Milk and milk merchandises are now going more popular and valuable nutrient for the consumers because these are formulated to run into the specific nutritionary demands of the consumers. Due to the increased consciousness about latest tendencies in public wellness and by the scientific grounds of functional belongingss of milk merchandises, the demand of dairy merchandises has been increased. The present research will be planned to analyze the physio-chemicals, microbiological and debasement in the dairy merchandises in the local market. As the consumer are really sensitive about the quality of milk and milk merchandises so the finding of different milk constituent such as pH, fat, sourness, protein, Total solid, adulterators and centripetal rating of milk and milk merchandises will be carried out to which made our research more valuable. Different industries are treating the milk and its merchandises harmonizing their ain criterion, but during handling, transit and storage, there exist a opportunity to pollute the dairy merchandises. For the research purpose the dairy merchandises were collected from the local market. Different dairy merchandise will be subjected to physicochemical, microbiological, debasement. The information obtained will be analyzed statistically to pull the illation of dairy merchandises.
Need OF THE PROJECT
Agribusiness is the individual largest sector in the Pakistan, lending 21.8 % to the gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) and using about 44.7 % of the work force. Livestock is playing a critical function in the economic system of Pakistan and history for 51.8 % of the agribusiness value added and 11.3 % of the national Gross Domestic Product. The milk production in state increased by 35.6 % from 1996 to 2007 ( Anonymous, 2008 ) .
Pakistan dairy sector is bring forthing 41.3 million dozenss milk and is the fifth largest milk bring forthing state in the universe. Its monolithic herd of 60.8 million cattles and American bisons produced 40.76 million dozenss of milk in the twelvemonth 2007-2008. While 56.70 million caprine animals produced 0.70 million ton ( Anonymous, 2008 ) . The function of farm animal sector in the rural economic system of Pakistan is of import as 30-35 million rural population of the state derive their support from farm animal production as a primary or secondary activity ( Anonymous,2008 ) ,
Milk is defined as the whole, clean, fresh, lacteal secernment obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy milch animate beings excepting that obtained within 15 yearss before or five yearss after the calving or birth or such period as may be necessary to supply the milk practically free of foremilks and incorporating the minimal prescribed per centum of milk components i.e. milk fat and sold non fat ( Goff and Griffth, 2006 ) .
Milk is a dynamically balanced mixture and is besides a perishable nutrient. It is one of few nutrients consumed in the natural signifier in the universe. Milk contains 87 % H2O, 3.9 % fat, 3.3 % protein, 5 % lactose and 0.7 % ash. Milk supply organic structure constructing protein, bone forming minerals, wellness giving vitamin and energy giving lactose and milk fat. Besides supplying certain indispensable fatty acids it contains all indispensable amino acid. All the belongingss of milk make it an of import nutrient for turning kids, grownups, striplings, invalid, convalescents and patients ( Khan et al. , 2005 ) .
There is a great potency for dairy industry but the dairy sector largely operate in the informal economic system and needs a fundamental law attempt to formalise and be able to better part to the national economic system. There are about 5.5 million little scale rural units owing less than 6 dairy herds. These little dairy holders produce 65 % of all American bison and cattles milk. Out of entire milk produced, 97 % is in the informal sector ( i.e. loose milk consumed in the small town and or sold in the metropoliss through “ Gawalas ” in unhygienic status and without any choice criterion ) . The little graduated table milk aggregator cod 200-400 kilogram milk per twenty-four hours from different small towns. Medium scale milk aggregators collect 400-800 kilogram milk per twenty-four hours in a mode similar to the little milk aggregators, but on a big graduated table, big graduated table milk aggregators collect 5-10 dozenss milk per twenty-four hours and supply milk to the dairy mills ( Garcia et al, 2003 ) . There are barely 15 milk processing works ( chiefly UHT fluid milk, milk pulverization and yogurt in Pakistan ) . Merely approximately 3 % milk is being processed and 97 % is consumed as natural milk ( Malik, 2008 ) .
Milk and milk merchandises are one of the most of import nutrient merchandises with farm animal beginning which enjoy particular significance in footings of its assorted nutritionary belongingss such as protein, lactose, fat, minerals and vitamins. Many surveies have been made on its components and physiochemical features ( Walstra et al, .1999 ) .
Adulteration of milk and dairy merchandises is one of the most serious issues in the dairy industry and causes economic losingss and major wellness job to consumers. Dues to the limited figure of big dairy farms, milk managing procedure in the traditional system are unhygienic and there is deficiency of enforcement of criterions, which consequences in hapless quality of milk merchandises. In order to maintain the milk safe, middleman attention deficit disorder ice to the milk, in add-on microbiological taint occur due to add-on of ice in the milk. The jobber increases the milk quality by adding H2O, vegetable oil, whey pulverization and other ingredients to increase the solids of milk. Antibiotics and Hydrogen peroxide are frequently used as a preservative ( Garcia et al, .2003 ) .
The adulterators in milk include H2O, amylum, whey pulverization, vegetable oil and jeopardies substance such as antibiotics, acerb sodium carbonate, urea, formol, detergents and other chemicals preservatives. Adulteration in milk is a really serious issue in Pakistan. Keeping in position these facts, the present survey will be planned.
To analyze the Physio-chemicals and microbiological quality of dairy merchandises.
To find the adulterators and residues in the dairy merchandises.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A survey conducted on physiochemical quality of UHT milk produced from whole milk pulverization and stored at 4aµ’C and 25aµ’C for 48 hours. They observed that non protein N ( NPN ) content of UHT milk increased while pH decreased with storage and the rate of alteration being greater at higher storage temperature. Sediment increased with longer storage period, but independent of storage temperature. With longer storage at both 31aµ’C and 251aµ’C, greater deposit and lower pH were observed in UHT milk processed from older milk pulverization. The development of off spirits increased in UHT milk with a prolong storage period ( Ernani et al, . 1997 ) .
Kuo et Al, ( 2001 ) studied the consequence of heat interventions on the meltability of cheese. They studied Cheddar cheese of different composing and low-moisture. Cheese samples were heated to 60aµ’C and held for 0, 10 and 20 min before leting the melted cheese to flux. Mean meltabilities, over all ages of both Cheddar and Mozzarella cheeses decreased significantly as keeping clip increased. Meltability of immature cheese was barely affected by the keeping clip, in contrast to that of the old cheese where increasing the keeping clip greatly reduced meltability.
Khan ( 2004 ) studied the physio-chemicals alterations in UHT bottled milk and found that consequence of interventions and storage on deposit, fat, pH, sourness and SNF was extremely important. Maximal deposit was observed after 12 hebdomads of storage, pH bit by bit decreased and minimal value were found after 12 hebdomads. Maximum sourness was found after 12 hebdomads and lower limit was noted in the first hebdomad.
Kumar and Mishara ( 2004 ) , studied the consequence of stabilizer add-on on physiochemical, centripetal, textural belongingss and starter civilization counts of Mangifera indica soy milk fortified yogurt ( MSFY ) . Three stabilizers viz. gelatin, pectin and Na alginate were used. The add-on rate of stabilizer was 0.2 % , 0.4 % and 0.6 % w/w. Significant consequence of type and add-on rate on sourness, wet content and entire solids of MSFY were observed. Synerisis and acetaldehyde content of MSFY was reduced significantly. Lightness and yellowness of MSFY increased with gelatin and decreased with pectin and Na alginate. Gelatin gave better consequence on visual aspect and colour, organic structure and texture, spirit and overall acceptableness in comparings with other stabilizer at 0.4 % add-on rate. Hardness, coherence and adhesion of MSFY increased up to 0.4 % stabilizer add-on, while give and cohesiveness did non follow any tendency. There was a important consequence of stabilizer add-on on Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus counts.
Griffiths et Al, 1988, manufactured low heat skim milk pulverization from natural farm majority armored combat vehicle and creamery silo milk which had been stored at 2aµ’C for 24 and 72 hours. During the storage period psychrotroph count increased by about 1 log rhythm after 24 hr and 2 log rhythm after 72 hours. There was no addition in thermoduric or spore counts of the milk under this storage status. The pulverization manufactured from this milk was good bacteriological quality and conformed to ADMI recommendations sing wet content, titratable sourness and solubility. They concluded that storage of natural milk at 2aµ’C had no damaging consequence on the heat stableness of the pulverization manufactured from it when reconstituted to both 9 and 22 % entire solid concentrations.
Molska et Al, 2003 studied the microbiological quality of kefir ( 61 samples ) and yoghurt ( 92 samples ) purchased in retail web in Warsaw. The entire figure of bacteriums in at least 90 % of yogurt and 73 % of kefir was in the scope of 10 ( 7 ) -10 ( 9 ) cfu/g. The domestic group of bacteriums in kefir were mesophilic lactic acid streptococcus and in yogurt S.thermophillus. The figure of L. delbrueckii in 40 % of sample was less than 10 ( 7 ) cfu/g. More than 86 % of kefir and 97 % of yogurt analyzed were free from coliform bacteriums, B.cereus, mold and barm. About 48 % of kefir samples did non fulfilled the FAO/WHO demands refering the figure of barm.
Kessel et Al, . 2004, determine the trial for standard home base count ( SPC ) and faecal coliforms in the majority armored combat vehicle milk in the United State. As portion of the 2002 study, 861 majority armored combat vehicle milk samples were collected from farms in 21 provinces, coliform were detected in 95 % samples. There were no evident relationship between SPC and incidence of Salmonella or L.monocytogenes. Although the prevalence of L.monocytogenes and Salmonella was low, these pathogens represent a possible hazard to consumers of natural milk and natural milk merchandises.
Nero et Al, . 2004 conducted a survey to measure the microbiological quality and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. In the natural milk produced in 210 little and average farms located in four of import milk bring forthing Brazilian provinces. In 66 % of the selected farms the milking was manual. In 33 % of them, the milking was semi-automatic and merely 1 % were equipped with to the full automatic milking systems. All natural milk samples were negative for L.monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. Mesophilic aerobes counts were higher than 10^5 CFU /ml in 75.7 % of the samples. In 80.4 % , coliforms were over 10^2CFU /ml. Escherichia coli were detected in 36.8 % of the samples.
Aygun et al. , 2005 purchased 50 indiscriminately selected samples of Carra cheese, natural milk cheese, from different retail markets in the Antakya part and were investigated for microbiological quality and some chemical analyses. In their samples, the figure of micro-organisms were found as follows: Staphylococcus aureus 2.51*10^3 cfu/g, coliform 1.02*10^4cfu/g, E.coli 4.27*10^3 cfu/g, Salmonella were non detected in any of the samples. Average wet, salt and fat content of Carra cheese were found as 41.26 % ,7.82 % and 26.77 % severally. The pH value of the samples varied b/w 4.53 and 6.32 with the mean of 5.24. The microbiological determination showed the presence of high counts of micro-organisms investigated and the hapless hygienic quality of Carra cheese.
Small et al 2008 determined the microbiological quality of two retail fresh ripened and semi difficult cheeses made from natural, pasteurised milk or thermized. Cheese made from natural or thermized milk were of unsatisfactory quality due to degree of Staphylococcus aureus 10^4 cfu/g, E.coli at 10^5 cfu/g, whereas cheese made from pasteurised milk were of unsatisfactory quality due to S.aureus at 10^3 cfu/g and E.coli at 10^3 cfu/g. There was non gestural for the sensing of Salmonella in any samples. They emphasize that there is a demand for using and keeping good hygienic patterns through the nutrient concatenation to forestall taint and bacterial growing. L Clear information about the labeling of cheese should be established, whether the cheese was prepared from natural milk besides requires betterment.
Sheppard et Al, 1985 demonstrated the application of assorted analytical methods to the sensing, quantification and designation of vegetable oil debasement on ice pick. Entire fat content, steroid alcohol, long and short concatenation fatty acid, Vitamin E, Reichert-Meissle values and Polenske values were measured in ice pick. All method except entire fat finding was capable of observing vegetable oil debasement. Sterol finding was carried out and concluded the steroid alcohol was the most effectual and various measuring because it gives information non merely on the sensing and extent of debasement but besides on the possible individuality of the adulterator.
Fox et al 1988, described a trial for everyday showing of Mozzarella Cheese and butter for vegetable fat debasement. Fat is extracted and sponified. The K salts of the fatty acids are measured through direct gas chromatographic analysis. A ratio, calculated from the concentration of butyric acid and oleic acid is used to measure the pureness of the samples. The trial offers good preciseness and can observe less than 10 % partly hydrogenated vegetable fat.
Kumar et Al 2002 reported that debasement in milk and milk merchandises has reached an alarming phase. Milk fat is being assorted or replaced with cheaper vegetable oil. Therefore, frequently more than one trial has to be employed to corroborate the pureness of milk fat. The assorted methods for the sensing of debasement in milk are based on the physio-chemical belongingss and presence or absence of specific components of either milk fat or adulterating fats.
Jha and Matsuoka 2004, conducted a survey on the debasement of natural milk by man-made milk, prepared by blending appropriate sum of vegetable oil, carbamide, detergent powder/shampoo, acerb sodium carbonate, sugar/salt and skim milk pulverization to H2O. Detection of adulterators is hard by a individual method and sometimes more than two methods are required to corroborate the presence. The potency of near-infrared spectrometry were investigated ( NIRS ) in the wavelength scope of 700-1124.8 nanometer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
4.1 Procurement of Materials:
4.1.1 Collection of Samples:
The dairy merchandises samples will be collected from the market and so analysis will be performed at Dairy Laboratory, National Institute of Food Science & A ; Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
4.1.2 Sampling Procedure:
Dairy merchandise samples will be collected in clean sterilised container and set in ice thorax, whereas milk pulverization will be collected in nothing polythene bag. These samples will be transported for analysis to the Dairy Laboratory, National Institute of Food Science & A ; Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
Butter samples of three different trade name viz. Gourmet, Haleeb and Nurpur Dairies will be collected. Three samples from each trade name will be collected.
Yoghurt samples of three different trade names viz. Gourmet, Haleeb and Nurpur Dairies will be collected. Three samples from each trade name will be collected.
Cheese samples of three different trade names viz. Adams, Military dairy Factory and Nurpur Dairies will be collected. Three samples from each trade name will be collected.
4.1.6 Milk Powder:
Milk Powder samples of three different trade names viz. Gourmet, Haleeb and Nurpur Dairies will be collected. Three samples from each trade name will be collected.
4.1.7 UHT milk:
UHT milk samples of three different trade names viz. Nestle, Haleeb and Engro nutrients will be collected. Three samples from each trade name will be collected.
4.2 Sterilization Procedure
All glasswork like pipette, trial tubings, Petri dishes, beaker and flasks will be exhaustively cleaned and sterilized in an oven at 180aµ’C for 2 hours. All media and solution will be prepared in distilled H2O and autoclaved at 121aµ’C at 15 Ib force per unit area for 15 min utilizing the process of AOAC ( 2000 ) .
4.3 Physiochemical Analysis
The samples will be subjected to different physio-chemical trial which are detailed as under.
4.3.1 Melting Resistance and Melting Quality:
Melting Resistance and Melting Quality will be determined by the method as prescribed by Bhadari ( 2001 ) .
Fat will be determined by utilizing Gerber method as described by the Kirk and sawyer ( 1991 ) .
The pH of all the interventions will be determined harmonizing to AOAC ( 2000 ) method no. 981.12.
4.3.4 Moisture and Ash:
All the interventions will be analyzed for wet and ash harmonizing to their several methods mentioned in AOAC ( 2000 ) .
4.3.5 Entire solids:
Entire solids called per centum residues will be determined by drying the sample in hot air oven harmonizing to method described in AOAC ( 2000 ) .
Protein content will be determined by utilizing Kjeldhal method as described by AOAC ( 2000 ) .
4.4 Microbiological Trial:
Dairy merchandises samples will be tested for entire home base counts, Coliform counts, Staphyloccus aureus and Yeast and Mould count by the method prescribed by AOAC ( 2000 ) .
4.5 Chemicals Adulterants Detection Test:
Dairy merchandises samples will be tested for the adulterators viz. Formaldehyde, Boric acid, Hydrogen peroxide, Starch, Neutralizers ( Sodium carbonate, hydrogen carbonates, Sodium hydrated oxide by the method prescribed by AOAC ( 2000 ) .
4.6 Statistical Analysis:
Consequences will be analyzed statistically to find the degree of significance ( Steel et al. , 1997 ) .