it is facing a figure of challenges that at times conveying out the deformations which have crept in and besides indicate the possible menaces to its hereafter. Illiteracy. societal and economic inequality. poorness. gender favoritism. casteism. communalism and spiritual fundamentalism. regionalism. corruptness. criminalisation. political force and combativeness are major challenges that need to be addressed.

The disciplinary steps that are needed to run into the challenges to Indian democracy are focused around the issues and concerns like cosmopolitan literacy i. e. instruction for all. poorness relief. riddance of gender favoritism. remotion of regional instabilities. administrative and judicial reforms and sustained economic. societal and environmental development.

However. Indian democracy can be successful and vivacious merely when its citizens imbibe and reflect in their behaviour the basic democratic values like equality. freedom. societal justness. answerability and regard for all. Their mentality. thought and behaviour are expected to be in melody with the indispensable conditions of democracy. They have to appreciate the chances for their coveted functions like engagement. doing the system accountable and fulfilling duties and playing proactive functions to realize the ends of democracy.

Terminal Exercise
1. Explain the significance of democracy. Why do you believe that the significance of democracy can non be comprehensive. if it is defined merely in political context? 2. What are the indispensable conditions that make a system genuinely democratic? 3. What are the major challenges to Indian democracy? Explain how the challenges are possible chances to do it an effectual democratic system. SOCIAL SCIENCE MODULE – 4 Challenges to Indian Democracy

Notes
4. Critically examine the tendencies of protest and force in India. Why do protests turn in to violent motions?
5. What are the important disciplinary steps that are required to be taken to run into the challenges to Indian democracy?
6. Discourse the expected functions of citizens in Indian democracy particularly in the context of the experiences of Indian society and authorities. 7. What are the qualities that need to be reflected in an person to be an Indian citizen in true sense?


8. Write some qualities of a good citizen.
Answers TO INTEXT QUESTIONS
23. 1
1. Democracy is defined as a signifier of authorities in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them straight or indirectly through a system of representation normally affecting periodic free elections. In kernel. democracy is a signifier of authorities which is run by the elective representatives of the people. 2. The definition of democracy is uncomplete unless it is defined in societal and single contexts every bit good. In the present age. it means more than a mere signifier of authorities. In its comprehensive signifier. democracy means. ( I ) a signifier of authorities. ( two ) a type of province. ( three ) a form of societal system. ( four ) a design of economic order. and ( V ) a manner of life and civilization. Therefore. when we say Indian democracy. we mean non merely that its political establishments and procedures are democratic but besides that the Indian society and every Indian citizen is democratic. reflecting basic democratic values of equality. autonomy. fraternity. secularism and justness in societal environment and single behaviour.


3. A system can be termed as a echt democracy merely when it fulfils ( a ) political conditions as follows: ( I ) holding a Fundamental law that vests supreme power in the people and protects cardinal rights. such as equality. autonomy of idea and look. belief. motion. communicating and association ; ( two ) holding cosmopolitan big franchise as the footing of electing representatives ; and ( three ) holding a responsible authorities in which the executive is answerable to the legislative assembly and the legislative assembly to the people ; and ( B ) societal and economic conditions as follows: ( I ) the system guaranting societal development that is in melody with democratic values and norms reflecting equality of societal position. societal security and societal public assistance ; and ( two ) the system easing a state of affairs where the fruits of economic development range all and particularly the hapless and disadvantaged subdivisions of the society. MODULE – 4

1. Illiteracy. inequality and poorness adversely affect the operation of Indian democracy. ( I ) Illiterate citizens are non able to play their functions efficaciously and exert meaningfully their right to vote which is an single look of the power of the people. Literacy enables citizens to be cognizant of assorted issues. jobs. demands. and involvements in the state. be witting of the rules of autonomy and equality of all and guarantee that the representatives elected by them genuinely represent all the involvements in the society. ( two ) Poverty is possibly the greatest curse of democracy. It is the root cause of all sorts of wants and inequalities and is the province of denial of chances to people to take a healthy and fulfilling life.

2. Yes. the popular amusement channels and movies by and large depict gender favoritism. In fact. the seriess on telecasting channels are reenforcing the prevailing forms of household dealingss demoing females playing traditional functions of female parents. sisters. married womans. girls. mothers-in-laws and daughters-in-laws. It is true that a few of them question the traditional functions. but those besides somehow reflect gender favoritism.

3. Caste System: The most damaging and cold illustration of the prevailing caste system is the pattern of untouchability which is go oning in malice of the constitutional prohibition imposed on it. The Dalits still bear the brunt of favoritism and want. This has led to segregation of so called low castes. striping them of instruction and other societal benefits. The 2nd illustration relates to politicisation of caste system. Casteism has become ill-famed as a scheme of development of caste consciousness for narrow political additions. The caste system acts against the roots of democracy. Communalism: It disrupts rather frequently the smooth procedure of co-existence in a multi-religious Indian society. Communal public violences go oning in the state since independency have been unsafe for peace and order.

Second the abuse of faith by fundamentalist people during elections and even in other state of affairss has ever been proved to be counterproductive. 4. Although development procedure in the state has been aimed at growing and development of all parts. the regional disparities and instabilities continue to be. Existence and continuance of regional inequalities in footings of differences in per capita income. literacy rates. province of wellness and educational substructure and services. population state of affairs and degrees of industrial and agricultural development both among States and within a State create a feeling of disregard. want and favoritism.

5. The influence of musculus power in Indian political relations has been a fact of life for a long clip. Almost all parties take the aid of condemnable elements to rule the election scene in India. Earlier in the 1960’s. the felon was content by covertly assisting the politician win the election so that he could in turn get protection from him. SOCIAL SCIENCE MODULE – 4 Challenges to Indian Democracy

But the functions have now been reversed. It is the politician who seeks protection from felons.
6. One of the major grounds of addition of political force has been the outgrowth of serious struggle of involvements between higher and in-between castes as an result of agricultural development. abolishment of zamindari system. and developments like green revolution and white revolution. These have led to aggressive competition for political power which many a clip leads to force. Another ground is the recoil of higher castes against the turning consciousness and averment of their rights by the lower castes. peculiarly the Scheduled Castes and lowest backward castes. Furthermore. force has been associated with demands for separate States. reorganisation of States or accommodation of State boundaries. As we observe. the Telangana Movement in Andhra Pradesh frequently turns violent. Violence has besides been used rather often during industrial work stoppages. farmers’ motion. students’ agitations. and a figure of other civil noncompliance runs.

23. 3
1. To achieve the end of cosmopolitan literacy a nation-wide programme known as Saakshar Bharat is being implemented. Furthermore. the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is a flagship programme for universalisation of simple instruction for kids between 6-14 old ages of age. Besides. Parliament of India in 2009 passed Right to Education Act through which instruction has become a cardinal right of all kids of age group 6-14 old ages. For poorness relief. two sorts of programmes are being implemeted: ( I ) Programmes to raise donees above poorness line by supplying them with productive assets or accomplishments or both so that they can use themselves usefully and earn greater income. and ( two ) Programmes to supply impermanent pay employment for the hapless and the landless.

Public Distribution System contributes towards run intoing people’s basic nutrient demands. the Integrated Rural Development Programme provides rural families below the poorness line with recognition to buy income-generating assets. The Jawahar Rozgar Yojana. provides more than 700 million individual yearss of work a twelvemonth. Furthermore. TRYSEM ( Training Rural Youth for Self Employment ) was started to supply proficient accomplishments to the rural young person and to assist them to acquire employment. 2. Besides the State-specific attempts for cut downing intra-State regional disparities. a figure of Centrally Sponsored Programmes have been in operation for the last two to three decennaries for taking attention of specific facets of retardation of such parts. Some of the major programmes are: ( I ) the Tribal Development Programme. ( two ) the Hill Area Development Programme. ( three ) the Border Area Development Programme. ( four ) the Western Ghat Development Programme. ( V ) the Drought Prone Area Programme and ( six ) Desert Development Programme. MODULE – 4 Contemporary India: Issues

3. For administrative reforms. the undermentioned recommendations need to be implemented: ( I ) to do disposal accountable and citizen friendly. ( two ) to construct its capacity for quality administration. ( three ) to orient disposal for advancing peoples’ engagement. decentalisation and degeneration of powers. ( four ) to do administrative decision-making procedure transparent. ( V ) to better the public presentation and unity of the public services. ( six ) to reenforce moralss in disposal. and ( seven ) to instill preparedness for e-governance.

For judicial reforms. the stairss that are to be taken are as follows: ( a ) Simplification of Rules and Procedures. ( B ) Revoking Out-dated Laws. ( degree Celsius ) Increase in the Judge Population Ratio. ( vitamin D ) Time-bound filling of Vacant Posts in Judiciary. ( vitamin D ) Transparency in Appointment. Promotion and Transfer of Judges. ( vitamin E ) Judicial Accountability. and ( degree Fahrenheit ) Transparency of Court Proceedings.

4. Sustainable development is a form of resource usage that aims to run into human demands while continuing the environment so that these demands can be met non merely in the present. but besides for future coevalss to come. When the development is human-centered and directed towards betterment of quality of life of all the people. it has to be focused on remotion of poorness. ignorance. favoritism. disease and unemployment. All these will beef up Indian democracy. 23. 4

1. Engagement in a democratic civil order is non confined merely to engagement in elections. A critical signifier of engagement comes through rank of political parties and more significantly. active rank in independent non-governmental organisations. that are known as “civil society. ” These organisations represent a assortment of involvements of different groups: adult females. pupils. husbandmans. workers. physicians. instructors. concern proprietors. spiritual trusters and human rights militants. 2. Citizens have to do the democratic system antiphonal and responsible. They are needed to guarantee that the Parliamentarians. Members of State Legislatures and their representatives in Panchayati Raj and Municipal Institutions are accountable. The instruments created by Right to Information Act. 2005 in our state enable citizens to play their function efficaciously. Citizens must watch carefully how their political leaders and representatives use their powers. and to show their ain sentiments and involvements.

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