When the beach holidays bundle and H2O activities are acquiring more popular, the bloom of coastal resorts appear and the attendings to the signifier of being morphology of coastal resort are focused. By understanding the morphology of a coastal resort, it helps the local authorization and contriver to construct a thorough of grasp to the current resort morphology formation. Furthermore, it helps to guarantee that all the development planning is founded on the present state of affairs and what might be faced in the hereafter.

Other so place the bing morphology, it is besides important to acknowledge the procedure that has affected the morphology alterations in a historical position. “ Procedure ” will be refer to a coastal resort is being transformed from a natural small town to an urban town ; in other words, go through the phases of Tourism Area Cycle in this paper. While the resort undergoes every individual phases, its morphology changed, and the bulk are affected by tourist-related concern.

In the geographical context, “ morphology ” can be defined as the signifier and map of a topographic point and their relationship and development over the clip. It is indispensable to foreground the two cardinal features of morphology: one is morphology can non be simply identified as signifier, but “ the scientific discipline of signifier ” , and another one is morphology alterations in both clip and infinite.

Harmonizing to Hall, “ costal ” described as a coastal zone and offshore coastal Waterss. On the other manus, the definition of “ resort ” is seldom being clarified due to its nature of really different in both size and character. European perceived resort as a resort town and usually used it as a tourer finish zone or a territory comprehensive by a great figure of touristry concerns which produce chief beginning of income to the local people. However, the position of North American to specify resort is narrower. They defined resort as a topographic point which normally managed or owned by one authorization, supply extended touristry chances such as tourer diversion activities, nutrient and drinks, adjustments and so on.

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Although there are two different positions in term of its size, a resort town is usually place in between a small town and metropolis. A resort town comprised of beaches, lakes, mountains, woods and other tropical venues and touristry industry frequently dominate the local economic system and civilization. Its most critical map is to provide all sorts of tourer installations to run into their demand. Therefore its whole signifier and map are perceptibly shaped or affected by touristry activities.

Based on these definitions, the morphology of a coastal resort can be regarded as the signifiers ( the form, manifestation and agreement of constructing environing or land usage ) and correlated maps ( tourer activities ) of a tourer finish part ( fall back town ) along the coastline and their development in this instance. In other word, it is a presentation of resort development in coastal country.

The Background of Crete

Crete is one of the provinces of Greece. It is an stray southernmost island of Greece which located in Mediterranean. It is the largest island in Greece and fifth largest island in Mediterranean. This island has the size of 8,335 kilometers A? and 3/5 of these is lying 200m above the sea. It consists of four administrative prefectures, which are Chania, Heraklion, Lasithi and Rethymno. Heraklion is Crete ‘s chief capital every bit good as the largest metropolis.

Crete is one of the most popular touristry finishs in Greece, even in Europe. It is celebrated by its natural comeliness ; diversify of landscape, 1040 kilometer along the coastline, soft conditions and abundant cultural resources. Particularly, the fables of Gods and heroes, the art and history about the Minoan ruins make the topographic point, such as Knossos and Phaistos well-known in the universe. Today, Crete is being visited by about three million of mass tourers annually. It earned about US $ 1.5 million of foreign exchange and about 40 % of the local people are straight or indirectly involved in it. From 1986 to 1991, about 53 % increased in the figure of hotel beds.

The ground of Crete has been taken to exemplify in this paper is because it is an extensively touristry island and there is a notable alterations of morphology of Cretan resorts from the early tourer ‘s trial to the concluding urbanisation. Although there are many coastal resort town along the Cretan coastline, nevertheless, harmonizing to Pearce, the basic morphological and structural properties are regularly replicate from resort to resort, even though the inside informations are dissimilar. Imitation usually happened within the state can explicate these similarities, but the signifier of coastal resorts often reflects their peculiar map. Hence, in this paper, Crete is treated as a whole to discourse the procedures which affected the morphology in Cretan coastal resorts.

The Processes Affected the Morphology of Cretan Coastal Resort

Harmonizing to Smith, Butler ‘s Tourism Area Cycle is the most effectual theoretical account to suggest that the coastal resorts become unsympathetic to the tourers with the transition of clip, when it exceeded its transporting capacity to suit more incoming tourer, finally unable to vie other newer resort.

Butler proposed that every tourer country advancement through six phases: geographic expedition, engagement, development, consolidation, stagnancy and greening or diminution. Smith indicated that the morphology of coastal resort undergoes an expected sequence of phases: pre-tourism, low-density, high denseness and urbanisation. Morphologic alterations take topographic point when the resort moves over the phases of life rhythm. The procedures will therefore being discussed based on Butler ‘s Tourism Area Cycle.

Andriotis suggested that the Cretan coastal resort morphology alterations can be understood by the undermentioned features: route web, diggingss and infrastructural installations, beach breadth, residential countries, faming land, aesthetic and architecture. Each feature of Cretan coastal resort morphological development will be discussed based on the theoretical account of Morphological Transformation of a Typical Coastal in Crete, which presented harmonizing the phases of Butler ‘s Tourism Area Cycle. The theoretical account has clearly illustrates how the morphology alterations in different phases. It besides provides a better apprehension of predictable morphological alterations of its coastal countries as the resort undergoes urbanisation through tourism-induced development.

A drumhead tabular array for these seven features of morphological alteration in Cretan coastal resort is provided in the terminal of this subdivision.

Road Network

In the early 1950s, when the resort was in geographic expedition phase, the route system was insufficiently developed and the early tourer explored to Crete through the capital metropolis of Heraklion by war vessel or patrol cars. The manner to the coastal resorts and beaches were normally unaccessible.

In 60s and 70s, the Cretan coastal resort started to affect some tourers. There is a tourers oriented beach resort in Stalida, most of the dirt were land-locked and merely some informal manner able to entree the streets or beaches. Although some faming lands were scarified to spread out the route system, some belongings holder illicitly invaded the street. Hence, the job of constrictions of the traffic was still staying.

In 1980, the coastal resort in Crete began place in development phase. A resort town called Drethia, there was a two kilometres route built from the rim of coastal resort to the town Centre. The resort town expanded their route system quickly from this phase. Mention to the Figure 2-Stage 3, the route system was now merged and T-shape was emerged. T-shape was constituted by street, chief route, main road or railroad station. Usually it was built without any preliminary readying and planning, pushed by the tourer ‘s activities so that accessible to diggingss, seashore and others touristry installations.

From 90s onwards, the coastal resort has to the full developed and no more infinite available. At this point of clip, route system has come to maximum of its capacity.

Diggingss and Infrastructural Facilities

In the 60s, the Cretan coastal resort placed at the phase of engagement. Due to the consequence of the films “ The King Must Die ” and “ Zorbo the Greek ” which successfully made Crete well-known overseas, the little coastal small towns within the range of urban metropolis of Crete began to pull pioneer sightseer. In 1962, approximately 23,000 tourers spent speedy journey to Crete and paid a small money.

However, the small towns were unable to suit the tourer as there were no any installations provided. In Drethia, a retired city manager took enterprise to “ hosting ” foreign tourers in his ain summer Villa. As the tourers increased, he extended the Villa to construct more room. This was the earliest tourer lodging recorded in Crete. In 1962, statistics showed that 2,315 hotel beds were found in Creten, nevertheless, merely 950 were under the acceptable quality and 60 % of these were located surround the metropolis of Heraklion. The short stay and small engagement in touristry resulted in a low degree of adjustments and infrastructural installations. For case, in 1965, Hellenic National Tourism Organization established the first Grecian state-owned hotel, Xenia to pull tourer flow.

In 1971, the airdrome of Heraklion upgraded to international airdrome, and charter flights began to set down. It bought Crete to a new epoch of commercialisation. Therefore, in 1975-1978, the junta encouraged the big scale touristry. Though, a new signifier of coastal resort arises. The coastal resort now positioned at development phase. The diggingss were now built far off from large urban metropolis and installations associated with touristry and leisure began constructed to back up a whole twelvemonth stay.

As a consequence of unplanned activities, the edifices were excessively close to each other until one was possible to go through through the window or balcony to following edifice. It was because Greece did non implement the land enrollment system at the clip, therefore anyone could set up any signifier of the edifice as they like. Particularly in Stalida, the overall visual aspect of coastal country is so clutter and muddled.

The lodging state of affairs has become worsen as the forbidden edifice addition to more than 5,000 units in 1983 to suit more tourers and do instant net incomes. The private adjustments proposals were rarely being objected by local governments, non merely because of deficiency of ordinances, and besides societal force per unit areas and political pattern.

The statistics showed that the figure of hotels beds had encountered addition cross over the phases of life rhythm, from 6,178 in 1970 addition to 50,544 in 1986, and increase once more to 139,001 in 2004, in order to run into the demand of incoming tourers. When Cretan coastal resort arrived to present of stagnancy, the edifice was over-built, non plenty infinite to farther grow and it is the peak season of lodging development.

Beach Width

When the coastal resort was still in the phase of engagement, the beach breadth was considered maximal as compared to the latest, which is about 50-60. In 70s, some belongings holder illicitly established the private building because of the deficiency of jurisprudence provided. This action became apparent when more and more belongings holder followed it. Therefore, in decennary, when Cretan coastal resort moved to consolidation phase from development phase, a high concentration of private edifice appeared on the instant shoreline resulted shrinkage of beach breadth.

Furthermore, the action of catching farming land to widen the route web was besides cut downing the distance to beach. When the coastal resort passed through the phases of life rhythm, the edifices were acquiring closer and closer to the shoreline. In the terminal, at the phase of stagnancy, the beach breadth became least.

Additionally, the breadth of beach was besides being shortened by the visual aspect of the defensive constructions. These constructions were built right after the bloom of big graduated table of edifices constructed. It used to protect the beachfront and to avoid any unfortunate ruin of edifices or roads happened. In 2009, in the instance of Pela Maria Hotel in Hersonissos, the beach breadth between the hotel and coastal line is merely remained non greater than 15.Thus, it changed the formation on beach and beautiful position of the country.

Residential Areas

When coastal resort passed from phase of engagement to development and consolidation, the demand of seasonal immigrant workers was addition resulted by the lifting figure of touristry concern. Harmonizing to Association of Hellenic Tourist Enterprises, during summer clip of 90s, there was about 10,000 incoming work forces in Hersonisos which have a population of 4,000 merely. Besides, a batch of EU citizens were besides looking for their 2nd place in the coastal country of Crete. They were attracted by its good conditions and comparative cheap land. It had resulted a great demand of residential house in Cretan coastal resort.

Although based on the findings of Andriotis, the information of the figure of residential houses were non available, the figure has perceptibly continued increased to run into the extra demand over the phases of life rhythm.

From 1965 to 1972, big portion of the costal land in Drethia was bought by foreigner from different part of Crete or Athens to develop the touristry concerns. As a effects, big hotel concatenation, motel and eating houses are now raising in the aureate topographic point, which near the beach or along the route that connect to the resort town centre. It had significantly reduced the part of residential land.

Therefore, there was non more equal infinite to suit them as the original coastal resort had been overbuilt when it reach the phase of stagnancy. Since the resort country was non longer allowed to further expand, the residential country started to travel to inland country. New edifices were continued to construct in inland to suit both work forces and coastal occupants. Yet, some of the coastal occupants were forced to travel out from coastal country as to empty the infinite for touristry concern. They lost their original manner of life and topographic point at this peak clip of lodging bloom.

Faming Land

When Cretan coastal resort was still in the early phase of geographic expedition, most of the lands were used as a intent of agribusiness. The occupants of coastal small town used to feed themselves by worked as husbandmans, fishermen or craft-related businesss. A morphology development which affected by tourer activities resulted an forsaking of traditional life style in Crete.

In 60s and 70s, due to deficient supply of route web, the informal manner within the faming land was finally being transformed to the formal manner. The faming lands was besides being transformed to tourist related activities such as golf classs and H2O Parkss, which they think were more moneymaking.

Harmonizing to Andriotis, the faming land was besides occupied to build the adjustment to fulfill both local population and immigrant workers due to the growing of touristry concern. Mention to the Figure 2-Stage 4-5, the part of faming land was enormously cut down from consolidation phase to stagnancy phase.

The agricultural position in the faming site was earnestly reduced and the husbandmans had to change their profession into tourist-related occupation which considered more attractive and profitable. For case, in Hersonissos, 95 % of the labour occupied in agribusiness sector and now change to more than 50 % of the labour occupied in touristry sector.


During the early of 1960s, the coastal small towns in Crete were still in the early phase of engagement. It had famous in their elaborate evidences, its scenic windmills and the overpowering landscape. The oversea travellers were besides fascinated by its Minoan ruins ; the art, history and literature of Crete, including the narratives of Gods and heroes.

When the country processed to the phases of stagnancy in life rhythm, in 1990 of Drethia, those scenery were no longer available as the agricultural activities have been substituted by tourism-related activities. Furthermore, the fishing small towns such as Agios Nikolaos, Malia, Hersonissos and so on have been transformed to urban resort.It could be proved by the constitutions of assorted signifiers of hotel, motels, eating houses, java stores, defensive construction and others that close to the shoreline. The topographic point had bit by bit lost its genuineness and traditional aesthetics which resulted by the immediate net income of touristry concern.


In 90s, while the coastal resort was in the stagnancy phase, there was no more infinite to turn. Thus, the edifices in the country have lost the traditional architectural design and transportation to construct the modern multi-story houses dumbly so that to suit more tourer. Due to the ground of simpleness and cheap used of strengthened concrete, Cretans are really used to the manner of concept with “ right angles, stiff metal hedge and balcony barrier and puce concrete pillars ” .Nevertheless, in the Port of Hersonissos, the manners of the edifices have been removed from traditional Grecian attack of architecture.

In add-on, the relationship between the architectural design and the civilization it presented had been overlooked.The edifices were put up wherever the infinite was available and hence there was non relationship among them. As a effects, it became highly bit-by-bit and no consistence in the orientation of the edifice. Yet, the formation of the edifices scattering was overlap with each other which was wholly different from the traditional manner of architecture.

The Planning and Policy for Cretan ‘s Morphology

From the aforesaid procedure which affected the coastal resort morphology, it is discernible that the Cretan touristry development started with unplanned activity without any concern for land usage planning, environmental preservation and so on. Since 1960s, the Grecian authorities has regard Crete as a top privilege country for systematic development of touristry. It can be proved by 25 % of the national public and private investings were dumped to Crete to better physical substructures in 1990s.

Grecian Government attempted to command the unplanned and disorganised urbanisation in Crete by implementing Development Laws. For case, in 1983, Law 1337/ 1983 was passed which required maestro programs for all urban parts.The touristry development programs were drawn by a particular land-use planning tool- Zones of Residential Control. However, this program failed due to incorporation of local population and hence, the haphazard urbanisation and touristry continue turn with their negative impacts.

Three old ages subsequently, another jurisprudence was introduced to discourse the state of affairs. In 1986, Law 797/1986 acknowledged the high concentration of adjustment as “ Areas of Controlled Tourism Development ” where merely superior hotel can be built. Within this country, piece of them called “ Saturated Tourist Area ” where no more diggingss constitution is tolerated. It besides aims to funding some ascent of substructure and building of peculiar touristry installations such as marinas, watering place, convention centres, golf class and so on. Nonetheless, it resulted more programs of golf classs building and burthen the island ‘s land.

In last decennary, the touristry policy has paid attending on the undermentioned ends.

To maximise touristry part to economic system ;

To continue the natural and cultural resources ;

To upgrade and diversified tourer merchandises ;

To better seasonal and geographical allotment of tourer ‘s activities.

It should be discernible that the first and 2nd ends are colliding by its nature. The economic growing is decidedly improved on the top of exhaustion the environmental and cultural resources. Though, this clang is potentially alleviated by the 4th ends ( enhanced distribution in both clip and infinite ) . It is besides suggested that some of the undermentioned schemes and policies can extenuate this struggle

To pull high category tourers by aiming the high disbursement sections of affluent market ;

To better both substructure and superstructure ;

To advance an utility signifier of touristry ;

To advance new finishs far off from traditional coastal resort ;

To construct the consciousness of sustainable ingestion forms ;

To organize all parts involved in touristry sector.

Due to the unplanned activities, the island of Crete is now merely remains limited good beaches in Mediterranean.Many coastal countries, chiefly in the immature southern portion, have still kept their natural comeliness. Obviously, the 4th scheme will assist to protect the traditional coastal resort from any unplanned and unbalance development. Therefore, it is of import to hold organized touristry planning and policies by both authorities and part governments when developed an island country. The other coastal states such as Portugal, Ireland and France have been publicized that the success of the publicity in their touristry industry, due to the execution of comprehendible governmental schemes for touristry development and significant inducements funded by centre authorities.


From the theoretical account, it shows the deficiency of physical planning, unequal attending to environmental preservation, districting and probe. While the ignored resort planning has been addressed, it is suggest that using Geographic Information System ( GIS ) to look into the resort morphology. It consists of three applications: a morphological attack, a functional attack and an evolutionary attack. It helps the local authorization and contriver to analyse the morphological features, for illustration, the handinesss of transit system to tourist attractive forces, the scattering form of tourer activities in resort town and more.

By utilizing this tool, morphological transmutation is traced and possible impact factors are forecasted. It facilitates the development be aftering procedure of a coastal resort while the local authorization is suggesting what should be planned and constructed to better the morphology in both short and long term. They can avoid diminution in Butler ‘s theoretical account or any other negative impacts by bettering their morphology.

In add-on, it is recommend Grecian Government to pull a spacial maestro program for each Cretan coastal resort. The program must fit its listed schemes and precedences for future growing and morphological sweetening of the coastal resort. It should be accomplished on the above of protecting the environment and esteeming the landscapes. Since there are no more constitutions allowed, the touristry policy should emphasis on sweetening of bing installations to better quality tourer merchandise and tourer ‘s disbursement. These installations should be compatible with the aim of sustainable development so that avoiding farther debasement of environmental resources.

For local community and private sector in Crete, it is recommended that they must understand the duty of Grecian Government to forbid the development which brings the immediate economic benefits, to carry through the aim of long term sustainability. It is their duty to aware about the negative consequence of imbalanced development and overbuilt morphology.


Provided by historical informations and grounds, it is evident to demo that both touristry demand and supply in the island of Crete have increased in a terrifying scope from the early phase to the last phase of life rhythm, therefore ensuing in a singular coastal resort morphological development through a combination of production of touristry and diversion and other co-exist creative activity such as diggingss, hotels and traffic. In other words, it was the impacts to the coastal resort to go an urban resort accelerated by promoted touristry, while its morphology changed affected by procedure passing through the phases in life rhythm. As a effect, green countries are rare, coastal resort are saturated in Crete, genuineness and tradition has lost and no longer every bit attractive as before during the geographic expedition phases.

Based on Butler ‘s theoretical account, Crete is standing on the stagnancy phase. It is confronting either diminution, if the touristry concerns continue to melt, or greening, by better the overall coastal resort morphology. Pearceaddressed that the morphological alterations should be more accent. Therefore, when the development planning is proposed, the related procedures are better valued and the development of resort morphology in the hereafter can be easy predicted. As a consequence, by indentifying the procedure that affected the morphology in different phases, it will assist the authorities ( for illustration, Ministry of Tourism Development ) or local authorization leads the coastal resort heading to the greening instead than worsen in the post-stagnation.

On the other manus the island of Crete is now merely staying limited good beaches in Mediterranean. To conserve their natural environment and comeliness, those countries must hold a careful planning on morphology from avoiding the job of yesteryear unplanned coastal resorts development.


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